Proofreading: Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, Purpose & Process.

Proofreading: Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, Purpose & Process. What is Proofreading in journalism? Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, The Purpose and Process of Proofreading, Proofreading Tips, Do’s, and Don’ts of Proofreading, EFFECTIVE WAYS TO PROOFREAD WRITING.


Proofreading symbols are the marks that a proofreader makes on a paper when they edit it. They are a coded set of instructions that point out where mistakes have been made and how a piece of writing can be improved.

Proofreading, or ‘copy checking’, originally referred to newspapers, where an editor would take typeset paper and check the text for errors against an original manuscript. These days, even in newspapers and magazines, which often have their sub-editors proof on-screen, it’s all done digitally.

Proofreading is a surface-level check. It is the final check performed on a document. A proofreader will look for misspellings, incorrect/missed punctuation, inconsistencies (textual and numerical), etc. Editing, on the other hand, corrects issues at the core of writing like sentence construction and language clarity. Although editing will help improve the readability, clarity, and tone of the text. An editor will scrutinize and polish your writing for a smooth narration.

What is Proofreading in journalism?

Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to find and correct production errors of text or art. Proofreading is the final step in the editorial cycle.

Difference Between Proofreading and Editing

Proofreading and editing are often viewed similarly, but they are very different parts of any publishing process. They also ought to be very different parts of the draft writing process. Proofreading ought to be done at the end of the writing process, as the final stage of writing before the draft, is ready.

Editing must be done earlier to perfect the document in advance. Editing deals with basic language usage and communication. Editors are going to look at word choice, whether or not a document uses too much passive voice. They also check whether or not there are too many words used in
general. Editing is concerned with trying to improve the writing content in a way that relates to the text quality, not just its presentation.

The Purpose of Proofreading

1.For better or for worse, people do tend to dismiss the value of almost any piece of writing based on a few spelling errors or other minor surface language errors.
2. It is also important to proofread because a poorly checked writing would be harder to read. Well-read people are going to learn by word recognition.

The Process of Proofreading a Paper

First, you will need to take note of all the errors you should fix. Otherwise, you might end up proofreading for spelling errors but not for punctuation errors. Once you have familiarized yourself with everything you should do during the proofreading process, start picking every sentence apart. Look for the potential surface language errors that might be there. While reading
each sentence, check the spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors as well as typing mistakes.

When the paper or piece of writing is proofread the first time, read through it a second time. Just use the same proofreading process. People who have missed a few errors should manage to find them during the second reading. Depending upon the nature of the situation and the importance of the writing, it might be a good idea to do a third reading.

Proofreading Process

Figure 1: Proofreading Symbols

Proofreading Tips

Tip 1. It is important not to rely on spell-checkers entirely. Some of them might misdiagnose words as misspelled due to the dictionary’s limitations. Some of them might not pick up on misused words.

Tip 2. Certain words are more likely to be mistyped than others based on the position of the letters on the keyboard. For instance, the word ‘the’ is often typed in as ‘teh’ for the people who are typing very quickly. You should remember which words these are to scrutinize them more carefully when writing.

Tip 3. People who are prone to misspell certain words should keep in mind which words these are. You might want to avoid using them altogether. Otherwise, just keep your eyes on these words.

Tip 4. Getting a rhythm going is an essential part of proofreading. And it is not the most exciting writing task that is out there. People who try to view the task mechanically will be that much more likely to get through it.

Do’s and Don’ts of Proofreading

• Do repeat the proofreading process more than once.
Don’t proofread during the writing and editing process.
• Do look for grammatical errors, typing errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors.
Don’t proofread only certain sections of the document at the exclusion of others.
• Do pay attention to words that are frequently mistyped, misspelled, or misused.
Don’t spend too much time on the proofreading process.


Spell checkers are great as the first port of call and will be useful in assisting you to identify high-level errors. However, automated spelling and grammar checkers are severely limited and they cannot identify many common grammatical errors. Furthermore, they often make serious mistakes that can mislead even the most diligent writer.


Proofreading really is a meticulous and time-consuming process, but the more you put into it, the more you get out. If you attempt to identify and correct all errors within one sitting, you risk losing focus and you may find that you miss major mistakes. Sometimes it’s useful to check for spelling mistakes and punctuation errors separately. This will make it easier to spot issues and you can vary the proofreading technique you use on each pass to suit the type of mistakes you are searching for.


One technique that the majority of professional proofreaders use is to read the writing they are proofreading out loud. This forces you to voice every single word and involves your auditory senses in the process, meaning that you can hear how the text actually sounds when it is read. Trying to read something quickly forces your brain to skip some words and make unconscious corrections.


Breaking the text into separate sections provides you with more manageable tasks. Read each section carefully and then take a break before you progress to the next. This will prevent you from feeling overwhelmed by the task ahead and will allow you to concentrate more effectively on the section of writing that you are proofreading. This technique is especially useful if you are proofreading a very large document, such as a thesis or dissertation.


This method may seem over the top but it is one of the most effective methods out there for spotting punctuation mistakes. By circling every single punctuation mark, you force yourself to look at each one in turn and question if it really has been used correctly.


This proofreading method is useful for identifying spelling mistakes because it forces you to concentrate on each word in isolation. Start with the last word in your text and follow each one separately until you reach the beginning of the document. While you are doing this, you are not really interested in punctuation and grammar; you are focusing entirely on how the words have been spelled. Many proofreaders also recommend reading papers backward, sentence by sentence.


Proofreading writing on a regular basis can help you to identify your own strengths and weaknesses and understand where you make mistakes. If you are aware of the common errors you make, you can learn to look for them during the writing process itself and, over a period of time, will learn to avoid them altogether. Keep style guides and grammar rules to hand as you proofread, and look up any areas that you are uncertain about. Over time you will develop your knowledge and your writing skills will improve.

What should editors and newsrooms do to improve public trust in news media

What should the editors and the newsrooms do to improve public trust in news media? If you should write one ethical rule to be implemented in the Code of Media Ethics, what would it be like?

Question 1:  What should the editors and the newsrooms do to improve public trust in news media?

According to Heyamoto (2018), the editors and newsroom must have to play an important role to earn and improve public trust in news media. He also stated that newsroom and editors should follow some conditions to improve public trusts such as authenticity, transparency, consistency, positivity, and diversity.  Now, most of the people are using social media widely, so it is a great responsibility to improve public trust. The general public will be dependable more on social media if they cannot earn public trust (Laws, 2015). These conditions that have been proposed by the “Heyamoto” must help the media to earn public trust.


Heyamoto, L (2018). 6 ways to increase the public’s trust in journalism. Retrieve from

Laws, A. S. (2015). Museum websites and social media: issues of participation, sustainability, trust, and diversity (Vol. 8). Berghahn Books.

Question 2: If you should write one ethical rule to be implemented in the Code of Media Ethics, what would it be like?

According to Blanchard (1977), journalists and broadcasters have to become more responsible for journalism. The Hutchins Commission proposed five guidelines specifically for the media and press. These guidelines are present meaningful news, accurate and separated from opinion, serve as a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism and to expand access to diverse points of view, project “a representative picture of the constituent groups in society, clarify the goals and values of society; implicit was an appeal to avoid pandering to the lowest common denominator, give a broad coverage of what was known about society (Blanchard, 1998).

He also said that these guidelines are significant because the media is needed to maintain a neutral viewpoint, providing the basic facts and allowing for readers to come up with their own opinions from the news that they report.


Blanchard, M. A. (1977). The Hutchins Commission, the press, and the responsibility concept. Journalism and Communication Monographs, 49.

Blanchard, M. A. (1998). Reclaiming freedom of the press: A Hutchins Commission dream or nightmare?.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia- Case Study & Improvement

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia- Info, Case Study & Improvement. Background Information, A Case study related to the Personal Data Protection Act, Suggestions to improve the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA), Conclusion.

Background Information

The Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) of Act 709 was passed by the Malaysian Parliament in May 2010 (Personal Data Protection Act, n.d.). After passing the bill related to the personal data protection act 2010 by the Malaysia parliament, it had been sent to the king for getting royal assent. On 2 June 2010, it was received royal assent. Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) (n.d.) stated that The Personal Data Protection Act 2010 implemented in Malaysia on 15 November 2013 by way of notification in the government gazette. The prime objective of this act is to protect personal information from the perspective of commercial transactions. The most general principle of this act to prohibit people to use other’s personal data without consent.

“Personal Data Protection Department (PDPD) is an agency under the Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC)” (Personal Data Protection Act, n.d.). The prime duty of the PAPD department is to supervise the handling of personal data of individuals related to commercial transactions. PAPD wants to ensure that no one misuses and misapplies the other party’s data without taking concern. The maximum penalty is between RM100k to 500k and/or between 1 to 3 years imprisonment for non-compliance (Shahwahid & Miskam, 2014). There is no amendment or modification that has been noticed in the Personal Data Protection Act 2010.

According to Kandiah (2019), The PDPA 2010 act was a need to actualized to enable the confidence of the consumer in electronic commerce and business transactions. Before passing this act it was seen that the rising number of cases related credit card fraud. The theft was selling personal data without customer consent. After passing the PDPA 2010, the amount of fraud cases related to bank cards has been reduced. Now people can trust the company to provide their personal information without hesitation. Therefore, companies and clients both parties are being benefited from passing this act.

Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia

Figure 1: Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA) in Malaysia

A Case study related to the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA)

Due to the popularity of the social media platforms, cybersecurity became a major concern that would cause a personal data breach. As one of the cases from Facebook, in December 2019, the personal data of 267 million Facebook users were exposed to an online database. These personal data consist of users’ names, users’ ID, and phone numbers, which could be accessed by anyone through the database.

Although Facebook contacted the internet service provider to remove these data from the servers after discovering the data leak, however, the database was exposed online for two weeks which these data were also posted on a hacker forum already. Regarding the possible reason for this data breach, the security researcher of Facebook claimed that the data is most likely the result of exploiting Facebook’s Application Program Interface (API) by hackers (Ganjoo, 2019). Thus, it is essential to enforce a personal data protection act in the vulnerable cyberspace.

In addition, relating this act specifically in the Malaysian context, on 3 May 2017, Khas Cergas Sdn Bhd, the company that owns Vitoria International College was charged in the Sessions Court for processing personal data of the former employee without a valid certificate of registration issued by the Personal Data Protection Department (PDPD) (Mageswari, 2017). Specifically, this case breached section 16 (1) of the PDPA in which requires the data users to register the applicant and issue a certificate of registration by the PDPD. The offense was allegedly committed by the company at its premises on June 6, 2016. After the Sessions Court judge, the charge which under section 16 (4) of the PDPA claimed on conviction, the company would be liable to a maximum fine of RM 500,000 or imprisonment up to three years, or both (Attorney General’s Chambers of Malaysia, 2016).

 Why PADA is relevant with the new media environment?

With the rapid development and progress of science and technology, the medium of information dissemination is constantly changing. The release of the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) in Malaysia had an impact on the new media environment. Next, I will talk about my reasons for the PDPA is relevant now with the new media environment.

Firstly, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) gives people more control over your personal data. More and more people can easily get online due to the rapid development of the network. Besides, there are varieties of social media that were developed, which caused many people to indulge in virtual social media. Unfortunately,a lots of criminals catch the opportunity to steal other people’s personal information. There is no doubt that personal information was stolen that is a terrible thing. If everyone knew the benefits of the Personal Data Protection Act, people can use it to control themselves personal data. Thus, the Personal Data Protection Act is relevant now with the new media environment.

Secondly, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) deals with personal data related to commercial transactions. Since the human appeared, business activities had not stopped. The release of the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) in Malaysia has significantly reinforced the protection of personal data in relation to commercial transactions. It imposed strict restrictions on some people who collect, record, and process personal data. There is no denying that this action let personal information in business transactions has been protected under the law. Thus, the Personal Data Protection Act is relevant now with the new media environment.

Last but not least, the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) lets a person reduce unwanted telemarketing messages received.  Have you been harassed by an advertising call?Have you ever been harassed by a fraudulent phone call? Due to the popularity of mobile phones and some mobile devices, more and more people’s personal information does not feel leaked. Our information needs to be protected and we want to have a safe network environment so, the Personal Data Protection Act(PDPA) is relevant now with the new media environment.

Suggestions to improve the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 (PDPA)

Although the establishment of PDPA has provided great help for the protection of personal information at the commercial level, after a long period of practice, some problems have still been exposed.

Firstly, we must reduce the impact on the personal data life cycle management process. Collection, use, storage, and destruction should be minimized in every aspect.

Secondly, comprehensively consider the operating methods of different companies and find the best and generally applicable specific terms to minimize the changes in business processes made by the company to adapt to the terms.

Third, the establishment of a central database to achieve unified management of global information can not only facilitate the integration of information but also simplify the process of cross-border personal data transmission. For example, during the MCO, everyone uses ZOOM to conduct virtual courses. After we install ZOOM, usually there will be a pop-up window at the bottom of the screen “Allow ZOOM to obtain your location permission”.  Usually, no one cares about this problem, but in fact, your geographic location has been exposed.  The next step is to bind the account.

Usually, everyone binds their Google account by default, so that ZOOM directly obtains our email address. We recall further, what personal information did you provide when you first registered your Google account? Name, date of birth, nationality, region, these four items can be said to be the most basic personal privacy. Since we provide ZOOM with our Google mailbox, the personal information that we leaked when registering Google mailbox does not rule out that ZOOM’s company has learned all of them. Imagine that the ID card and passport that you usually hide in the innermost layer of the wallet or in the innermost drawer have been completely wiped out by strangers.

What should we do in this situation? We can only rely on legal protection. According to PDPA, “from a business perspective, the unauthorized use of other people’s information is prohibited.” When we registered with Google, it was equivalent to allowing Google to obtain and use our personal information.  However, for ZOOM, we only allow it to bind our Google account (Google mailbox), which does not mean that we also agree to it to obtain our name, age, nationality, and region. This problem is exactly what needs to be resolved urgently.


There are many areas involved in personal data. With the rapid development and wide application of information technology, human beings have gradually entered the era of new media. The protection of personal data is also particularly important. In the media field, while the continuous changes in media technology have had a profound impact on the media, the privacy of personal data has been greatly challenged.

The Survey Report on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of Chinese Netizens (2015) shows that in the past year, netizens have lost approximately RMB 80.5 billion, or RMB 124 per capita, due to personal information leakage, spam, and fraudulent information. (The State Council Information Office of the People Republic of China. 2015). It can be seen that personal data protection plays an important role in the media field. Personal data security even affects the security of collective interest, and the protection of corresponding laws and regulations is very important.

The world is suffering from data privacy leaks, and one of the most effective tools to solve this problem is to perfect the privacy protection law. Many countries/regions in the world have strict regulations on data privacy and security. The release of the Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA) in Malaysia has significantly reinforced the protection of personal data in relation to commercial transactions.


Attorney General’s Chambers of Malaysia. (2016). Personal Data Protection Act 2010. Retrieved from

Chua, H. N., Herbland, A., Wong, S. F., & Chang, Y. (2017). Compliance to personal data protection principles: A study of how organizations frame privacy policy notices. Telematics and Informatics, 34(4), 157-170.

Ganjoo, S. (2019, December 20). Facebook faces another data breach, data of 267 million users exposed. India Today. Retrieved from

Kandiah, S., (2019). The Privacy, Data Protection and Cybersecurity Law Review – Edition 6 MALAYSIA. Retrieved from

Mageswari, M. (2017, May 3). Company behind Victoria International College charged with personal data-related offence. The Star. Retrieved from

Personal Data Protection Act (n.d.). Retrieved from