Reporting Verb: Fill in the Blanks with the most Appropriate Reporting Verbs

Reporting verb

Reporting verb is defined as referring verbs that convey the action of speakers. It is used when a person reports others’ work or statements directly or indirectly. The most common use of the reporting verb is in-text citations.

One of the most common ways to incorporate citations into your writing is to use the reporting verb. They are needed in order to connect the in-text citation to the information which you are citing. Before selecting a verb, it is vital that you carefully read the source and clearly understand the author’s claim(s).

Activity 1- Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate reporting verb.
  1. Greenberg (2001) emphasizes the importance of taking a liberal approach.

or

Greenberg (2001) stresses the importance of taking a liberal approach.

  1. Alam et al. (2004) observe patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes for a minimum of 8 years.

or

Alam et al. (2004) analyze patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes for a minimum of 8 years.

  1. Toms (1982) articulate the common belief that humans have five senses. In his research, he finds that there are in fact nine senses.

or

Toms (1982) challenges the common belief that humans have five senses. In his research, he finds that there are in fact nine senses.

  1. Hanks (2004) determines an idiom as an expression whose “meaning . . . is distinct from the sum of its parts” (p. 257).

or

Hanks (2004) notices an idiom as an expression whose “meaning . . . is distinct from the sum of its parts” (p. 257).

  1. Jirapanakorn (2012) examines the use of reporting verbs in international journals and Thai journals and found that there were fewer uses of reporting verbs in the Thai journals.

or

Jirapanakorn (2012) discovers the use of reporting verbs in international journals and Thai journals and found that there were fewer uses of reporting verbs in the Thai journals.

Plagiarism: How To Avoid Plagiarism, Identify Errors in citation & Correction

Plagiarism

Work is often considered as plagiarised when it contains another person’s ideas, processes, results, data, or words without giving appropriate credit to the owner. In other words, plagiarism is when you claim someone else’s thought and work as your own. In the academic world, this is a crime and can be heavily penalized.

Activity 1

Read these situations carefully and decide whether they are acts of plagiarism or not. State your reason in the space provided.

Situation
  1. A student uses an internet article in researching her paper. She finds several of the ideas in the article useful and develops them in her own paper. Since she does not quote from the text, she does not cite it in her paper, but she does put the reference in the bibliography.

Plagiarism- Yes / No

Answer: YES

Reason:  Although the student was right in referencing the article in her bibliography, that’s not enough. If she uses the ideas in her paper, she must consider in the paper itself the origins of those ideas. She acknowledges the source of the idea directly or uses in-text citation.

2. You are taking a class that a friend has already taken. She lets you read her paper for you to get some ideas and tells you to use any parts of the paper you find useful. You incorporate some of her paragraphs into your paper without citation.

Plagiarism-Yes / No

Answer: YES

Reason: The fact that my friend gave permission to use her paper is not relevant; it is still plagiarism when you present work that someone else has done as your own.

3. A friend offers to let you read his paper to help you get some ideas and tells you to use any parts of the paper you find useful. You incorporate one of his paragraphs into your paper, and you are careful to include all of the citations from his paper in your footnotes so that readers will be able to find the original source of the information.

Plagiarism-Yes / No

Answer: YES

Reason: Although I have the citations, it is plagiarism to show someone else’s work as my own. My friend can also be in violation of the Honor Code too.

4. A student finds a picture on the web that perfectly illustrates a point she wants to make in her paper. She downloads the picture but does not use the website’s analysis; in addition, she writes her own caption for the picture. Since the analysis and caption are her own, she does not include a citation for the picture.

Plagiarism-Yes / No

Answer: YES

Reason: It is both depending on the type of picture she is using. If the picture is common and shares common knowledge then it won’t be considered plagiarism. But if the picture belongs to individuals’ intellectual work then it will consider as plagiarism.

5. You are discussing your term paper with your professor. She gives you an interesting idea about how you might interpret some of the materials you have been studying. Since the discussion was informal and does not pertain to an area in which your professor intends you to publish, you incorporate her suggestions without acknowledgment.

Plagiarism-Yes / No

Answer: NO

Reason: Though it is important to acknowledge other ideas it won’t be plagiarism because she has not written on the subject, and does not intend to do so.

How To Avoid  Plagiarism

One of the ways to avoid plagiarism is to give acknowledgment to the originator(s) of the idea(s). This can be done by using proper citation and referencing techniques.

Activity 2

Other than to avoid plagiarism, what are other purposes of including a citation in your writing?

  1. To give credit to the authors whose work I am using.
  2. To provide readers with a list of additional readings on the topic.
  3. So that my academic paper can easily be spotted.

Activity 3

Identify the errors in each of the citations below.

  1. “The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity” (Jane Auduboy, 1990).

Error(s): (Jane Auduboy, 1990).

Correct: “The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity” (Auduboy, 1990)

  1. Eastmond states that distance learning is an increasingly important aspect of higher education because it meets the needs of an expanding pool of nontraditional students who find education necessary for jobs in today’s information age.

Error(s):  No date 

Correct: Eastmond (n.d.) states that “distance learning is an increasingly important aspect of higher education because it meets the needs of an expanding pool of nontraditional students who find education necessary for jobs in today’s information age”.

  1. According to Celik (2015), he found that managing the learning environment in classrooms with students of a range of ability levels or achievement is one of the tough issues faced by many teachers.

Error(s): he found that

Correct: According to Celik (2015), “managing the learning environment in classrooms with students of a range of ability levels or achievement is one of the tough issues faced by many teachers”.

  1. One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head. (Consumer Reports:1990)

Error(s): (Consumer Reports:1990)

One study concluded that wearing a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head (Consumer Reports,1990).

5. Armstrong (2004), suggests that historical cost accounting has “passed its use-by date”.

Error(s): Armstrong (2004), suggests

Correct: Armstrong (2004) suggests that historical cost accounting has “passed its use-by date”