Causes of Climate Change: 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change

Causes of Climate Change- 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change. The nine natural causes of climate change are Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases. 

Climate Change

Climate change refers to the prolonged change of weather conditions such as temperature, snowfall, rainfall, tsunami, and drought on the Earth. It means different weather on the Earth compared to earlier decades. So, climate change denotes global warming on the Earth.  For example, now the Earth is warmer than thousand of years before. NASA scientists have stated that the Earth’s temperature has increased rapidly in the past 150 years. It is estimated that approximately 2 degrees Fahrenheit temperature has been raised in the last 100 years. Although the Earth’s temperature has constantly been evolving, the latest five years were the warmest years in the century. Therefore, climate change has been a much-talked topic for global leaders. Scientists mention the natural and human causes of climate change on the planet.

Causes of Climate Change

Climate change causes refer to the natural factors and human activities that change the Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists have identified many natural factors and human activities that influence changing the global atmosphere.

Natural Causes of Climate Change

The natural causes of climate change refer to the natural factors and activities that change the Earth’s atmosphere. It might occur throughout the cycle of the Earth’s motion, ocean current, plates movement, volcanic eruption, natural forest fire, and greenhouse gases. The natural causes are natural factors that occur mostly automatically rather than people’s contribution.

Natural Causes of Climate Change Diagram
Nine Causes of Climate Change & Natural Cause of Climate Change
Natural Causes of Climate Change
What are the natural causes of climate change?

Natural Causes of Climate Change

The 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change are:
  1. Solar Variation
  2. Volcanic Eruptions
  3. Axial Tilt
  4. Precession
  5. Eccentricity
  6. Continental Drift
  7. Ocean Current
  8. Natural Forest Fire
  9. Natural Greenhouse Gases. 
1. Solar Variation (Sunspot)
The most significant natural cause of climate change is the solar variation that changes the global atmosphere gradually. Solar variation means emitting different amounts of radiation from the sun. The amount of solar radiation depends on the sunspots driven by the sun’s magnetism. Sunspots emit more heat from the sun, and that makes the Earth warmer. They look like black holes that throwing more solar radiation toward the planet compared to the natural part of the sun. However, the solar variation and sunspots are related to the solar magnetic cycle or solar activities. Sunspots are also known as storms on the outside layer of the sun.  It plays a critical role in ejecting solar gassy and flares from the sun’s corona.
Solar Variation and Sunspots Cause of the climate change
Solar Variation (Sunspots)
Although the temperature of the sunspot is lower than other parts of the sun, the outer layer of the sunspots releases huge ultraviolet rays and throws them on the Earth’s surface. The number of sunspots reaches a peak during 11 years of solar activities- it is called the solar maximum. In the last century, many sunspots have been identified on the sun simultaneously the Earth’s temperature increased. The sunspots and solar variations have raised the Earth’s temperature by about 0.1 degrees Celsius. The sun has been brighter than 100 years ago due to the solar cycle activities driven by the sunspots, as the Earth has been warmer.
2. Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions mean emitting huge gas, flash, lava, rock, and dust from the planet’s surface. Volcano eruption is one of the most devastating natural disasters that change the environment of the disaster area. Therefore, it is another natural cause of climate change. The most adverse impact of the volcanic eruption is increasing the temperature of the Earth.  The lava emitted from volcanic eruptions can increase the surrounding area’s temperature by around 1200 degrees Celsius.

However, it emits a huge amount of flash and creates ash clouds in the sky. This ash cloud acts like a blanket in the sky that redirects the sun’s rays. The solar radiation goes back by reflecting on the ash cloud in the sky. The prolonged ash cloud reflects the solar radiation; therefore, the ground of the Earth gets colder. In sum, the volcano eruption is a natural disaster that causes climate change.

Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic Eruptions

Does volcano eruption increase or decrease the Earth’s temperature?

Although the lava increases the surrounding area’s temperature, the ash cloud reflects the solar radiation that reduces the Earth’s temperature. So, the volcano eruption makes the planet colder and changes the climate.

3. Axial Tilt

According to Milankovitch Cycles, the Earth moves around the sun, and it takes 365 days to complete around the sun. Additionally, the sun takes 24 hours to complete the rotation. Axial tilt is a crucial natural cause of climate change that receives more and less solar radiation based on the position. Axial tilt refers to the Earth’s angle between the orbital plane and the equatorial plane during rotation. It is also known as obliquity that represents the Earth’s angle. Axial tilt makes different seasons in the same area of the planet.

According to the statistic reports, the Earth has been tilted 23.5 degrees perpendicular to the plane. The axial tilt differs 22.1 and 24.5 degrees from its orbital plane around the sun. The season of the Earth depends on the axial tilt; therefore, the more axial tilt angle, the greater seasons. The sun provides more solar radiation when the Earth’s hemisphere tilts towards the sun in the summer season. On the other hand, the Earth receives less solar radiation when the Earth tilted away from the sun’s orbital plane. According to Milankovitch (1930), it takes 41,000 years to complete the ice age cycle. So, the ice age comes back after every 41,000 years.

For example, now the Earth is tilted 23.45; therefore, the one hemisphere receives more solar radiation that creates extreme summer on the Earth; simultaneously, another hemisphere gets extreme winter. The axial tilt is reducing; therefore, the Earth gets extremely hot in summer and cold in the winter seasons. Based on the discussion, it is optimal to say that the axial tilt causes climate change on the Earth.

Milankovitch Cycles- Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity
Milankovitch Cycles- Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity.
4. Precession

Precession refers to the movement in the orientation of the rotational axis due to the gravitational force of the sun and moon. It is a type of movement that occurs when it starts to wobble and change the direction of the first axis. The Earth rotates once every day that takes 24 hours. However, it wobbles slightly roughly after every 19 to 24 thousand years.  If it’s leaning towards the Sun, it gets more heat. On the other hand, the Earth gets less heat if it leans away from the Sun. The Earth’s precession affects climate change; hence, precession is another natural cause of climate change.

5. Eccentricity
Eccentricity is also known as orbital eccentricity, describes how the Earth moves around the Sun. The Earth does not move the sun in the same circular motion. Orbital eccentricity measures the variation of the orbital path from a perfect circular shape. It is also known as the orbital parameter that controls the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth. The variation of the orbital path affects the gap between the sun and planet. It controls the lengths of the summer and winter seasons. According to statistic reports, the summer is approximately 4.5 days longer than winter due to the orbital eccentricity. It is all about the distance between the sun and Earth. The sun is positioned around 152.1 million kilometers from the Earth in summer, the farthest distance.
On the other hand, in the winter season, the distance between the sun and Earth is 147.1 million kilometers, also known as the closest distance. The Earth gets closer to the sun during the winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. NASA scientists have declared the current orbital eccentricity of Earth is e ≈ 0.01671. Now, the Earth orbits the sun in an elliptical motion shape. It is slowly reducing the cycle of the 100,000 years. The Earth gets warmer when it rotates around the sun in a circular orbit. In contrast, the Earth gets colder when its moves around the sun in an elliptical orbit or eye shape. The discussion proves that orbital eccentricity is a significant natural cause of climate change.
6. Continental Drift by Plate Tectonics

Continental drift refers to the slow movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates, also known as the shifts in the Earth’s crust. There are seven continents on the Earth; however, the position of the continents is not fixed. Some continents are getting closer year by year; on the other hand; some are getting distant from each other. The movement is a prolonged process. The motion of the continental drift movement is around 0.6 cm to 10.5 cm per year. Hence, continental drift is the critical natural cause of climate change on the Earth.

The tectonic plates are the separated pieces of the Earth’s crust. The outer face of the crust is rocky and solid, and it differs into two types of materials, such as less-dense and the more-dense oceanic crust. These tectonic plates can move freely and cause Earthquakes and volcanoes on the Earth. Most ocean volcanoes and Earthquakes are the direct consequences of continental drift. The tectonic plate’s movement can be stipulated in four patterns: transform faulting, spreading, subduction, and collision.

For example, the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates has extended the Himalayan Mountains range. Magma is created from the molten rock below the crust emits from volcano vents that change the climate. In sum, continental drift by plate tectonics is a natural cause of climate change.

7. Ocean Current

The ocean current is the natural cause of climate change on the Earth formed from the continuous movement of the ocean water. It is generated from the ocean wind, gravitation of the moon, breaking waves, temperature, and rotation of the Earth. The ocean current plays a crucial role in causing climate change by warming the Earth. Most solar radiation is absorbed by the ocean, although land areas receive some radiation. The land area returns some heat into space after sunset. However, the ocean retains solar radiation and finally spread them around the planet. The heat evaporates the ocean waters continuously, raising the temperature and humidity of surrounding areas on Earth. Finally, the evaporation process creates rain and storms that reduce the temperatures.

Ocean currents could rapidly freeze parts of North America. If the current system collapses, it will lead to dramatic changes in worldwide weather patterns. If this circulation shuts down, it could bring extreme cold to Europe and parts of North America.

8. Natural Forest Fire

Natural forest fire is a significant natural cause of climate change that increases the temperature of surrounding areas. There are two reasons for forest fires: natural causes forest fires and human causes of forest fires. Natural forest fire refers to the wildfire that burns a thousand acres of land, including trees and animals.  According to the Environmental Protection Agency report, 20 percent of forest fire occurs naturally; and around 80 percent of forest fire occurs from human activities.

Natural forest fires can spark from lightning and drought that set fire on trees. Usually, warm temperatures encourage setting the fire, and strong wind spread the fires surrounding areas rapidly.  Forest fire transforms green vegetation into the desert for a period of time.

Forest fires release huge greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and ashes. These gases trigger warming the atmosphere and destroy the soil nutrient.  Therefore, a natural forest fire is a significant natural cause of climate change.

9. Natural Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse gases refer to the gases that change the climate by trapping infrared radiation or heat in the atmosphere. GHG is the short form or abbreviation of greenhouse gases. There are two types of reasons for producing greenhouse gases: natural causes and human-induced causes to produce greenhouse gases. Natural greenhouses gases are produced naturally on the Earth without people’s activities. For example, permafrost is a frozen ground that contains and releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) naturally. 

The most common natural greenhouse gases on the Earth are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). The greenhouse gases assist the sunlight in hitting on the Earth’s surfaces and blocking the heat returning from the atmosphere. These natural gases prevent the heat released from the atmosphere from passing outward from the Earth’s surfaces. Natural greenhouse gases stimulate to raise the temperature in the atmosphere directly and indirectly. In essence, natural greenhouse gases warm the Earth’s atmosphere by trapping the heat. So, it is another natural cause of climate change that warms the atmosphere.

However, human activities produce some greenhouse gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs). There are two causes to generate greenhouse gases: natural causes and human causes of producing greenhouse gases. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels contribute to emitting greenhouse gases. People cut forests for agriculture that also cause global warming. Now, researchers and political leaders are working together to reduce human-induced causes of climate change. They create social awareness to avoid global warming. Social etiquette and social awareness among people can protect the environment from pollution. In a nutshell, greenhouse gases cause global warming and change the climate worldwide.


In conclusion, these nine natural causes of climate change (Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases) contribute to change the climate globally. These factors are natural contributors to global warming, change the atmosphere and change the Earth’s environment directly and indirectly.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 30). Cause of Climate Change- 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change in 2021. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning.

Types of Journalism: Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital

Types of Journalism- 22 Different Types of Journalism are Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism & Digital Journalism. Journalism Types. Types of Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.


Journalism is a combined process of collecting, processing, and disseminating information through print, electronic, and digital or online media. Print media are printed publications such as books, newspapers, magazines, billboards, and so more. Electronic media in journalism are mass media such as telephone, television, and radio. Digital media are internet-based outlets such as websites, blog sites, and social media. Journalists are the people who are engaged in collecting, analyzing, processing, and distributing information via media.

Journalism Types Diagram
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism, Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism & 22 Types of Print Journalism.

Types of Journalism

Different Types of Journalism
  1. Print Journalism
  2. Broadcast Journalism
  3. Digital Journalism.

Journalism differs into three categories: Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

1. Print Journalism

Print journalism means the process of news reporting through print media such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Newspapers are the most significant print outlet to publish diverse types of news together. A newspaper has many spaces to disseminate different types of news; for example, national, international, editorial, advertisement, and sports. The print media authority assigns expert journalists for each space.

Example of Print Journalism

For example, newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, academic journals are the example of print journalism. It denotes printed documents that convey information.

Newspaper Print Journalism
Example of Print Journalism

22 Types of Print Journalism

The 22 types of print journalism are advocacy journalism, agriculture journalism, arts journalism, celebrity journalism, crime journalism, defense journalism, economic journalism, editorial journalism, education journalism, environmental journalism, feature journalism, freelance journalism, opinion journalism, investigative journalism, lifestyle journalism, photojournalism, political journalism, sports journalism, tabloid journalism, comics journalism, watchdog journalism, and yellow journalism.

1. Advocacy Journalism

Advocacy journalism is the process of reporting news from a non-objective viewpoint. It refers to a common type of journalism that combines reporting with a social or political viewpoint. The reports are generated by the advocacy journalist deal with social events, corruption, corporate and government policy. This report appears as a potential jolt for the audience. Somewhat, it is another type of investigative journalism. Advocacy journalist practice journalism from an ideological viewpoint to support the nation and society.

For example, “Vaccination better way to combat COVID-19 than lockdown.”

2. Agriculture Journalism

Agriculture journalism is a particular genre of journalism in which the journalist collects agriculture-related data and processes them to publish as informative information through mass media. It compares the traditional and new ways of cultivation. It also includes the challenges of the agriculture sector of the country.

For example, “Canadian farmers produce organic vegetables.”

3. Arts Journalism

Art journalism refers to the common type of journalism in which journalists analyze and report arts events such as theatre, architecture, movies, drama, visual illustration, music, and so more. It discusses traditional events of the community, society, country, and sub-continent areas. The art journalists focus on the artistic features.

For example, “New art hub for Bournemouth.”

4. Celebrity Journalism

Celebrity journalism is the category of journalism that covers events related to the celebrities such as sportsperson, royal family people, singers, T.V. start, and opera stars.


For example, “Lionel Messi Joins P.S.G. Leaving Barcelona.”

5. Crime Journalism

Crime journalism refers to covering the sensational news story related to offensive incidents in society. It is mostly associated with wrongdoing issues related to police, victim, and criminals. It is also part of objective and investigative journalism. Crime journalism is also known as crime news reporting; sometimes, it includes taking the interview of the crime stories. The journalist keeps a good relationship with the police, lawyer, admin officer to get the news quickly. Crime events are crucial issues that add news value in journalism; therefore, journalists interest to report those events. 

For example, “Haiti President Jovenel Moise killed.”

6. Defense Journalism

Defense journalism refers to the specialized type of journalism covering events related to the army and navy. It is an exceptional type of journalism that builds the relationship between media and militaries. Defense journalist gets special training to report war news from the spot. Usually, journalists write articles and generate content regarding military events, information to entertain soldiers. The defense journalists should know military history, rules and regulations, languages, and international relations.

For example, “the U.S. troops return from Afghanistan.”

7. Economic Journalism

Economic journalism is a significant type of journalism that covers the country’s financial issues, events, systems, and policies. It also includes the analytical report and comparative analysis of the financial state in the country. The reporters must have good knowledge of the economy in the country to report these types of news. The businessmen are the fundamental readers of this column. The journalists collect information by interviewing the finance manager, owner, investor, and company employee.

For example, “Lockdown hit the economy during the the Eid ul Adha Festival.”

8. Editorial Journalism

Editorial journalism refers to a genre of journalism where the chief editor expresses the opinion logically and ethically. In this respect, journalists play an important role in shaping public opinion by providing rational arguments. Although it is similar to opinion journalism, it is fixed only for editors to provide logical opinions. The editorial contents must include the explanation, body, and summary of the topics.

For example, “Effectiveness of the movement control order in Malaysia.”

 9. Education Journalism

Education journalism deals with covering any news related to the department of education. It includes news related to the development of the education system. On the other hand, it also shows the discrimination that occurred in the education sector. The prime focus of the education journalist is to raise social awareness among students to get their rights properly. The educators and students are the main readers of this column. Additionally, students, teachers, and researchers become education journalists.

For example, “Education Ministry advises conducting online classes until 2022 in Malaysia.”

10. Environment Journalism

Environment journalism is reporting environmental issues, such as natural disasters, climate change, and global warming. Disaster journalism is one of the types of environment journalism because it includes news related to natural calamities and disaster management. Environment news covers natural conditions and calamities such as water layers, deforestation, global warming, flood, etc. It also includes the casualties and infrastructural damages. The reporters need to ensure safety while covering the news from the spot. It represents the victim’s wound that affects people’s emotions. The report also shows how the international and national disaster management authority plays its role in rescuing the people from the affected areas.

For example, “Cyclone hits Bangladesh and death toll rises to 200”.

11. Feature Journalism

Feature journalism means producing and publishing non-fiction events that deal with real events, issues, and trends. The aim of feature articles is not only to entertain but also to educate people. Feature journalism is also known as news feature article writing. The most common news feature articles are Personality Feature, How-To Feature, Review Feature, Travelogue Feature Article, Sports Feature, and Obituary Feature. Travel journalism includes travel articles and travelogue features.

For example, “How to recover Facebook password.”

Feature journalism in Print Journalism
Sports Feature Journalism in Print Media
12. Freelance Journalism

Freelance journalism is the process of generating informative content and sell them to media organizations. It is one kind of contract work; journalists complete newspapers, magazines, and commercial organizations. The content might be related to fashion, sport, products, and environments. Nowadays, many freelance journalists work to promote commercial products. Additionally, some of them involve in investigative journalism.

For example, “How to earn money from Facebook.”

13. Opinion Journalism

Opinion journalism means publishing an author’s opinion regarding an issue. The author has good academic and or practical knowledge of the subjects. The content is a piece of article that is intended to clarify the issues elaborately.

For example, “The Importance of artificial intelligence in digital business.”

14. Investigative Journalism

Investigative journalism refers to a genre of journalism in which the journalist investigates a single case of interest, such as discrimination, corruption, wrongdoing, and critical crimes. An investigative journalist might spend a week, month, and year analyzing and reporting the news. They scrutinize the information thoroughly to identify the actual people behind the crimes or occurrences.

For example, “September 11 attract: who and why.”

15. Lifestyle Journalism

Lifestyle journalism means the process of reporting events related to people’s lifestyles such as food, travel, cook, eating habits, yoga, home decoration, gardening, leisure, hobby, music, fashion, etc. It is one of the favorite types of journalism for the young generation. Lifestyle journalism has become more popular in recent decades. It provides tips and tricks for leading a life with happiness avoiding common problems relevant to lifestyle. 

For example, “Vogue brings new fashion at shop in 2021.”

16. Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a specific form of journalism that describes an event, issue, conflict, or story. A proverb says that a photo conveys more information than a thousand words. Photojournalism is a significant process of conveying emotions and stories via photos. It is an essential element of print journalism.

The most common types of photojournalism are spot news, general news, personality, illustration, pictorial photojournalism, and so more.

Photojournalism in Print media
Illustration Photojournalism in Print Media
 17. Political Journalism

Political journalism is a form of journalism in which journalists publish political news. The political news can be local or international. It presents deep information regarding democracy, royal families, elections, dictatorship, and so more. Political journalism reveals critical information about civil government how they rule the country. It also talks about the regional and international political powers. Political journalists should have greater knowledge of political science and the principle of democracy.

For example, “Political crisis in Myanmar.”

18. Sports Journalism

Sports journalism covers the story related to a sports event and sportsperson. It enriches the newspaper by providing national and international sports events. The young generations are the main readers of the sports news due to having much interest in the sport. Sports photojournalism is a powerful element of sports news reporting. There are mainly two types of sports journalism; for example, sports action and sports feature journalism. In this regard, the journalists understand the specific sport clearly and have effective communication skills to cover the story. Additionally, journalists must need to ensure safety and security while covering spot sports news. 

For example, “Rio to allow fans for Brazil-Argentina final of Copa America.”

19. Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a different style of journalism in that journalism disseminates sensational events via the small size of newspapers. The news is published in compact page format papers. It emphasizes sensational topics such as crime, corruption, celebrity gossip, and viral news on social media. Tabloid journalism is also known as rag publications.

For example, “Lionel Messi Join P.S.G.”

20. Watchdog Journalism

Watchdog journalism is another form of investigative journalism in which journalists reassure the authenticity of the news through interviewing the responsible people. It is the process of monitoring the government’s actions and increasing the accountability of the news. Watchdog journalism has become the principle of the press media. It enforces the government official and authority to fulfill public interests as per responsibility. The watchdog journalists scrutinize the people in power to reveal the fact. Watchdog journalism works to inform people rather than entertain them. 

For example. “Washington Post’s coverage of Watergate scandal.”

21. Comics Journalism

Comics journalism means graphic journalism in which journalists publish non-fiction events. The journalist draws a funny skeleton combined with pictures and words to convey a meaningful message and information to the audience. Therefore, the journalists are known as cartoonists or editorial cartoonists. It is also known as cartoon journalism. However, nowadays, journalist adopts technology such as computer and mobile to create visual graphics.

For example, “KAL’s cartoon.”

Comics Journalism of Print Media. Types of print journalism
Comics Journalism
22. Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a distinguished form of journalism in which journalists focus on increasing circulation rather than news authenticity. It is a process of luring audiences setting eye-catching headlines that is not much relevant to the body content. Yellow journalism is a popular term in the American press; therefore, it is also known as yellow press. Journalists focus on exaggerating the news instead of identifying authentic news. The contents have not come from well-research and investigation. Journalist practices yellow journalism intentionally without following the code of conduct in journalism; therefore, it is unethical—people terms yellow journalism as the negative role of journalists. 

Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism
Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism

For example. “Spanish American War.”

2. Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism means a process of reporting news and information through TV and Radio. Therefore, it includes T.V. and Radio Journalism. T.V. journalism is a special type of journalism that disseminates visual information via Television. It is a process of filming moments, editing them to publish via television. Sometimes, T.V. journalists interview political, business people, or celebrities on-scene footage.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

  1. TV News Reporter
  2. TV News Presenter
  3. Interview Journalism

3. Digital Journalism

Digital journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing via digital platforms such as websites, blogsite, and social media sites. It is also known as online journalism that includes citizen journalism. Citizen journalists gather the information and publish it through digital networking sites such as websites, blogs, and social media. So, citizen journalism is one of the types of online journalism.

Types of Digital Journalism

Digital journalism refers to collecting information and publishing them via digital platforms such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. The citizens are involved in collecting, processing, and reporting the news. They generate content to convey messages to society and the community. However, digital journalism has both adverse and positive consequences on society. Sometimes, people spread fake and fabricated information to the country via citizen journalism. Nowadays, many people collect, process, and publish news on social media, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so more. The netizen generates and posts informative content on social media to create social awareness. There are many examples of digital journalism; however, the most common examples of digital journalism are Citizen journalism, YouTube journalism, Blogging, and Commenting.

For example, Arab Spring and Rebuilding Haiti.

The Three Examples of Digital Journalism are:
  1. Citizen Journalism
  2. YouTube Journalism
  3. Blogging
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 26). Types of Journalism, Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning.