Types of Journalism: Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital

Types of Journalism- 22 Different Types of Journalism are Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism & Digital Journalism. Journalism Types. Types of Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

Journalism

Journalism is a combined process of collecting, processing, and disseminating information through print, electronic, and digital or online media. Print media are printed publications such as books, newspapers, magazines, billboards, and so more. Electronic media in journalism are mass media such as telephone, television, and radio. Digital media are internet-based outlets such as websites, blog sites, and social media. Journalists are the people who are engaged in collecting, analyzing, processing, and distributing information via media.

News Values in Journalism
Journalism Types Diagram
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism, Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism & 22 Types of Print Journalism.

Types of Journalism

Different Types of Journalism
  1. Print Journalism
  2. Broadcast Journalism
  3. Digital Journalism.

Journalism differs into three categories: Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

1. Print Journalism

Print journalism means the process of news reporting through print media such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Newspapers are the most significant print outlet to publish diverse types of news together. A newspaper has many spaces to disseminate different types of news; for example, national, international, editorial, advertisement, and sports. The print media authority assigns expert journalists for each space.

Example of Print Journalism

For example, newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, academic journals are example of print journalism. It denotes printed documents that convey information.

Newspaper Print Journalism
Example of Print Journalism

22 Types of Print Journalism

The 22 types of print journalism are advocacy journalism, agriculture journalism, arts journalism, celebrity journalism, crime journalism, defence journalism, economic journalism, editorial journalism, education journalism, environmental journalism, feature journalism, freelance journalism, opinion journalism, investigative journalism, lifestyle journalism, photojournalism, political journalism, sports journalism, tabloid journalism, comics journalism, watchdog journalism, and yellow journalism.

1. Advocacy Journalism

Advocacy journalism is the process of reporting news from a non-objective viewpoint. It refers to a common type of journalism that combines reporting with a social or political viewpoint. The reports are generated by the advocacy journalist deal with social events, corruption, corporate and government policy. This report appears as a potential jolt for the audience. Somewhat, it is another type of investigative journalism. Advocacy journalist practice journalism from an ideological viewpoint to support the nation and society.

For example, “Vaccination better way to combat COVID-19 than lockdown.”

2. Agriculture Journalism

Agriculture journalism is a particular genre of journalism in which the journalist collects agriculture-related data and processes them to publish as informative information through mass media. It compares the traditional and new ways of cultivation. It also includes the challenges of the agriculture sector of the country.

For example, “Canadian farmers produce organic vegetables.”

3. Arts Journalism

Art journalism refers to the common type of journalism in which journalists analyze and report arts events such as theatre, architecture, movies, drama, visual illustration, music, and so more. It discusses traditional events of the community, society, country, and sub-continent areas. The art journalists focus on the artistic features.

For example, “New art hub for Bournemouth.”

4. Celebrity Journalism

Celebrity journalism is the category of journalism that covers events related to the celebrities such as sportsperson, royal family people, singers, T.V. start, and opera stars.

 

For example, “Lionel Messi Joins P.S.G. Leaving Barcelona.”

5. Crime Journalism

Crime journalism refers to covering the sensational news story related to offensive incidents in society. It is mostly associated with wrongdoing issues related to police, victim, and criminals. It is also part of objective and investigative journalism. Crime journalism is also known as crime news reporting; sometimes, it includes taking the interview of the crime stories. The journalist keeps a good relationship with the police, lawyer, admin officer to get the news quickly. Crime events are crucial issues that add news value in journalism; therefore, journalists interest to report those events. 

For example, “Haiti President Jovenel Moise killed.”

6. Defense Journalism

Defense journalism refers to the specialized type of journalism covering events related to the army and navy. It is an exceptional type of journalism that builds the relationship between media and militaries. Defense journalist gets special training to report war news from the spot. Usually, journalists write articles and generate content regarding military events, information to entertain soldiers. The defense journalists should know military history, rules and regulations, languages, and international relations.

For example, “the U.S. troops return from Afghanistan.”

7. Economic Journalism

Economic journalism is a significant type of journalism that covers the country’s financial issues, events, systems, and policies. It also includes the analytical report and comparative analysis of the financial state in the country. The reporters must have good knowledge of the economy in the country to report these types of news. The businessmen are the fundamental readers of this column. The journalists collect information by interviewing the finance manager, owner, investor, and company employee.

For example, “Lockdown hit the economy during the the Eid ul Adha Festival.”

8. Editorial Journalism

Editorial journalism refers to a genre of journalism where the chief editor expresses the opinion logically and ethically. In this respect, journalists play an important role in shaping public opinion by providing rational arguments. Although it is similar to opinion journalism, it is fixed only for editors to provide logical opinions. The editorial contents must include the explanation, body, and summary of the topics.

For example, “Effectiveness of the movement control order in Malaysia.”

 9. Education Journalism

Education journalism deals with covering any news related to the department of education. It includes news related to the development of the education system. On the other hand, it also shows the discrimination that occurred in the education sector. The prime focus of the education journalist is to raise social awareness among students to get their rights properly. The educators and students are the main readers of this column. Additionally, students, teachers, and researchers become education journalists.

For example, “Education Ministry advises conducting online classes until 2022 in Malaysia.”

10. Environment Journalism

Environment journalism is reporting environmental issues, such as natural disasters, climate change, and global warming. Disaster journalism is one of the types of environment journalism because it includes news related to natural calamities and disaster management. Environment news covers natural conditions and calamities such as water layers, deforestation, global warming, flood, etc. It also includes the casualties and infrastructural damages. The reporters need to ensure safety while covering the news from the spot. It represents the victim’s wound that affects people’s emotions. The report also shows how the international and national disaster management authority plays its role in rescuing the people from the affected areas.

For example, “Cyclone hits Bangladesh and death toll rises to 200”.

11. Feature Journalism

Feature journalism means producing and publishing non-fiction events that deal with real events, issues, and trends. The aim of feature articles is not only to entertain but also to educate people. Feature journalism is also known as news feature article writing. The most common news feature articles are Personality Feature, How-To Feature, Review Feature, Travelogue Feature Article, Sports Feature, and Obituary Feature. Travel journalism includes travel articles and travelogue features.

For example, “How to recover Facebook password.”

Feature journalism in Print Journalism
Sports Feature Journalism in Print Media
12. Freelance Journalism

Freelance journalism is the process of generating informative content and sell them to media organizations. It is one kind of contract work; journalists complete newspapers, magazines, and commercial organizations. The content might be related to fashion, sport, products, and environments. Nowadays, many freelance journalists work to promote commercial products. Additionally, some of them involve in investigative journalism.

For example, “How to earn money from Facebook.”

13. Opinion Journalism

Opinion journalism means publishing an author’s opinion regarding an issue. The author has good academic and or practical knowledge of the subjects. The content is a piece of article that is intended to clarify the issues elaborately.

For example, “The Importance of artificial intelligence in digital business.”

14. Investigative Journalism

Investigative journalism refers to a genre of journalism in which the journalist investigates a single case of interest, such as discrimination, corruption, wrongdoing, and critical crimes. An investigative journalist might spend a week, month, and year analyzing and reporting the news. They scrutinize the information thoroughly to identify the actual people behind the crimes or occurrences.

For example, “September 11 attract: who and why.”

15. Lifestyle Journalism

Lifestyle journalism means the process of reporting events related to people’s lifestyles such as food, travel, cook, eating habits, yoga, home decoration, gardening, leisure, hobby, music, fashion, etc. It is one of the favorite types of journalism for the young generation. Lifestyle journalism has become more popular in recent decades. It provides tips and tricks for leading a life with happiness avoiding common problems relevant to lifestyle. 

For example, “Vogue brings new fashion at shop in 2021.”

16. Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a specific form of journalism that describes an event, issue, conflict, or story. A proverb says that a photo conveys more information than a thousand words. Photojournalism is a significant process of conveying emotions and stories via photos. It is an essential element of print journalism.

The most common types of photojournalism are spot news, general news, personality, illustration, pictorial photojournalism, and so more.

Photojournalism in Print media
Illustration Photojournalism in Print Media
 17. Political Journalism

Political journalism is a form of journalism in which journalists publish political news. The political news can be local or international. It presents deep information regarding democracy, royal families, elections, dictatorship, and so more. Political journalism reveals critical information about civil government how they rule the country. It also talks about the regional and international political powers. Political journalists should have greater knowledge of political science and the principle of democracy.

For example, “Political crisis in Myanmar.”

18. Sports Journalism

Sports journalism covers the story related to a sports event and sportsperson. It enriches the newspaper by providing national and international sports events. The young generations are the main readers of the sports news due to having much interest in the sport. Sports photojournalism is a powerful element of sports news reporting. There are mainly two types of sports journalism; for example, sports action and sports feature journalism. In this regard, the journalists understand the specific sport clearly and have effective communication skills to cover the story. Additionally, journalists must need to ensure safety and security while covering spot sports news. 

For example, “Rio to allow fans for Brazil-Argentina final of Copa America.”

19. Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a different style of journalism in that journalism disseminates sensational events via the small size of newspapers. The news is published in compact page format papers. It emphasizes sensational topics such as crime, corruption, celebrity gossip, and viral news on social media. Tabloid journalism is also known as rag publications.

For example, “Lionel Messi Join P.S.G.”

20. Watchdog Journalism

Watchdog journalism is another form of investigative journalism in which journalists reassure the authenticity of the news through interviewing the responsible people. It is the process of monitoring the government’s actions and increasing the accountability of the news. Watchdog journalism has become the principle of the press media. It enforces the government official and authority to fulfill public interests as per responsibility. The watchdog journalists scrutinize the people in power to reveal the fact. Watchdog journalism works to inform people rather than entertain them. 

For example. “Washington Post’s coverage of Watergate scandal.”

21. Comics Journalism

Comics journalism means graphic journalism in which journalists publish non-fiction events. The journalist draws a funny skeleton combined with pictures and words to convey a meaningful message and information to the audience. Therefore, the journalists are known as cartoonists or editorial cartoonists. It is also known as cartoon journalism. However, nowadays, journalist adopts technology such as computer and mobile to create visual graphics.

For example, “KAL’s cartoon.”

Comics Journalism of Print Media. Types of print journalism
Comics Journalism
22. Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a distinguished form of journalism in which journalists focus on increasing circulation rather than news authenticity. It is a process of luring audiences setting eye-catching headlines that is not much relevant to the body content. Yellow journalism is a popular term in the American press; therefore, it is also known as yellow press. Journalists focus on exaggerating the news instead of identifying authentic news. The contents have not come from well-research and investigation. Journalist practices yellow journalism intentionally without following the code of conduct in journalism; therefore, it is unethical—people terms yellow journalism as the negative role of journalists. 

Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism
Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism

For example. “Spanish American War.”

2. Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism means a process of reporting news and information through TV and Radio. Therefore, it includes T.V. and Radio Journalism. T.V. journalism is a special type of journalism that disseminates visual information via Television. It is a process of filming moments, editing them to publish via television. Sometimes, T.V. journalists interview political, business people, or celebrities on-scene footage.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

  1. TV News Reporter
  2. TV News Presenter
  3. Interview Journalism

3. Digital Journalism

Digital journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing via digital platforms such as websites, blogsite, and social media sites. It is also known as online journalism that includes citizen journalism. Citizen journalists gather the information and publish it through digital networking sites such as websites, blogs, and social media. So, citizen journalism is one of the types of online journalism.

Types of Digital Journalism

Digital journalism refers to collecting information and publishing them via digital platforms such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. The citizens are involved in collecting, processing, and reporting the news. They generate content to convey messages to society and the community. However, digital journalism has both adverse and positive consequences on society. Sometimes, people spread fake and fabricated information to the country via citizen journalism. Nowadays, many people collect, process, and publish news on social media, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so more. The netizen generates and posts informative content on social media to create social awareness. There are many examples of digital journalism; however, the most common examples of digital journalism are Citizen journalism, YouTube journalism, Blogging, and Commenting.

For example, Arab Spring and Rebuilding Haiti.

The Three Examples of Digital Journalism are:
  1. Citizen Journalism
  2. YouTube Journalism
  3. Blogging
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 26). Types of Journalism, Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/types-of-journalism-different-types-of-journalism-print-broadcast-digital-journalist/

Social Etiquette- Social Etiquette Meaning and Example

Social Etiquette Meaning and Example. Definition and Examples of Social Media Etiquette.

What is social etiquette?

Social Etiquette Meaning

Social etiquette refers to the ethical behaviours of human beings that are morally accepted by society. It is also known as social norms. The alternative names of social etiquette are the social norm, social manner, unwritten social rule. Social etiquette can differ from society to society based on the environment of the community. For example, some etiquettes are admissible in society; however, the same etiquettes are offensive to another society. So, social etiquette gets followed differently in different social groups.

Social Media Etiquette Definition

Social media etiquette refers to the ethical use of social media to communicate with other people and spread authentic information. Many people use social media to distribute fake and fabricated information that is unethical. People are not maintaining social media etiquette who indulge in spreading fake news on social media platforms. Social media etiquette sets rules and regulations for users to optimize these sites positively.

Social Etiquette Meaning and Example

The author has presented the definition of social etiquette and some examples of social etiquette from many viewpoints of life.

Social Etiquette Examples

Don’t Go Where You Are Not Invited, And Don’t Overstay Your Welcome When Invited.

Do Not Stay in a Relationship Where You Are Not Respected and Valued.

Think Before You Talk. Around 80% of People Value You Based on Your Words.

Stop Entertaining Gossip About Other People Around You.

You Should Reduce Visiting Other People, Especially If They Don’t Visit You as Well.

Don’t Eat Other People’s Food More Than They Eat Yours.

Use Both Verbal and Nonverbal Communication Cues While Speaking To Others.

Examples of Social Etiquette

Don’t call someone more than twice continuously. If they don’t pick up your call, presume they have something important to attend.

Return money that you had borrowed even before the person that borrowed you remember or ask for it. It shows your integrity and character. The same goes for umbrellas, pens, and lunch boxes.

Never order the expensive dish on the menu when someone is giving you lunch/dinner.

Don’t ask awkward questions like ‘Oh so you aren’t married yet?’ Or ‘Don’t you have kids’ or ‘Why didn’t you buy a house?’ Or why don’t you buy a car? For God’s sake, it isn’t your problem;

Always open the door for the person coming behind you. It doesn’t matter if it is a guy or a girl, senior or junior. You don’t grow small by treating someone well in public;

If you take a taxi with a friend and they pay now, try paying next time;

Respect different shades of opinions. Remember, what’s 6 to you will appear 9 to someone facing you. Besides, a second opinion is good for an alternative;

Never interrupt people talking. Allow them to pour it out. As they say, hear them all and filter them all;

If you tease someone and don’t seem to enjoy it, stop it and never do it again. It encourages one to do more, and it shows how appreciative you’re;

Say “Thank you” when someone is helping you.

Social Etiquette Examples

Praise publicly, and criticize privately.

There’s rarely a reason to comment on someone’s weight. Just say, “You look fantastic.” If they want to talk about losing weight, they will;

When someone shows you a photo on their phone, don’t swipe left or right. You never know what’s next;

If a colleague tells you they have a doctors’ appointment, don’t ask what it’s for; say, “I hope you’re okay.” Please don’t put them in the uncomfortable position of having to tell you their personal illness. If they want you to know, they’ll do so without your inquisitiveness;

Treat the cleaner with the same respect as the CEO. Nobody is impressed at how rude you can treat someone below you, but people will notice if you treat them with respect;

If a person is speaking directly to you, staring at your phone is rude;

Never advise until you’re asked;

When meeting someone after a long time, unless they want to talk about it, don’t ask them their age and salary;

Mind your business unless anything involves you directly – stay out of it;

Remove your sunglasses if you are talking to anyone in the street. It is a sign of respect. Moreso, eye contact is as important as your speech; and

Never talk about your riches in the midst of the poor. Similarly, don’t talk about your children in the midst of the barren.

After reading a good message, try to say, “Thanks for the message.”

APPRECIATION remains the easiest way of getting what you don’t have.

These are the basic Social Norms and Social Etiquette that everyone needs to follow in society.

Social Media Etiquette Examples

Do Not Trust Everything You View On Social Media Platforms.

When you are happy with someone in private, you don’t need to prove it on social media!!

Try to attribute the authentic person when you use someone’s caption for Facebook, Instagram, and Instagram.

Try to avoid liking your post, photo, and video.

Don’t post or tag photos of fans, customers, or employees without permission.

Don’t tag people or pages that aren’t relevant to your post.

Try to avoid asking others for likes, comments, or shares of your post.

Couple Etiquette or Relationship Rules for Couples

Every Woman Should Read These 30 Rules For Godly Women

1). Never raise your voice for any reason to your husband. It’s a sign of disrespect. (Prov 15v1)

2). Don’t expose your husband’s weaknesses to your family and friends. It will bounce back at you. You are each other’s keeper. (Eph 5v12)

3). Never use attitudes and moods to communicate to your husband; you never know how your husband will interpret them. Defensive women don’t have a happy home. (Prov 15v13)

4). Never compare your husband to other men; you’ve no idea what their life is all about. If you attack his Ego, his Love for you will diminish.

5). Never treat your husband’s friends because you don’t like them; the person who’s supposed to get rid of them is your husband. (Prov 11v22)

6). Never forget that your husband married you, not your maid or anyone else. Do your duties. (Gen 2v24)

7). Never assign anyone to give your husband’s attention; people may do everything else, but your husband is your responsibility. (Eph 5v33)

8). Never blame your husband if he comes back home empty-handed. Rather encourage him. (Deut 3v28)

9). Never be a wasteful wife; your husband’s sweat is too precious to be wasted.

10). Never pretend to be sick to deny your husband sex. It would help if you gave it to him how he wants it. Sex is essential to Men; if you keep denying him, it is a matter of time before another woman takes over your duty. No man can withstand sex starvation for too long(even the anointed ones)

Couple Etiquette

11). Never compare your husband to your one-time sex mate in the bedroom or an Ex-lover. Your home may Never recover from it if you do.

12). Never answer for your husband in public opinion polls; let him handle what is directed to him, although he may answer for you in public opinion polls. (Prov 31v23)

13). Never shout or challenge your husband in front of your children. Wise Women don’t do that. (Eph 4v31)

14). Don’t forget to check the smartness of your husband before he checks out. (Prov 12v4)

15). Never allow your friends to be too close to your husband.

Couple Etiquette

16). Never be in a hurry in the bathroom and on the dressing table. Out there, your husband is always surrounded by women who take their time on their looks. ( 1 Sam25v3)

17). Your parents or family, or friends do not have the final say in your marriage. Please don’t waste your time looking up to them for a final word. You must Leave if you want to Leave. (Luke 21v16)

18). Never base your love on monetary things. Will you still submit to him even if you earn more money than him?

19). Don’t forget that husbands want attention and good listeners, never be too busy for him. Good communication is the bedrock of every happy home. (Gal 6v9)

20). If your idea worked better than his, never compare yourself to him. It is always teamwork. (Gal 6v10)

21). Don’t be too judgemental to your husband. No man wants a Nagging wife. (Eph 4v29)

22). A lazy wife is a careless wife. She doesn’t even know that her body needs a bath. (Prov 24v27)(Prov 20v13)

23). Does your husband like a kind of cooked food? Try to change your cooking. No man jokes with food. (Prov 31v14)

24). Never be too demanding to your husband; enjoy every moment, resource as it comes. (Luke 11v3)

25). Make a glass of water the very first welcome to your husband and everyone entering your home. The sweetness of attitude is true beauty. (Prov 31v11)

Couple Etiquette

26). Don’t associate with women who have a wrong mental attitude about marriage. (Prov 22v14)

27). Your marriage is as valuable to you as the value that you give it. Recklessness is unacceptable. (Heb 13v4)

28). Fruit of the womb is a blessing from the Lord; love your children and teach them well. (Prov 22v6)

29). You are never too old to influence your home. Never reduce your care for your family for any reason. (Prov 31v28)

30). A prayerful wife is a better-equipped wife; always pray for your husband and family(1 Thess 5v17)
Have a lovely day. God help us.