Discriminative, Comprehensive, Empathic, Analytical & Appreciative Listening

Discriminative Listening, Comprehensive Listening, Empathic Listening, Analytical Listening, and Appreciative Listening are the five types of listening. Examples of the Five Types of Listening. Difference between Discriminative Listening and Comprehensive Listening.

Listening Definition

Listening means hearing with interpreting the message intentionally to provide feedback. It is an active process of giving attention to listening to the sounds. The active listening process has six steps: receiving, selecting, interpreting, understanding, evaluating, and responding to the message. Therefore, listening is the ability to receive, select, analyze, understand, assess, and react appropriately to the meaning of another person’s verbal and nonverbal messages. There are many types of listening that people use to communicate with each other.

In communication, people spend enormous time to listen(40 – 70%), speaking (20 – 35%), reading (10 – 20%), writing (5 – 15%). People listen most of the time in communication by using different types of listening strategies. Although there are many types of listening in the communication process, the author will discuss the basic five types of listening: discriminative, comprehensive, empathic, analytical, and appreciative Listening.

Types of Listening

The 5 Types of Listening are Discriminative Listening, Comprehensive Listening, Empathic Listening, Analytical Listening, and Appreciative Listening. 

The 5 Types of Listening
  1.  Discriminative Listening (Differentiate the sounds of the voice)
  2. Comprehensive Listening (Understanding the meaning of message)
  3. Empathic Listening (Understanding the feeling and emotions of the speaker)
  4. Analytical Listening  (Evaluate the meaning of message based on evidence)
  5. Appreciative Listening  (Seeking certain information)
Discriminative and Comprehensive Listening Example and Definition- 5 Types of Listening are Discriminative Listening, Comprehensive Listening, Empathic Listening, Analytical Listening, and Appreciative Listening. 
Figure 1:  5 Types of Listening- Discriminative, Comprehensive, Empathic,  Analytical, &  Appreciative Listening

Discriminative and Comprehensive Listening

1. Discriminative Listening

Discriminative listening means only interpreting the sound of the message rather than understanding the meaning of the message. It is also known as a fundamental type of listening; therefore, people learn discriminative listening from mothers’ wombs. This listening style involves hearing only the sound rather than listening to interpret the meaning of the message. It is the primary type of listening, where different sounds of words are recognized without understanding the meaning.

Example of discriminative listening

For Example, a Canadian person named Jon sits in Kualalumpur international airport in Malaysia. At the same time, two Malaysian people are speaking in the Malay language beside him. Actually, Jon does not understand what they are talking about, but he distinguishes males and females based on the tone of voice. Based on the sound, he also identifies their age. Thus, discriminative listening helps identify age, gender, anger, and happiness based on the sound.

2. Comprehensive Listening

Comprehensive Listening means understanding the meaning of the message rather than interpreting only the sound of the message. It is an active process of seeking the meaning of the message. Actually, It is the initial process of meaning the verbal and nonverbal communication messages, thoughts, ideas, and opinions. Listeners use knowledge and vocabulary to understand the meaning of the speaker’s message. It is not only the meaning of the words but also something more than that.

Listeners encounter obstacles or communication barriers to effective listening. These barriers or obstacles distract the listener from understanding the meaning of the message. They are also known as the communication noise to effective listening. The five types of noises or barriers to effective listening are physical, physiological, psychological, factual, and semantic barriers.

Example of Comprehensive Listening

For example, Ela is listening to her lecturer’s speech giving a lecture in the English language. She understands almost everything about her lecturer’s message. She can understand the meaning of the message. Thus, Ela is practicing the comprehensive type of listening.

What brand name comes to your mind when talking about soft drinks? Most of them answer Coca-Cola and Pepsi based on cognitive skills. It is also an example the comprehensive listening that is more than understanding the meaning of the message.

Difference Between Discriminative & Comprehensive Listening
Discriminative Listening
Comprehensive Listening
Discriminative listening refers to translating sounds into words and sentences. In contrast, comprehensive listening means making meaning out of words and sentences rather than translating only.
It is all about assuming meaning from the tone and body language. On the other hand, it is about using knowledge and vocabulary to understand the speaker’s speech.
Discriminative listening is a process of hearing but not listening. In contrast, comprehensive listening is a style of listening rather than just hearing.
For example, it identifies a boy and a girl based on the sound of the voice. For example, understanding what the boy and girl are talking about is.

3. Empathic Listening

Empathic listening is understood as the feeling and emotions of the speaker; sometimes, the listener can feel what the speaker is feeling. Therefore, this listening needs good close attention, discriminative listening, comprehensive listening, and deep connection with the emotion of the speakers.

Example of Empathic listening

For example, the Audience is thinking about the same things that the speaker is thinking.

4. Analytical Listening

Analytical Listening means focusing on evaluating and forming the appropriate meaning of the message based on evidence. So, It is related to critical thinking and analysis. However, It helps to assess if speakers are right or wrong, logical, or illogical. Analytical listeners understand why they accept or reject another member’s ideas and suggestions.

For example, speakers show a statistical report to persuade audiences, although audiences argue with others for better understanding.

5. Appreciative Listening

Appreciative listening refers to the listening behavior where the listener seeks certain information to appreciate and meet their needs and goals. It is one kind of selective listening. Appreciative listeners are intended to listen to particular information that is important for them.

For example, I listen to a favorite song and poetry to seek the exciting words of the speech. Additionally, I am listening to a political speech to find out motivational words.

Company Rules and Regulations Sample For Employees in Private Organization

Company Rules and Regulations for Employees. How To Write the Rule and Regulation of Company. Private Company Rules and Regulations Sample & Example. Restaurant rules and regulations for employees. Also, Importance of  Rules and Regulation in an Organization.

Company Rules and Regulations

Company rules and regulations mean a set of written policies made by the Company’s higher level of authority and bound to follow all employees and stakeholders. Rules and regulations help the organization protect from legal claims and establish a positive work environment in the workplace. Apart from that, company rules and regulations protect employees from legal claims and secure the job.

Company Code of Conduct

Company Code of Conduct refers to a collection of rules and regulations outlining the employees’ norms and responsibilities in the workplace. The code of conduct governs the employee’s activity and behavior daily. It can bring negative consequences if employees fail to obey the code of conduct in the organization.

The Three Types of Company Rule and Regulation are:

  1. Company Rules and Regulations For Employees
  2. Company Rules and Regulations For Business
  3. Restaurant Rules and Regulations for Employees
Private Company Rules and Regulations Sample

A small or big company applies some rules and regulations for the employees to regulate the business smoothly. The Company Rules and Regulations For Employees always direct the employee and protect from getting fired. The author has presented a sample of company rules and regulations for employees. It is a perfect sample of small business rules and regulations for employees, company policies, rules and regulations, and the company’s rules for employees.

Company Rules and Regulations For Employees

The following rules and regulations shall impose on all employees of the company. Every employee must follow and obey the act, guidance, policy, rules, and regulations set by the company authority and applicable from time to time.

Some rules and regulations include:

Firstly, the company expects formal and acceptable behaviors from employees. The prime motive of the company is to attract customers through the exemplary conduct of the employees.

In addition, employees are liable to protect the company’s belongings for office purposes. They will be responsible for breaking any official equipment such as a computer, printer, scanner, camera, etc. Employees can use the official equipment only for official purposes.

Our company is very aware of maintaining the record; therefore, every employee must protect documents. The office will not accept any argument without proper evidence. Hence, employees should preserve official documents for future demand.

The company will not allow employees to work under the influence of alcoholic beverages during work time. Also, no employee shall drive the company’s vehicles or operate any official equipment under the influence of an alcoholic. Our Company does not inspire you to drink alcohol or prevent you from drinking alcohol; however, our Company suggests you not drink alcohol when you are on duty.

Employees should have meals during break times. The Company will not allow extra time for meals, so employees are requested to utilize the break time wisely. Our company is vigilant to follow the employee’s ethical principles. The company will fire those employees who are indulged in corruption and bribery without notifying them.

A Private Company Rules and Regulations Sample

Company Rules and Regulations

Our Company prefers to create a friendly working environment. The Company will fire those employees who are indulged in sexual harassment. Therefore, every employee has to stay away from any oral and physical harassment.

Employees must inform the supervisor or manager at least one hour before starting work if they could be absent or late on that day. The Company really hate to see the employee come to the office late.

Every employee has to apply for a special vacation at least one month before the expected date of asking for a vacation.

Employees shall follow the dress code according to the directives of the company authorities. The Company prefers to see the employee in formal attire.

Our Company pays attention to effective communication; therefore, every employee should maintain a productive communication process during interaction with clients, stakeholders, or colleagues. The best way to maintain effective communication is to use verbal and nonverbal communication cues during the interaction. The different types of nonverbal communication are facial expression, gesture, vocalics, postures, smiles, and eye contact. The employees should use these cues to generate effective communication inside and outside of the company.

Additionally, our company focuses on reducing the noise in communication, including interpersonal, group, and mediated communication. The communication noise or barriers produce misunderstanding. So, the employees must pay attention to maintain noise-free communication in the organization.

The Company pays attention to the employee’s honesty, punctuality, motivation, innovation, and integration while promoting.

The Company will provide increment every year based on the employee’s personal performance.

Finally, If the employee does not meet the company’s expectations through their conduct and performance, they can take corrective action.

Business Rules and Regulations

Business rules and regulations mean business guidelines and instructions set by the company to govern the company’s inside and outside activities. The company follows the business rules and regulations when dealing with employees and stakeholders, and customers. Companies practice the business rules and regulations when collaborating with other companies as well as competitors. The sample of business rules and regulations are as follow:

Fair Competition

Our company believes in protecting the principles of competition, economic freedom and conducts company activities in line with those principles. Depending on the company strategies, it competes with other companies actively, autonomously as well as fairly. The Company’s collaborators are not hereunder authorized to establish with competitors formal or informal agreements.  All the business units have to follow the guideline provided by the company’s rules and regulations.


Our company always shows it’s keen to make a collaboration for mutual benefits. This company determines to keep a promise with other collaborative companies as per the agreement. We never break the collaboration contract without prior notice.

Relationships with Shareholders

Shareholders need all the relevant information available to guide them. Our company creates the conditions so that shareholders’ widespread and informed participation in decisions within their remit. It promotes equality of information.

Environmental Protection

The company has always considered the environment to be a vitally important asset. So our company is committed to protecting the environment. The company is seeking a balance between economic initiatives and important ecological concerns to consider the rights of future generations.


The company safeguards the principle of confidentiality of any data, information, and details about its activities. We follow the personal data protection act to secure our employees’ and customers’ personal information. Our employees are well trained to keep the information confidential. Additionally, we never disclose confidential agreement papers to a third party.

Protection of Human Resources

Human resources are vitally important for the existence and development of our company. Therefore, we respect human resources and make room for implementing their creativity. Our company always inspires the blooming inner knowledge of the employees and outsiders.

Corruption and Extortion

Our company is committed to implementing the necessary measures to prevent corruption. We are always aware of combating bribery and extortion. The company is very strict about eradicating any corruption from both inbound and outbound perspectives.

Company Rules and Regulations Sample PDF Download Link

Rule and Regulation of a Private Company PDF  Download Link

An Infographic Sample of the Rule and Regulation of the Company

Company Rules and Regulations Rules and Regulations of The Company and Code of Conduct of the Company. How To Write the Rules and Regulations and Code of Conduct of the Company. The Sample of Rules and Regulations of The Company.

Importance of Rules and Regulations

It is prevalent that no organization’s employees are the same, and they are not motivated at the same level. That is why some specific rules and regulations need to be fixated. All the lower, mid, and top-level employees are guided through these rules and regulations of the company or organization. They directed management towards the common goal achievement. The overall work environment might hamper if employees break the rules and regulations of the company. Additionally, work performance may decrease.

In short, the importance of maintaining rules and regulations in working place are as follows:

  • Company rules ensure the employees’ safety and security.
  • They also protect employees and the company from prosecution.
  • Company rules protect employees from verbal, physical and sexual harassment in the workplace.
  • Company rules protect employee’s and consumers’ rights.
  • Rules assist the organization in obeying state and local laws properly.
  • Company rules & regulations reinforce the company’s goodwill and creditability, so the company earns more money.
  • They also help to provide a positive image towards the customers.
  • These organizational rules uphold the company’s image towards its stakeholders.
  • Finally, the company rules build a secure and friendly working environment in the workplace.

Read More,

How to Make Company Profile Sample