Target Audience Segmentation: Geographic, Demographic, Psychographics Factors

Contents: Target Audience Segmentation: Geographic, Demographics, Psychographics, and Audience needs Factors. Audience segmentation theories- Maslow’s hierarchy and V.A.L.S (Values and Lifestyles) typology Model. Strategy of targeting audience and market segmentation for campaign and advertising.

Table of Contents-

  1. Audience Segmentation Definition:
  2. Types of  Targeting Audience and Segmentation Factors:
  3. Conclusion

1. Audience Segmentation Definition:

Target audience segmentation means a dynamic way of separating people into analogous subgroups based on geographic, demographic, and psychographic factors. This segmentation process is used in social and commercial activities for instance, social and political campaigns, advertisement and so on. Audience targeting is the strategy of directing a social and political campaign or advertisement towards one or more portions of the entire audience.

2. Types of Target Audience and Segmentation Factors:

  1. Geographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors
  2. Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors
  3. Psychographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors
  4. Audience Psychological Needs Segmentation Factors

2.1. Geographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors:

  1. Place of residence (rural, urban). For instance, dress up, outlook, and attitudes.
  2. Season and Climate (winter, summer, spring). For example, Ice cream company and blanket marketing company.
  3. Population (Capital city, Metropolitan city, small town). Although they imply almost similar characteristics but have some differences too.


2.2. Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors:

The demographic factor is a set of characteristics of the audience, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, economic, status, and group membership.

1. Age: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Age Factors

Firstly, the most significant demographic target audience segmentation factor is age because of diversity. A generation implies a set of people who are born and grew up around the same time in history. They belong to the same experiences with certain demographic segmentation. For example, Baby boomers are those people who were born between 1946 and 1964. Generation X are those people who were born between 1965 and 1981 followed by the baby boomers. The characteristics, hobby, passion, attire, and vision were not almost similar between baby boomers and generation X. Hence, the market researcher will not use the same strategic plan for both of those generations because of different ages.

2. Gender: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Gender Factors

In addition to that, gender is another important worldwide recognized target audience segmentation. It is very easy to differentiate between men and women based on physical appearance, body gesture, voice, and outlook. Men and women are firmly differentiated for their dress-up, hobby, passion, belongings, and behaviors. Therefore, the researcher choose different strategies of social, political campaigns and marketing amid different gender.

3. Ethnicity: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Ethnicity Factors

Thirdly, ethnicity means the classification of a subgroup of people who have a similar tradition, culture, language, history and so on. As with the issue of ethnicity, it is very important to avoid ethnic stereotypes. People in the same ethnic group share similar attitudes and experiences. But, two people of the same ethnicity may have diverse attitudes, interests, and experiences because of differences in their age, gender, education, income level, and religion.

4. Education: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Education Factors

Fourthly, The education of your targeted audience affects not only what subject you can choose, but how you approach those particular subject. People from analogous ethnicity has a huge difference in behavior, attitudes, and mentality between an educated to an uneducated person.

5. Religion: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Religion Factors

Fifthly, religion is another worldwide recognized demographic audience segmentation factor. For instance, alcoholic beverages are taboo in Islam religion where alcoholic liquor very accepted in Christian religion.

7. Economic Status/Income: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Income Factors

Furthermore, Income is another prime factor affecting audience behaviors and attitudes. If a family earns barely enough to subsist, they will probably be more concern with the basic filling of life than the status needs. Researchers suggested that generally, the higher the income of a family, the more conservative their attitudes.

8. Group Member: Demographic Target Audience Segmentation Group Member Factors

Finally, people join groups in order to spend pastime with group members, meet demands, recreational, and hobby centered activities. A group consists of a limited number o people who share a common independent goal. For example, football team members share a common goal and also represent similar attitudes and behavior. For example as a marketing manager if you want to sell football players accessories among cricket players then it would be a worse decision so far.

2.3. Psychographic Target Audience Segmentation Factors:

Psychographics is a term for characteristics of the audience such as values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. These characteristics help to understand how the audience thinks, feels, and behaves.

  1. Values: Firstly, values express a judgment of what is right or wrong, desirable and undesirable and expressed as words or phrases. For example, most of the people share the values of equality, freedom, honesty, fairness, justice, good health and family. Another example, we respect human life naturally (Value).
  2. Beliefs: Secondly, a belief is something you accept as true and it is stated as a declarative sentence. For instance, students believe that the use of the internet improves the quality of students’ research. Furthermore, You may feel that giving blood is important because an adequate blood supply is necessary to save life (Belief).
  3. Attitudes: Thirdly, an attitude is a statement expressing an individual’s approval or disapproval, like or dislike. Usually, attitudes evolve from our values and beliefs. Many values and beliefs interact to complicate our decision making.  For example, You may feel that giving blood is very important (Attitude).
  4. Behaviors: Finally, Behavior is an individual’s observable action. For example, You may feel that giving blood is important (Attitude) because an adequate blood supply is necessary to save life (Belief) and because you respect human life(Value). Your behavior, as you participate in the blood drive and donate blood, is a logical and observable extension of your outlook.

2.4. Audience Psychological Needs Segmentation

  1. Maslow’s hierarchy of Psychological Needs theory.
  2. V.A.L.S (Values and Lifestyles) Typology Model.

2.4.(1). Maslow’s hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Maslow (1943) initially stated that individuals must satisfy lower level deficit needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. However, he later clarified that satisfaction of a needs is not an “all-or-none” phenomenon, admitting that his earlier statements may have given for example “the false impression that a need must be satisfied 100 percent before the next need emerges”. According to Maslow’s theory, human needs can be divided into five categories. These are physical needs, safety needs, belongings, and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs.

1. Physical needs: Physical needs are basic human requirements for livelihood for example water, food, rest, warmth, and so on.

2. Safety needs: Requirements for security and protection purposes for instance personal security, health security, employment, property, and so on.

3. Belongings and love needs: Relationship with people around us for giving and receiving affection, for example intimacy, friendship, family, and friends.

4. Esteem needs: Refers to self-confidence, self-esteem, self-respect of humans, for example, everyone has certain talent so we need to pat on the back from time to time for exploring their intellectuality.

5. Self-actualization needs: Refers to self-fulfillment desiring to become the most that one can be, for example, we need to our goals in order to feel that we have fulfilled our destiny or reached our potential.


Target Audience Segmentation:Maslow's hierarchy of Needs Theory or Model. Psychological Needs Theory
Maslow’s hierarchy of Psychological Needs Theory

2.4.(2). V.A.L.S (Values and Lifestyles) Typology Model:

A model that segments eight categories of people based on their lifestyles, psychological characteristics, and consumption patterns. In 1978, the research institute of Stanford established Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to develop a V.A.L.S (Values and Lifestyles) typology to categorize American consumers. In 1989, they developed a quietly modified system that considers individuals’ lifestyles, psychological characteristics and consumption patterns. The V.A.L.S model consists of EIGHT categories of people.

  • V.A.L.S Typology Framework Model: Eight Segments

1. Survivors/ Strugglers:

Firstly, Survivors or strugglers are financially needy person literally they are poor, low-skilled, ill-educated, without strong social bonds, elderly and passive in contrast to innovators. They avoid risk because of feeling powerless. It seems like their prime motive to meet safety and security demands.

2. Makers:

Makers are practical people who have strong traditional values, constructive skills, self-sufficiency, and have enough income. They live within a traditional context of family, practical work and also physical recreation. Makers are suspicious of new ideas, politically conservative and respectful of government authority but resentful of government intrusion on individual rights.

3. Strivers:

Strivers are attracted to others who exhibit quality that they don’t have but that they admire. They inquire about motivation and self-definition. They expect to be succeeded by wealth and often feel that life has dealt them a bad hand because of the less money they have. Strivers feel easily bored because they are very impulsive.

4. Believers:

Believers belong very conservative and deeply moral mentality similar to makers. They seem like makers because of having conservative and traditional values. They follow established routines, organized by the family, social and religious organization. Their income, education, and energy are enough to meet demands.

Target Audience Segmentation: V.A.L.S Typology Framework Model:
V.A.L.S Typology Framework Model
5. Experiencers:

Experiencers are a very young, energetic, enthusiastic, impulsive and rebellious person. They seek a variety of excitements but are politically uncommitted, and highly ambivalent about what they believe. They are associated with outdoor activities, sports, recreational, and social activities.

6. Achievers:

Achievers are work-oriented and successful people who like to feel in control of their lives. They are deeply committed to work and keep promise to family, society, and career. Achievers respect authority because they are committed to keeping the promise but politically conservative.

7. Thinkers/ Fulfilled:

Thinkers are enough adult and mature, well-educated, professional people with satisfying income. They stay current with international and national events and are often tended to increase knowledge. They often calm and self-assured because they depend on their decisions.

8. Innovators/ Actualizers:

Finally, Innovators are highly successful people with self-esteem and huge resources in contrast to strugglers. Innovators are supervised by both their principle and by the dreams that around them. They are highly interested to be a leader in government and business because of having huge power and social consciousness.

3. Conclusion:

Target audience segmentation had become a very popular strategy for political and business purposes. Now, we are living in the global village as a global citizen for the easy accessibility of social media. Now, politicians and business persons are paying more attention to audience segmentation for political campaigns and marketing publicity on social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Youtube, and so on.

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Tuckman’s Model Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory

Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory. Tuckman’s Theory: Five Stages of Group and Team Development theory- Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model. Theory of Tuckman: Team and Group Development Stages. Bruce Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development. Tuckman’s Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Teamwork Model: 5 Stages of Team and Group Development.

Table of Content:

  1. Tuckman’s Model Five Stages.
  2. Tuckman’s Group Development Stages.
  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model.

1. Tuckman’s Model

Bruce Tuckman introduced his group and team development model in 1965. In the 1970s, he added the fifth stage adjourning to his model. According to Tuckman’s model, the five stages are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. A perfect theory to describe how to group and team members adjust and adapt in a group.

Tuckman’s Model
Tuckman’s Model of the five stages of group development
2. Group Development Stages of Tuckman’s Model

Although, in 1965 Tuckman proposed four-stage of group development model but later he added the fifth stage called adjourning. This model implies not only group and team development theory but also group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group and team development model consists of five important stages that facilitate group formation and development, for example, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

1. Tuckman’s Model-Forming Stage:(Orientation)
  • Members carefully explore both personal and group goals.
  • Tentatively feel uncomfortable about working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues try to understand and test personal relationships.
  • Orient itself to itself.
Primary Tension of the forming stage
  • Social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting-acquainted stage in a new group
  • To be overly polite with one another
  • Members don’t interrupt one another
  • Often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions
  • Talk less and provide little in the way of content

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Firstly, Be positive and energetic.
  • In addition, Smile and Laugh
  • Further, Nod in agreement and Exhibit enthusiasm
  • Furthermore, Be patient and open-minded knowing that certainly, the primary tension will decrease with time.
  • Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting so you can help the group focus on its task.
2. Tuckman’s Model-Storming Stage: (Power Struggle)
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
  • Group members become argumentative also emotional.
  • The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership.
  • Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition and conflict
  • Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing with one another.
Secondary Tension
  • Frustrations and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group.
  • Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence.
  • High level of energy and agitation
  • The group is noisier, more dynamic, and physically active
  • Members speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking at the same time.
  • Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats
  • Everyone is alert and listening intently.
How to Solve the Tension?
  • Making jokes.
  • Work outside the group setting to discuss the personal difficulties and anxieties of group members.
3. Tuckman’s Model-Norming Stage: (Cooperation and Integration)
  • Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and task-oriented.
  • Start developing “rules of engagement”.
  • Feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open.
  • Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge.
4. Tuckman’s Model-Performing Stage: (Synergy)
  • Members are fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
  • Adjust and adapt, Members start solving critical problems.
  • Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high.
  • Disagreements do occur, but members usually resolved intelligently and amicably.
  • “Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; rather, the members are jovial, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.
5. Tuckman’s Model-Adjourning Stage: (Closure)
  • Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband.
  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
  • They are happy for what they have achieved but feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves.
Advantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model
  • Firstly, this model clarifies the specific stages of any group and team for instance forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  • In addition to that, learning more about primary tension and secondary tension also how to solve it.
  • Finally, Tuckman’s group developing model shows the perfect way of solving group uncertainty issues.
Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model
  • Tuckman’s Theory consists of five important stages that really difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions at every stage to maintain effective communication and good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no specific solution that can solve all conflicts in group communication although suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts.


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Types of Nonverbal Communication:Nonverbal Cues,Definition,& Example.

Types of Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal Cues, Definition, and Example of nonverbal communication, Component of Nonverbal Communication.

♠ Table of contents:

  1. Definition of Nonverbal communication.

  2. Types of Nonverbal Communication.

  3. Conclusion.

1. Definition of Nonverbal communication:

Nonverbal communication indicates message components other than words that generate meaning. Effective group members rely on both verbal and nonverbal communication both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups. Nonverbal communication is also similar to nonverbal cues that represent meaning during communication. Both verbal and nonverbal communication implies the essential components of effective communication. As per scholar estimation, there are more than 0.70 million forms of nonverbal communication or nonverbal cues. It is probably impossible to discuss all forms of nonverbal communication, therefore, we are going to discuss seven types of nonverbal communication here.

2. Types of Nonverbal Communication:

  1. Personal / Physical Appearance.
  2. Vocalics Tone, Volume, Rate, also Pitch.
  3. Kinesics –Body Gesture, Eye Contact
  4. Proxemics- Space
  5. Haptics –Touch
  6. Chronemics How much time talk also elapse.
  7. Artifacts- Dress up

2.1. Physical/Personal Appearance:

  • First of all, “First impression is the best information”
  • Also, People draw conclusions about your education, success, moral character, social position, and also trustworthiness.
  • Another, Clothes you wear send messages to other group members. Casual attire is more acceptable in informal groups because of belief of trustworthiness.
  • Furthermore, Professional appearance is expected in a business setting and important group presentations
  • Finally, Research shows that good-looking people tend to make more money and get promoted more often than those with average looks.

2. 2. Vocalics:

  • How we use our voices while we talk
  • Inflection (upward as in asking a question, downward as in making a statement)
  • Tone (monotone, excited)
  • Volume and Rate (fast, slow)
  • Pitch (deep, nasal)
  • Accent (southern, eastern seaboard)
  • Number of vocal interrupters (aaaahhhh, well, also uh)
  • Quality of voice indicators (clear, scared)
  • Subtle cues (irony and sarcasm).


  • The study of body movement and physical expression.
  • Facial expressions and other body movements such as gestures, posture and eye behavior
  • Eyes contact seems like an important cue in group interaction.
  • Facial expressions demonstrate approval or disapproval of the topic being discussed or the person making the presentation.
  • For instant: Point to one’s watch to let the chairperson know that they will soon run out of time; a thumbs-up gesture
  • Research: lean forward, maintain eye contact, gesture often, smile, and also assume a relaxed posture = group leaders and be viewed as attractive by other group members


Any type of communication involving touch. Haptic communication occurred when people or animals interact with the sense of touch. The most noteworthy instant of haptic nonverbal communication mentioned below:

  • Holding hands.
  • Hugging.
  • Tickling.
  • Kissing.

2.5. Proxemics:

  • The use of space and seating arrangements affects the interaction.
  • Dominant group members position more centrally in the group’s space.
  • Hence, Task-oriented leaders VS socially-oriented leaders maintain space ratio or territoriality when the exhibit group meeting.

♦Interpersonal Space:

  1. Intimate distance ( 0-18 inches (-45.72 cm) = close friends, some family members, and lovers—private zone
  2. Personal distance (18 in. – 4 ft (1.22 m), an arm’s length away) = friends and acquaintances
  3. Social distance ( 4 – 8 ft (2.44 m) = new acquaintances and strangers
  4. Public distance ( >8 ft (2.44 m) = making a presentation to a larger audience.

Example of Proxemics nonverbal communication


2.6. Chronemics:

  • How much time talk and elapse when interacting with others.
  • How many members’ talk, how much time they let elapse before responding to other group members contributes to perceptions of leadership and influence.
  • Showing up at a meeting on time or being habitually late nonverbally communicates information to other group members.
  • Monochromic people Vs. Polychromic people.

2.7. Artifacts:

  • The use of clothing, jewelry also other accessories.

3. Conclusion:

First of all, According to our table of contents, we have discussed the definition of nonverbal communication. In addition to that, we have sorted out and already introduced seven types of nonverbal communication or nonverbal cues. Furthermore, we have placed some examples of nonverbal communication especially characteristic of vocalics and haptics. Finally, mentioned the list of interpersonal space.

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