Research Design- Different Types of Research Design

Research Design- Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method

Research Design

Nobody can deny the importance of sophisticated research. Research is the process of discovering new knowledge and ideas. Recently, research has become more advanced by skilled and trained researchers. At the present time, researchers conduct the mixed method of research by applying both non-experimental and experimental designs. Usually, there are two types of research design such as experimental and nonexperimental research. Experimental research is divided into many designs including Descriptive, Historical, Correlation, Qualitative and et cetera. On the other hand, experimental research is divided into two methods for example True experimental and Quasi-experimental research methods.

Difference Between Nonexperimental and Experimental Research

Nonexperimental Research Experimental Research
Firstly, Nonexperimental research determines the natural relationship between variables. In contrast, experimental research investigates the cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Additionally, the researcher does not control the setting of the study. On the other hand, researchers control the setting of the study.
In this research design, researchers do not introduce external variables. In this research design, researchers introduce external variables.
Researchers do not manipulate the independent variable. Nonetheless, the researcher manipulates the independent variable methodically.
For example,  Investigating the perception of the children in the  COVID-19 pandemic. For example, Testing the effect of the COVID-19 vaccine among children.
Usually, Nonexperimental research is both quantitative and qualitative.  Whereas, experimental research is quantitative.
Nonexperimental research is intended to explain the characteristics of the subject including the current situation, comparative position, and prediction. However, experimental research is used to solve the problems, create advanced innovation, and especially to progress in medical science.
Types of Research Design
Research Design Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method
Figure 1: Types of Research Design

1. Nonexperimental Research

Nonexperimental research explains the researcher’s observation describing the natural condition of the study phenomenon. The nonexperimental research determines the normal relationship between variables but not intended to identify the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It only describes relationships between variables without testing causal relationships among them. This research is not involved in the manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, it does not introduce any external variable, and variables are not manipulated. Researchers do not control the setting of the research.

For example, a researcher wants to investigate the relationship between the awareness of fake news sharing and Brand the trust of Facebook among youth. Here, the researcher wants to determine the relationship between awareness of fake news sharing and Brand trust of Facebook. Actually, it does not indicate the causal relationship between variables.

The nonexperimental research includes the following methods:

  1. Descriptive Research Design
  2. Survey Research
  3. Historical Research
  4. Correlational Research
  5. Qualitative Research
  6. Developmental Research
  7. Observational Research
  8. Secondary Data Analysis Research
  9. Epidemiology Research
  10. Ethnographies Research
Descriptive Research Design

The descriptive research method describes the characteristics and features of existing phenomena at the time of research. It also provides a broad picture of the phenomena to convey a better understanding through the study. The time frame of the study is present. Descriptive research is the foundation of all other types of researches. It does not involve control variables or treatments. However, the correlation between variables is characterized.  There are many types of descriptive research for example Survey research, Correlation research, Developmental research (Longitudinal approach, & Cross-section approach), Normative research, Naturalistic observational research, Comparative research, Data analysis research, Action research, etc. 

For example, a researcher wants to survey the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Based on the topic, the researcher should apply the descriptive research method to explain the feature of the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Another example of the descriptive research design is ” the perception of Malaysia people on the use of social media to spread fake political news”.

Survey Research Design

Survey research examines the relationships and frequency between sociological and psychological variables. It assesses the psychological factors such as beliefs, values, attitudes, prejudices, discriminations, opinions, and preferences.

Examples of the survey research are evaluating the following:

  • Student’s attitudes toward the use of smartphones in the classroom.
  • Teacher’s opinion in conducting online classes
  • The perception of teenagers in the advantage of social media platforms
How to Conduct Survey Research

Any survey research begins with a general (flow) plan that shows the entire process of survey research.

  1. Clarify the purpose of the study
  2. Defining the sample plan
  3. Define a method also part of the interviewing session 

Defining method stage of survey research will determine the answer to the following questions

  • How will the questions be structured?
  • What types of questions will be asked?
  • How will the sample be defined?
  • How will the data be collected?

4. Finally, Coding and scoring

Tools of the Survey Research- Interview

The interview is the basic tool of the survey research design. However, a Face sheet is an essential element to conduct an interview session properly. Face sheet information represents neutral information about the respondent of the study such as age, gender, living place, educational level, income, etc.

Pros of  the Face sheet—Neutral background information
  • First, it helps establish rapport with the respondents or interviewees. For example, where did you study? How many siblings do you have?
  • Secondly, it establishes data frames or characteristics.
Two Types of Questions For Interviewees. 
  • Structured questions in which respondents can give explicit answers.
  • On the other hand, open-ended questions permit the interviewee to give elaborative answers.

Advantages of the Interview 

  • Flexibility in collecting data
  • The interviewer can set the tone and agenda

Disadvantages of the Interview

  • Expensive
  • Lack of anonymity, so responses might not be honest
  • Lack standardized questions
 Process of developing an Interview
  • Firstly, describe the goals of the project.
  • Secondly, select an appropriate sample.
  • thirdly, develop interview questions.
  • Fourthly, train interviewers.
  • Finally, Conduct interviews.
The Ten Essential Commandments of Interviewing 
  1. Do not begin the interview cold.
  2. Remember that you are there to get information.
  3. Be direct.
  4. Dress appropriately.
  5. Find a quiet place to conduct the interview.
  6. If your interviewee doesn’t give a satisfactory answer the first time, don’t give up.
  7. Use a tape recorder.
  8. Make the interviewee a part of the interview.
  9. To be a good interviewer practice more.
  10. Thank interviewees for their help, and ask for questions. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research

Advantages of Survey Research design

  • Permits researcher to get a broad picture (good generalization)
  • Efficient data collection
  • Can yield very accurate results

Disadvantages of Survey Research design

  • Bias (Interviewer bias and Interviewee bias)
  • Non-response

Correlational Research Design

Correlation research design describes the relationship between two variables. It identifies the associated factors of the phenomenon that are co-related to one another. It also discovers how connected these factors to each other, and what is the strength of the relationship between variables. The strength of the relationship is measured by a numerical index called the correlation coefficient. The time frame of this research might be present or past and future. Actually, it shows the past or present relationship between variables and offers predictions for the future. It implies that variables share something in common.

For example, a researcher wants to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Based on the topic, the researcher should use a Correlation research design to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Another example of the correlation research design is “Influence of Teenager’s Awareness of Fake News Spreading and Perceived Message Trustworthiness towards The Brand Trust of Twitter”.

Correlation Coefficient

The correlation coefficient measures the degree of linear relatedness between two variables. There are two types of correlation for example positive correlation and negative correlation. The positive correlation is good, yet the negative correlation is not bad. basically, both positive and negative correlation indicates the direction of relationship nothing else.

The strength of the relationship is indicated by the absolute value of the coefficient. Variance increases when a stronger relationship between variables existed. Varies between –1.00 and +1.00.

Example of the Two Types of Correlation
If X… And Y… So, correlation is Example
Increases in value Increases in value Positive or direct For example, height gets (X), more one weighs (Y).
Decreases in value Decreases in value Positive or direct For example, the less time study makes (X), the lower result of the exam (Y).
Increases in value Decreases in value Negative or inverse For example, the more time on Facebook (X), the lower result of the exam (Y).
Decreases in value

 

Increases in value

 

Negative or inverse

 

For example, the less time one Facebook (X), the good result on the test (Y).
Historical Research

Historical research investigates the past event and establishes the present concept of the event. It also describes the past fact of the event that affects the current situation. The objective of the historical research method is to collect and evidence from the past event to develop a fact that defends or refutes the hypothesis. Historical research is another term of historiography.

For example, researchers desire to identify the historical progress of women’s education in Malaysia. So, the historical research design will be the option to conduct the research.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research design examines human behavior in the social, political, and cultural context in which it occurs. The qualitative research method is part of nonexperimental research therefore it never test the cause and effect relationship between variables. The researcher applies different paradigms and tools to conduct qualitative research. The most important tools of qualitative research are interviews, ethnography, case studies, and ethnography. It provides nonnumerical qualitative data that is also known as primary data. In qualitative research, the researchers focus on the content of informants rather than the frequency of particular content.  Here, the informant is the interviewees or people who been interviewed by the researcher. The time frame is present and past.

For example, a researcher desires to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children. So, he or she will implement the qualitative research method to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children in the country.

Experimental Research
  • Tries to discover causal relationships
  • Two types:
  1. True experimental research
  2. Quasi-experimental research

True experimental Research

  • For example, Comparing two different techniques

Quasi-Experimental Research

  • For example, Participants are preassigned to groups
  • Useful when the researcher cannot manipulate variables.
When to use what research design

Research design cheat sheet

The research design cheat sheet attached below will

Research design
Figure 2: Research Design Cheat Sheet
Basis Research Design and Applied Research Design

Basic research has no instant execution to the world. Researchers apply this research design to expand the knowledge of certain phenomena. Pure research is another name of basic research. For example, a study looking at how the online class during the COVID-19 pandemic increases depression among students. Researchers are intended to expand knowledge by this study or research; it has no instant application to society.

Applied research has immediate execution or application to the world. Researchers use this research to solve the problem. Therefore, it has an immediate practical use to resolve the problem or answer the question. For example, the research to invent the COVID-19 vaccine is an instance of applied research; because it has immediate application to the world.

 

Models of Communication: The Most Effective Communication Models

Models of Communication: The Most Effective Communication Models. Also, What is the communication model?. Additionally, 3 Types of communication models.

What is the Communication Model?

The communication model refers to the conceptual framework or theory that explains the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication within human beings. The communication model tries to answer the 5WH questions; for example, what is it actually? who is involved in this process? when does it happen? where does it take place? and finally, why does it occur?  Additionally, communication models explain the element of the basic communication process including sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, noise, feedback, and context. The model of communication also explains the factors that bar effective communication. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

3 Types of communication model

The there types of communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A-List of the best communication models and establish year has been outlined below for obtaining more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also attached to the communication model’s table.

Linear Models of Communication
 Models of Communication Year Types  of Communication Models
Aristotle’s Model of Communication 300BC Linear Model of Communication
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Lasswell’s Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication 1960 Linear Model of Communication
Two-Step Flow of Communication Theory 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Interactive Models of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
Transactional Models of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
The Most Effective Models of Communication

The author is going to outline as well as discuss the most effective models of communication in the field of communication.

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear model of communication that mainly focus on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is the first model of communication. Aristotle’s model of communication consists of five elements of the basic communication process for example Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience, and Effect. Aristotle’s model of communication focuses on the speaker. The speaker plays the most important role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. The speech is the message of the speaker that might vary on the occasion.

Models of communication- Aristotle's model of communication
Figure 1: Aristotle’s Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) is delivering a speech to persuade the voter to vote for him in the election. The political leader is the most important person here who is delivering the message or information. The speech is the message that the leader delivers to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. A political leader might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters whether they are motivated to cast vote for him or not.

Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model of communication was introduced by professor Harold Lasswell in 1948. It is a Linear Model of Communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s explains the process of communication by answering the following questions;

  • Who?
  • Says What?
  • In Which Channel?
  • To Whom?
  • With What Effect?
Models of Communication- Lasswel's model of linear communication model
Figure 2: Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s model of communication and the example, firstly, the answer to the question “Who” is the news presenter of BBC News Channel. Secondly, Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the question of “In which Channel” indicates the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people who are watching this channel. Finally, With what effect indicates the awareness.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars Shannon and Weaver in 1948. Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models; although, it is a linear type of communication model.  At first, this model was designed to articulate the process of technical communication. Later, it discusses the process of effective communication. Shannon-Weaver model represents the basic six elements of communication including information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback therefore it is a linear model of communication. Later, this model was been criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is a vital element to create the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

What is the established date of the Shannon-Weaver model?

The Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948. Although there is conversely regarding the establishment year of the Shannon-Weaver model, in 1948, it was introduced by Claude Shannon through his article name Mathematical Theory of Communication. In 1949, Warren Weaver reprints the previous article adding more information. So, it is safe to say that the Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948.

Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

In 1960, David Berlo designed the SMCR model of communication with four elements of communication including Sender, Message, Channel, Receiver. SMCR refers to the Source-Message-Channel-Receiver which are essential elements of any communication process. Thus, this model of communication is known as Berlo’s SMCR model. Actually, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). He described some factors that make the communication process more effective.

Models of communication-Berlo's model of commmuncation
Figure 4: Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

SMRC represents the Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver that are also part of 9 essential communication elements of the basic communication process.

S-Source is the sender of the message who initiates the communication process by sending information. Berlo described some factors that related to the source for example Communication Skills, Attitude Knowledge, Social Systems, Culture

M-Message is the main substance that is conveyed by the source or sender of the communication to the receiver. Berlo proposed another five factors that related to the message for example Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code. 

C-Channel refers to the medium that carries the message from source or sender to receiver. Berlo highlighted the five senses as the factor of communication that connected to the channel for instance Hearing, Seeing, Touching, Smelling, and Tasting. There are many types of channels in communication such as telephone, TV, radio, newspapers, etc. These five factors are part of the human communication process.

Finally, R-Receiver is the person who receives the message or information in the communication process. Berlo added the same factors of the element of sources such as skills, Attitudes, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture.