Research Proposal Example/ Sample: How to Write a Research Proposal

Research Proposal Example or Sample. How to Write a Research Proposal.Finally, Research Proposal Example.

Research Proposal Example

The research proposal is a key part of any postgraduate application therefore every student needs to know how to write a research proposal properly. A perfect research proposal must have eight sections including title, introduction, problem statement, research objective, the significance of the study, literature review, research methodology, and reference with the latest edition.

How to Write a Research Proposal
1. Title

The title is the main part of any research proposal, so the author should make sure that it includes the keywords and relate to the field of study. It should not be too long and too short. A good research title always indicates the approach of the author what is he or she intended to do. Finally, the title should indicate the research objectives and questions.

2. Introduction

The Introduction for a dissertation usually presents the significance of the topic understudied (in this case the role of Facebook for business marketing and customer relationship building). A good Introduction is can walk the readers through the situation.

The Introduction can be started with the premise, meaning that introducing the background of information that is simply a reminder of what readers already know and therefore establishes a common ground of understanding between the writer and the readers.

3. Problem Statement

Apart from describing the basic information which people already know about, the next part that the researcher can include in this chapter is delineating the problem that exists in the field.

A researcher starts a research project because he or she deems that there is a problem or there are problems that need to be addressed by conducting research using an appropriate research design or method.

A problem statement, by its definition, is a concise description of an issue currently existing which needs to be addressed. In Problem Statement, a researcher will address the gap of knowledge based on an extensive literature search.

The researcher will identify if the topic has not been covered by previous research. Moreover, Problem Statement should include a discussion of how the researcher came to identify this (a phenomenon, an issue, or a subject topic) as significant and the context in which this problem emerged (for example, from past studies).

4. Research Objective

Research objectives should always fulfill SMART model principles, meaning Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timed.

It always starts with verb-to-be such as “To examine…, To explore…,”, etc.

Importantly, each RO must indicate what the researcher wants to find out about IV(s) and DV.

For example: To determine the level of digital skill competencies including specific technological competency, cognitive competency, and personal competency. = Measuring IVs.

For example: To determine whether religiosity affects the public’s recognition of smoking as a problem and their level of perceived personal involvement in the smoking issue. = Measuring IV and DVs.

Convert RO to question form then it becomes Research Question

5. Significance of the Study

This section explains how the proposed study is significant to Theory, Method, and Practical.

6. Literature Review

We believe you have learned Literature Review in the previous class

  • So, this section should cover the conceptualization, operationalization, and theoretical framework of a study.
  • You should review past studies’ findings, methods, and discussions.
  • While you are explaining the theory, make sure you delineate the variables underlying the theory.
  • For example: if you are examining User and Gratification Theory (U&G) (Katz, 1974), make sure you first describe its history: who founded the theory. You should also describe what is the theoretical hypotheses. What are the variables are in the theory? Any model (diagram) to present?
7. Research Methodology

This section should cover the following:

  1. Firstly, the Sampling method (probability or non-probability), sample selection technique (using a formula?), what is the sample size?
  2. Additionally, the research instrument (adopt and adapt), refer to previous research and modify the items to the need of the study
  3. Measurement (are you using a 5-point scale, 7-point, or 10-point?)
  4. Data analysis (how are you going to analyze the data? Descriptively? Inferentially? Using SPSS?)
8. References

Follow APA (7th) edition

Research Methodology: Measurement Scale and Level, Reliability & Validity

Research Methodology Measurement Scale & Level

Level of measurement

A deadly magnitude 7.3 earthquake had struck Nepal in April 2015. GST is charged and levied on any supply of goods and services made in Malaysia at 6%.

  1. Nominal
  2. Ordinal
  3. Interval
  4. Ratio

Scales of measurement

  1. Nominal scale
  • Categorical variable
  • Represented by number
  • E.g., gender, employment status, religion, etc.
  1. Ordinal scale
  • Rank variable (highest to lowest…)
  • Distances among scales are different
  1. Interval scale
  • The difference between the two values is meaningful
  • Distances among scales are identical
  1. Ratio scale
  • True zero
  • Differences between values can be compared meaningfully

Scaling

Needs to be:

  • Unidimensional
  • Linear (equal intervals)
  • Reliable
  • Valid
  • Research Methodology Measurement Scale

Research Methodology Measurement Scale

Simple Rating Scale
  • (1) to rate list of items or (2) to rate how much respondents
  • like smtg.
  • 1-3? 1-5? 1-7? 1-10? 1-100?
  • For greater differentiation
  • The higher the number, the more you agree/like
Thurstone Scale
  • Psychologist Robert Thurstone
  • Equal-appearing intervals
  • 11-category scale
  • Neutral statement
Likert Scale (summated rating approach)
  • Psychologist Rensis Likert
  • Strongly agree, agree neutral, disagree and
  • strongly disagree
Semantic Differential Scale

How would you rate your mother on these scales?

Validity

  • “the degree to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure”
  • Fundamental consideration

Reliability

  • “the degree to which a test consistently measures whatever it is measuring”
  • Fundamental consideration.
Types of validity
  • Face validity
  • Content validity
  • Criterion-related validity (1. concurrent validity & 2. predictive validity)
  • Construct validity
  • Discriminate validity
  • Consequential validity
  1. Face validity
  • Subjective assessment / a subjective judgment
  • For instance, you might look at a measure of math ability, read through the questions, and decide that YES, it seems like this is a good measure of math ability (i.e., the label “math ability” seems appropriate for this measure)
  • Weak validity BUT IT DOES NOT MEAN IT IS WRONG

2. Content validity

  • To which a test measures an intended content.
  • TWO types: item validity – whether the test items are relevant to the measurement of the intended content area & sampling validity
  • –how well the test samples the total content area being tested.
  • E.g., being a good science teacher
  • A test score cannot accurately reflect a student’s achievement if it does not measure what the student was taught and is supposed to have learned.
  • Determined by expert judgment (content validation)

3. Criterion-related validity

  1. Concurrent validity

“the degree to which scores on one test are related to scores on a similar, preexisting test administered in the same time frame or to some other valid measure available at the same time.”

  1. Predictive validity
  • “the degree to which a test can predict how well an individual will do in a future situation.”
  • For example, the Graduate Record Examination (GRE), International English Language Test System (IELTS), etc.

4. Construct validity

  • “What is this test really measuring?”
  • Constructs underline the variables that researchers measure. You cannot see a construct; you can only observe its effect.
  • convergent validity – Correlation test (Pearson)
  • discriminate validity -Factor analysisConvergent Validity

Reliability

Dependability or trustworthiness

  • “the degree to which a test CONSISTENTLY measures whatever it is measuring”
  • Is expressed numerically – reliability coefficient (correlation) *1.00
  • Internal consistency reliability
  • Cronbach’s alpha 70% and above
  • Test-retest, Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR 20), split-half reliability