Disaster Management Regulatory Framework in Bangladesh

 Disaster Management Regulatory Framework and Committee in Bangladesh and also Recommendation to Make Committee More Functional. 

Natural Disaster in Bangladesh

Natural disasters are a very common phenomenon in Bangladesh due to located in vulnerable areas. Every year huge properties are getting damaged, and many people are killed. The most common disasters in Bangladesh are riverbank erosionfloods, earthquake, drought, cyclonesstorm surgesalinity intrusion, fire and tsunami. However, cyclones and floods especially caused extensive damages in Bangladesh. Based on the recommendations by the Ministry of disaster management in Bangladesh, nongovernment agencies and researchers, some disaster management regulatory framework have been formulated to mitigate the disaster risk. The list of the main disaster management regulatory framework in Bangladesh has been outlined in this article. Apart from that, the local and national level of disaster management committee presented. Finally, I have proposed some strategies for the ward and union committee that will definitely assist in mitigating the hazards.

Disaster management regulatory framework in Bangladesh

The disaster management regulatory framework provides a relevant policy, legislative, and the best way of practising to reduce actual damage from hazards (Wisner, Gaillard, & Kelman, 2012). Many researchers have proposed multiple frameworks to mitigate the hazards in Bangladesh. Nowadays, communication plays an important role in hazard mitigation. Therefore scholars emphasize social media-based communication to accelerate the recovery process (Kobirruzzaman, 2021). Bangladesh is a very vulnerable country to natural disasters globally. In order to mitigate the damage of the disaster in Bangladesh, many regulatory frameworks have postulated based on different viewpoints. The author is intended to discuss the regulatory framework of disaster management in Bangladesh, the disaster management committee at the local and national level in Bangladesh and finally, suggesting some recommendations for union and ward disaster management committee to mitigate the risks.

List of the regulatory framework in Bangladesh.

According to Standing Orders on Disaster 2019, the regulatory framework includes the following Act, policy and plans.

  •  Disaster Management Act.
  • National Disaster Management Policy.
  • Disaster Management Plans.
  • Standing Orders on Disaster.

According to Standing Orders on Disaster 2019, the Disaster Management committee at the local and national level plans and take necessary measures to actualize the plan effectively. The Ministry, department and agencies set the regulatory framework to instruct the local and national level committee. The duty of the national and local committee is assigned through Standing Orders on Disaster 2019. Standing Orders on Disaster 2019 is a complete document that indicates the role of each level of committee before, during and after a disaster.

Disaster Risk Management Committee at the National Level
  • National Disaster Management Council (NDMC)
  • Inter-Ministerial Disaster Management Coordination Committee(IMDMCC)
  • National Disaster Management Advisory Committee.
  • Earthquake Preparedness and Awareness Building Committee.
  • Chemical Disaster Management and Awareness Raising Committee.
  • National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction (NPDRR).
  • National Disaster Response Coordination Group (NDRCG).
  • Cyclone Preparedness Programme Policy Committee.
  • Cyclone Preparedness Programme Implementation Board.
  • Disaster Warning Message and Determining Strategy.
  • Focal Point Operational Coordination Group (FPOCG) Committee.
  • NGO Coordination Committee for Disaster Management.
  • Disaster Management Training and Mass Awareness Taskforce.
  • Fire Risk Management Committee.
  • Committee for Disaster Damage and Needs Assessment.
  • Forecast-Based Financing/Action (FbF/A) Taskforce and so more.
Disaster Management Committees at the Local Level
  • City Corporation Disaster Management Committee.
  • City Corporation Ward Disaster Management Committee.
  • Divisional Disaster Management Committee.
  • District Disaster Management Committee.
  • Upazila Disaster Management Committee.
  • Municipal Disaster Management Committee.
  • Municipal Ward Disaster Management Committee.
  • Union Disaster Management Committee.
  • Union Parishad Ward Disaster Management Committee.
  • Local Level Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • City Corporation Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • City Corporation Ward Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • District Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • Upazila Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • Pourashava (Municipal) Disaster Response Coordination Group.
  • Pourashava Ward Disaster Response Coordination Group and so more.
Make Disaster Management Committees More Functional

Every Union and ward will have to prepare a ‘Union Disaster Risk Management Plan (UDMP). The Union Disaster Management Committee will formulate the policy, including Risk Reduction Action Plan and Contingency Plans. Finally, the plan will be developed and implemented by the people of all spheres of society.

The duties and responsibilities of the ward and union committee have to be distributed before the natural disasters. The most common duties are safe evacuation, first aid treatment, shelter management and distribution of humanitarian aid, dead body management and removal of debris, safety and security, and so more.

Five Recommendations to Make Committee More Functional

Based on the previous study, the author provides some suggestions to make the Union and ward disaster management committee more functional to mitigate the damages, such as involving all agencies in the committee, ensuring effective communication among agencies, adding a variety of people to the committee, dividing task among committee members and educating members via the campaign.

  1. Involving all agencies in the committee

Firstly, we have to focus on the involvement of both government and nongovernment agency in the union and ward disaster management committee. The combination of the Ministry and NGOs can work better to reduce the risk of natural disaster.

2. Ensuring effective communication among agencies

Secondly, It is very important to ensure an effective communication process among agencies before, during and after the disaster. Effective communication can reduce the hazards by providing real-time information to take steps by the agencies. According to Kobiruzzaman (2021), the most important three forms of communication are the interaction between agency to the agency (called A – A interaction), the interaction between agency to the Community (called A-C interaction), and the interaction between Community to the Community (called, C – C interaction).

Here, communication between agency to agency take place to share information. They take precautions and provide instant instructions based on discussion between agencies. Agency to community communication occurs when the agency provides instruction to the ward and union committee. Finally, community to community interaction plays an important role to rescue people from affected areas and send relief for them. In order to prevent huge damages, the committee needs to distribute dos and don’t message to lose fishery assets from the coming disaster.

3. Adding a variety of people to the committee

Additionally, adding a variety of people to the committee may accelerate the process of mitigation hazards. The union and ward committee has to be formulated based on the task distributed among them. Many factors need to focus while forming the committee, such as zone, gender of the members, ethnicity, political and religious factors. For example, the information disseminated by the gatekeeper is always actively accepted by the audiences. According to the two-step flow theory, people will believe the information and follow the instruction if they get information from social, political or religious leaders. So, we have to focus on adding people from all walks of life in the ward and union committee to ensure effective performance.

4. Dividing task among committee members 

Additionally, we have to divide the task among committee members based 0n their demographic, geographic and psychographic factors. For example, if you want to motivate the young generation, you have to focus on psychographic factors such as values, beliefs, behaviours, and attitudes. You may assign youth to the recovery committee. On the other hand, the senior citizen might help the committee by sharing previous experience. So, we need to include them in the committee for better performance.

5. Educating members via the campaign

Finally, educating members via campaign will definitely play an essential role to make committee member more effective towards hazards mitigation. Therefore, a team need to be set to educate the ward and Union committee member by training. However, proper planning can reduce the damages extremely. The disaster management committee has to be accountable for the planning, implementation of the plan and finally evaluate the consequences.


This article represents the list of the main disaster management regulatory framework in Bangladesh, the local and national level of the disaster management committee and finally, proposed some strategies for the ward and union committee that will definitely assist in mitigating the hazards. The five strategies for the ward and union committee are involving all agencies in the committee, ensuring effective communication among agencies, adding a variety of people to the committee, dividing task among committee members also educating members via the campaign.


Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Role of Social Media in Disaster Management in Bangladesh Towards the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Critical Review and Directions. International Journal of Education and Knowledge Management (IJEKM) 4(2), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.37227/IJEKM-2021-03-39

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation- Hardball Tactics Definition & Examples

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation, Definition & Examples of Hardball Tactics. Example of Hardball Tactics in Negotiation. Top 8 Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are Good cop/bad cop, Lowball/Highball, Bogey, Nibble, Chicken, Intimidation, Aggressive behaviour, and Snow Job Example.

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation refers to the typical method applied by negotiators to achieve the goal anyhow. Any part of the negotiation can use hardball tactics to gain an advantage. Hardball tactics are the deceptive way to gain the objective. The negotiator usually employs these tactics to get the benefit from the detriment of another party. People use these hardball tactics for personal, social, political, and business purposes. They adopt them to purchase a product, make an agreement, deal with others parties.

The Most Common Negotiation Tactics

The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are:

  1. Good cop/bad cop
  2.  Lowball/Highball
  3.  Bogey
  4. The nibble
  5.  Chicken
  6. Intimidation
  7. Aggressive Behaviour
  8. Snow Job
Hardball Tactics Examples-The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
Hardball Tactics in Negotiation Definition & Example
Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic in Negotiation Definition

A good cop/ bad cop negotiation refers to tactical bargaining between two parties to benefit from the other party’s detriment. It occurs amid two parties’ negotiation when two people in the same party deal with the other party as a good and bad person.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-1

For example, in a police station, the police want to interrogate the prisoner some questions, but the prisoner would not want to say anything. So, two police officers plan to play a game, and one acts like a rude, devil person so that he can ask the question fiercely. On the other hand, another police officer interrogates the prisoner politely. After comparing the two policemen, the prisoner decisively told the information and admitted his fault to the gentle policeman.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-2

For example, A customer goes to a mask shop where the shop owner and his manager were selling products at the shop. The customer wants to buy a mask; therefore, he was negotiating with them. The shop owner is persuading the customer, saying that the facemask will protect you and your family from Coronavirus. It would be best if you bought it without focusing on only RM 5 per piece. On the other hand, the manager says to the customer that you have to pay RM 5 if you want to buy or not sell it less than RM5. The manager also intimidates the customer, saying that you can go now if you do not wish to pay RM 5. However, the owner is still trying to persuade the customer to buy the mask for RM5. The owner is dealing in a friendly manner, whereas the manager is threatening the customer. However, both (owner & manager) want to sell the product. This kind of negotiation is called a good cop/bad cop negotiation.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-3

When I was a secondary student, I had violated the school rules for being late to school. The school discipline teacher acted as the “Bad Cop” who commanded on punishing me according to the school rules and regulations. Meanwhile, the counselling teacher held an open-minded talk with me to understand why I was late and advised me patiently. Finally, I will never be late again in the next five years.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Definition

The negotiator applies a lowball/highball tactic to get the attention of the other party. They know that they will not be able to achieve it but offering. Actually, the lowball/highball tactic begins with an extremely low or high opening offer to the opposite party. The extreme proposal will stimulate the other party to re-evaluate their opening offer and move closer to or beyond their resistance point.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, your son does not want to go to school by bus because his friends come to school by private vehicle. Therefore, he decided not going school till buying a private car. You offer him to gift a new personal car by next month to make him happy. You know very well that you will not be able to buy a new private car by next month. It is a ridiculous offer that is called a lowball/highball tactic. Later, you manage to persuade him to go to school by bus for six more months, but you will buy a motorbike for him after six months.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, imagine that you want to buy a woody chair. Them negotiate with the seller, the set price is 100RM, you might think it is unacceptable price, so you say can I buy it in 20 RM, because it does not seem that high price, the seller might shock a while, after that the seller might say” 50RM, take it okay?” Finally, your goal has achieved.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, when my girlfriend (ELA) stopped talking to me because another girl likes my photos uploaded on Facebook. ELA is jealous of girls who like and comment on my Facebook photos. I offered him not to use Facebook anymore to continue our communication. She also knows that It is quite impossible to stop using Facebook. However, this tactic stimulates her to talk to me for bargaining.  We argue for an hour to finally agreed that I will block the girl so that she cannot follow me on Facebook. Finally, I managed to think to her that blocking is so much better when in fact it is a bad idea to stop using Facebook due to the girl.

Bogey Tactic in Negotiation

Bogey tactics in negotiation demonstrated when negotiators conceal their interest in front of the other party. Negotiators pretend that the issue is of very little importance to them the opposite party offering. The issue is significant for them, but they do not want to show their interest in front of the opposing party.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new Samsung mobile phone with the additional feature of a face lock feature. Now, the shop owner is showing you the latest Samsung mobile phone and indicting the new feature. You are glad to see the new feature on the phone. However, you are not showing interested in the face lock feature. You are concealing your interest in front of the shop owner. You think that shop owner can increase the price if you show more interest in the new feature. Therefore, you pretend that you have no interest in buying this new phone. Eventually, you buy a phone at a low price that has the new face-lock feature.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

This tactic is usually applied to the gambling situation. When I play mahjong with my family members, I maintain my poker face even though the mahjong I drew is good, and I will win the game. But, I stay calm to distract my opponents’ attention, not to sense my happiness. After that, I pretend that I want mahjong A, but my target is mahjong J. Then, I successfully won the game by misleading the other family members to discover my true intention.

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Definition

The nibble tactic refers to asking for a minor concession to make the deal final. Usually, negotiators use this tactic after a long time of negotiation between them. The negotiator needs to add a small item to complete the deal or agreement. 

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, the customer will purchase the secondhand iPhone now if the seller provides headphones and a charger along with it at the same price. It happens at the ending period of the negotiation when any party wants to close the deal.

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, the tenant will rent the house if the house owner replaces the old refrigerator with a new one. Finally, the owner agrees to add a new refrigerator to complete the agreement.

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Definition

In a negotiation tactic, the negotiator uses a big bluff with a frightening action to force the other party to fulfill their demands. The negotiator forces another party to close the deal immediately. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, one party is threatening the other party with “If you do not sell this phone at RM 1000, I will buy the same phone from the next shop who is interested to sell at the same price. The owner believed the customer’s bluff and agreed to sell the phone at RM 1000. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, The customer said that he wants the furniture to be ready on the weekend or else he will find another shop. The shop owner became agree to deliver furniture before the due date believing the customer’s bluff. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, after a long negotiation, both sides are not satisfied with each other. Then one side says, “if you really oppose accepting my ideal price, I will find another person who will provide my ideal price”.

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation

Intimidation tactics attempt to force the other party to agree by applying emotional appeal. They use emotion, anger, or fear to agree on the opposite party. The other side may deliberately use anger to show the seriousness of the position. 

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

Calvin is a small employee in a company. David is a well-known violent temper person in the organization. They are bargaining for various issues for a long time. Suddenly, David slapped the table and glared at Calvin, and said: Think about the difficulty of your job. Your wife and children at home are still waiting for dinner. Finally, Calvin accepted the conditions.

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, if someone bought a television, it did not work when he wants to open it at home. Still, it was nothing wrong when he checked the tv in the store, and then he asked the store to replace one for him, but the store refused to return it because it is available when he checked in the store. Finally, he said if you do not replace it for me today, I will post this thing on social media, nobody will come afterward.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation

Aggressive behavior refers to the strategy of being aggressive in pushing your position or attacking the other person’s position to gain advantages. It is similar to intimidation tactics, but negotiator uses their position to intimidate other psychologically. It includes asking for further concessions.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, one customer comes to buy a mobile phone in a formal manner and says: Let’s not waste time, what is the maximum price? Here, the customer wants to emphasize that his or her time is very important, so close the deal soon. 

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, a sales manager offers RM 5000 for iPhone 12, but the customer still negotiating to reduce the price. Instantly, the owner gets angry at the manager and “how can you make such a low offer”. Do you know today I have sold three iPhone 12 at RM5500 within 30 minutes? You are really wasting our time. It stimulates the customer to buy it at RM5000.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, a customer goes to buy a personal car in the showroom. The salesmen bargains with him regarding the price for a long time. Eventually, the customer brought out his identity card and show the salesmen said the ” I am also marketing manager so please do not apply the marketing policy on me”.  Here, the customer uses his position to win the negotiation. 

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Definition

Snow job tactic is demonstrated when negotiators surprise the other party with huge additional information. These additional make the opposite party confused about figuring out which facts are fundamental and essential. It occurs when negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information so the other party will get distracted.

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new mobile phone, and the seller provides you with so much information about the additional factors. He or she ensures that this phone is eco-friendly. It will not harm you. They also show you how many people are dying due to mobile blasts and so more. The use of many technical terms to confuse anyone who is not familiar with the topic.

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

The negotiator explains the deal in English, but Ahmad, a non-native English speaker, will see him as someone who is educated. To avoid embarrassment, Ahmad will say yes without asking many questions because the negotiator seems like someone very knowledgeable and more expert than him. 

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

Snow Job tactics are frequently used in government project tendering. When the government starts a new development project, they will publish massive information regarding the plan to hide the accurate worthy information behind the overwhelming information. This tactic is used to prevent the misuse of precious data for any illegal activity.