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Deming Cycle or PDSA Method: Revolution &The Four Stages of the PDSA

Description of the PDCA:

Mukhopadhyay (2020) stated that PDCA  refers to a repeated four-step management model that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. He also said that in the 1950s, a famous management scholar Dr. William Edwards Deming introduced the PDCA method; therefore, it is also known as the Deming cycle or Deming Wheel. It is a very famous method to solve problems to yield the highest quality result. The full meaning of PDCA is the Plan–Do–Check–Act that is a four-step action method. In addition, it has many names such as PDSA abbreviation of the Plan–Do–Check–Adjust, the Deming cycle or circle or wheel, the Shewhart cycle, and the control cycle or circle.

The Four Stages of the PDSA or PDCA method:

The primary four steps of the PDSA or PDCA are Plan, Do, Study or Check, and Act these are the inevitable elements of the Deming cycle.



According to Moen (2009), the PLAN is the initial step of the four steps method that identifies the problem and opportunities to suggest recommendations. In addition, it analyzes and describes the overall current situation of the project. A team will be recruited to understand the full process of the project in this stage; they will identify the problems that need to be changed, and find out solutions to fix the problems. You have to find out the answers to some basic questions regarding the project. The questions are as follows;

  • What is the main problem that must need to be solved?
  • What kind of resources do you have now?
  • What resources do you just have to have?
  •  What is the solution that you have taken with resources?
  • How long it will take to analyze the problems and implement the planning?


The DO phase is the second stage of the Deming cycle where the testing of the solution starts to execute to identify the results (Moen & Norman, 2006). After completing the planing step, you have to take actions for solving the problems. You will apply your all plans that you have taken in the first stage. Some unwanted problems can emerge in this stage, so you have to be aware to confront them. For increasing your confidence level, you can apply your actions to a small arena in the project. It is a subtle way to control the situation properly as well as avoiding an unpredicted big mistake. All team members stay alert at this stage to play their roles and responsibility. In addition, you with your team members will take some initiatives mentioned below:

  • Keep a record of what happened and what is happened?
  • When you apply the planning?
  • Collect data from the planning stage.
  • Try to use a check sheet, swim lane map, and flowchart to capture data.

Study or Check

Moen and Norman (2006) argued that the study or check is probably the most important step of the PDSA cycle. You must have to pay attention to the CHECK stage if you want to scrutinize the output that yielded from the earlier stage. It will help you to avoid repeating mistakes and clarify the success of your planning and applying steps. This stage will give you the opportunity to audit your plan’s performance; you will be confirmed whether the plan is worked perfectly or not.  Additionally, your team will identify the problematic portion of the project to eliminate them in the future. You will be able to discover the root cause of the problem if something went wrong. In short, this stage will assess the effectiveness of the system and help you to make the decision whether the theory is helpful or not.

Example: Appraisals or  Gap analysis.

  • In this stage, you have to answer some questions mentioned below.
  • The system is effective or not?
  • Do you want to continue this system or need to change?
  • Have you made an outline of a list including the unexpected results, failures, successes, and outcomes?


ACT is the final stage of the system that finalize the perfect solution to implement it (Crowfoot & Prasad, 2017). In this stage, your organization should follow adapt, adopt, and abandon factors. Adapt refers to changing and modifying the PDSA circle for the next test. Adopt indicates considering expanding the system to all departments in the organization. Abandon means modify your full approach and repeat the PDCA circle again.  In sum, it is the step of standardization that is considered standardized when goals are exceeded.

The Pros and Cons of PDCA / PDSA

Firstly, PDSA is a simple and effective process to resolve a new and recurring problem in the industry (Boaden, 2009). In addition, it is a repeated approach that will allow you to measure results without a waste of time. Moreover, it is a risk-free cycle to apply a small scale in the project; therefore, no need to change the full process if it doesn’t work.

In contrast, the full process of the PDSA is slow when applying the four steps in the industry to yield the final result. It is not a straightforward execution process that can apply in urgent problem-solving issues. Additionally, you need to use some resources including effective team members to ensure that each step of the circle is directed perfectly.

The Evolution of the PDSA Cycle

The PDSA cycle has been evolved from time to time to make it an effective process. It can be applied to almost every industry. I am going to discuss how the PDSA cycle came to be and how it has been evolved from time to time.

Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Deming was an American management consultant who graduated as an electrical engineer, later concentrating on mathematical physics (Moen & Norman, 2006). He has become a famous person in the Japanese industry for his work as well as initiatives after WWII. He got recognition as one of the most influential people in the Japanese manufacturing industry who is not Japanese but American. He championed the work of Walter Shewhart including total quality management, statistic process control, and renamed the Shewhart Cycle. He had a great contribution to the rise of the post-war economic growth in Japan.

The Shewhart Cycle

Deming had been inspired by an American engineer Walter Andrew Shewhart who was also physicist and statistician. In 1939, Shewhart published a book on the Viewpoint of Quality Control (Moen & Norman, 2006). It was the first book that articulated a three-stage systematic process of specification, production, and inspection. These three stages were developed to test the hypothesis that carries out an experiment. Finally, he mentioned that these stages should not go as a straight line but it should go in a cycle. Thus, the Shewhart Cycle came up with the process of a circle.

The Deming Wheel

In 1950, Deming analyzed Shewhart’s Cycle to modify it. He introduced a new version of Shewhart’s Cycle that is a four-step of the design, production, sales, and research (Moen & Norman, 2006). This cycle has been known as the Deming’s Circle or Deming Wheel.


Most probably some Japanese executives modify the Deming cycle or Deming wheel into Plan, Do Check, Act (PDCA) although the exact reason for changing the term-name is unclear (Moen & Norman, 2006). This four-step cycle introduced to identify the problems in the industry and solve them by applying four steps together. The prime objective of this cycle is to standardize if the results are satisfying.

Deming Cycle or PDCA


Deming was not satisfied with the name of PDCA; therefore, he amended it in 1986 (Moen & Norman, 2006). He emphasized the core meaning of the checking, and he mentioned that checking is not to incorporate the cycle. Hence, the PDSA emerged with the recommendation of Deming.


When to Apply PDSA

The PDSA or PDCA framework is capable to develop any process or product by splitting into a shorter step (Smartsheet, n.d.). This cycle can be used in every kind of organization in many aspects such as changing management, new service or product deployment, product lifecycle, and so on. This framework is especially useful for assisting the improvement of the six sigma and total quality management process. It is the best option to dig out problems and effective solutions.

PDSA Quality Improvement

The PDSA cycle is one of the most important parts of the quality improvement process in the big industry. Apart from that, organizations apply other quality improvements program that is much complex QI processes.

These more complex quality improvement programs include the following:

  • Continuous Quality Improvement: It is also known as the CQI process that organizations apply to reduce waste, increase efficiency as well as increase internal and external satisfaction. It is a management philosophy that assesses how the industry works to develop its process.
  • Lean: The lean process is a manufacturing program that makes a business effective by improving efficiency and reducing wasteful practices. This program focuses more on improving services and products based on customer’s demands.
  • Six Sigma: The six sigma process is the set of tools and techniques that develop the quality of a process by eliminating defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing.
  • Total Quality Management: It is a process of a management system based on practicing a principle that instills good business culture where every employee maintains a high standard of work. It influences the organization to maintain a high quality of service in every aspect of the company.
  • Quality Improvement Collaboratives: It is a process that usually applies to the healthcare center in which many organizations work together to develop services for patients.


PDSA  refers to a repeated four-step (PLAN, DO, STUDY, ACT) that that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. Today, many organizations all over the world use this method to improve the product and service by solving problems.


Boaden, R. (2009). Quality improvement: theory and practice. British Journal of Healthcare Management15(1), 12-16.

Crowfoot, D., & Prasad, V. (2017). Using the plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle to make change in general practice. InnovAiT10(7), 425-430.

Smartsheet. (n.d.). How to Implement PDSA in Your Organization.

Moen, R. (2009, September). Foundation and History of the PDSA Cycle. In Asian network for quality conference. Tokyo. https://www. deming. org/sites/default/files/pdf/2015/PDSA_History_Ron_Moen. Pdf.

Moen, R., & Norman, C. (2006). Evolution of the PDCA cycle.

Mukhopadhyay, M. (2020). Total quality management in education. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited.

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The text below contains SIX word form errors. Identify and correct the errors

EXERCISE 4 The text below contains SIX word form errors. Identify and correct the errors.
One of the biggest concerns that parents have about raising children in a bilingual household is that learning two or more languages at the same time will cause confusion. One misunderstood behavior, which has often taken as evidence for confusion, is when bilingual children mix words from two languages in the same sentence. 9This is known as code mixing. In fact, code mixing is a normal part of bilingual development, and bilingual children actually have good reasons to code mix (Pearson, 2008). The reason some children code mix is that they are just repeating what they hear adults around them say (Comeau, Genesee & Lapaquette, 2003).

Another reason for code mixing among bilingual children is due to their limited vocabulary in both languages. Similar to how a monolingual 1-year-old might initialize using the word “dog” to refer to any four-legged creature, bilingual children also use their limited vocabularies to substitute a word from one language with a word from another language. A bilingual child might not know or cannot quickly retrieve the appropriate word in one language, so he or she might borrow the word from the other language (Lanza, 2004). Thus, rather than being a sign of confusion, code mixing can be seen as a progressive in their language development and a sign of bilingual children’s ingenuity.

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Study in Malaysia: Best University For Bachelor, Master & PhD Degree in Malaysia

Study in Malaysia: Best University For Bachelor, Master & Ph.D. Degree. This content will help those students who want to study in Malaysia. Students should choose the perfect university before getting admission because a good university can build a student’s better career. Today we are providing some authentic information regarding public and private universities in Malaysia. In addition, we will let you know how to apply for getting admission to a public university. Every student needs to know this basic information before deciding to study in Malaysia. We recommend students to study at top-ranked Public universities and private in Malaysia.

Malaysia is one of the best Asian countries for multi-culture and diversity. It is the best country for natural calamities and a friendly environment. Many students from all over the world are coming to study in Malaysia now. There are many world-ranked universities located in Malaysia such as  University Malaya(UM), University Putra Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), and so on.

How To Get Admission at University Putra Malaysia (UPM) in Malaysia. Study in Malaysia: Best University For Bachelor, Master & PhD Degree

Table of Contents:

  1. List of Public and Private universities in Malaysia with QS Rank.
  2. How to apply for getting admission in University Putra Malaysia
  3. The Global Assistant Consulting Firm

1. List of Public and Private universities in Malaysia with Rank.

According to the list published in 2018, there are 20 public universities and 47 private universities in Malaysia. There are 34 university colleges and 10 foreign university campuses.

List of Top 20 Public Universities in Malaysia:

No.Name of universityDate establishedLocation
1Universiti Malaya (UM)1-1-1962Kuala Lumpur
2Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM)1971Selangor
3Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)18-5-1970Selangor
4Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)1969Penang
5Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)1-4-1975Johor
6Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)26-8-1999Selangor
7Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM)10-5-1983Selangor
8Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM)16-2-1984Kedah
9Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS)24-12-1992Sarawak
10Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS)24-11-1994Sabah
11Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI)24-2-1997Perak
12Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM)13-3-1998Negeri Sembilan
13Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT)15-7-1999Terengganu
14Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)30-9-2000Johor
15Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM)1-12-2000Melaka
16Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP)16-2-2002Pahang
17Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)2-5-2002Perlis
18Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)1-1-2006Terengganu
19Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK)14-6-2006Kelantan
20Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, (UPNM)10-11-2006Kuala Lumpur

List of Top 47 Private Universities in Malaysia:

No.Name of universityDate establishedLocation
1Multimedia University (MMU), Cyberjayaestablished in 1997Cyberjaya / Melaka / Johor
2Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)established in 1999Putrajaya / Pahang
3Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UniRAZAK)established in 1999Selangor
4Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP)established in 1999Selangor
5International Medical University (IMU)established in 1999Kuala Lumpur
6Universiti Selangor (UNISEL)established in 2000Selangor
(Shah Alam and Bestari Jaya)
7Open University Malaysia (OUM)established in 2000Kuala Lumpur
8Malaysia University of Science & Technology (MUST)established in 2000Selangor
9AIMST Universityestablished in 2001Kedah
10Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)established in 2002Selangor / Perak
11Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL)established in 200111 campuses located in Kuala Lumpur and around the country
12Wawasan Open Universityestablished in 2006Penang
13Albukhary International Universityestablished in 2006Kedah
14Al-Madinah International University (MEDIU)established in 2006Selangor
15International Centre for Education in Islamic Finance (INCEIF)established in 2006Kuala Lumpur
16Limkokwing University of Creative Technologyupgraded to university college in 2003, and further upgraded to full university status in 2007Putrajaya
17Management and Science University (MSU)formerly KUTPM which was established in 2001 and upgraded to full university in 2007Selangor
18Asia e University (AeU)established in 2007Kuala Lumpur
19UCSI Universityupgraded to university college in 2003 and further upgraded to full university status in 2008Kuala Lumpur / Terengganu Sarawak
20Quest International University Perakestablished in 2009Perak
21INTI International University (IIU)upgraded to university college in 2006 and further upgraded to full university status in 2010Negeri Sembilan
22Taylor’s Universityupgraded to university college in 2006 and further upgraded to full university status in 2010Selangor
23Sunway Universityupgraded to university college in 2004 and further upgraded to full university status in 2011Selangor
24Manipal International Universityestablished in 2010Nilai
25Perdana Universityestablished in 2011Selangor
26HELP Universityupgraded to university college in 2004 and further upgraded to full university status in 2011Kuala Lumpur
27UNITAR International Universityestablished in 2011Selangor
28Raffles University Iskandar (RUI)established in 2011Johor
29Malaysia Institute of Supply Chain Innovation (MISI)established in 2011Selangor
30Nilai Universityupgraded in 2007 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Negeri Sembilan
31SEGi Universityupgraded in 2008 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Selangor
32Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation (APU)upgraded in 2004 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Kuala Lumpur
33Binary University of Management and Entrepreneurshipupgraded in 2004 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Selangor
34Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL)upgraded in 2003 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Selangor
35Asia Metropolitan Universityupgraded in 2008 and further upgraded to full university status in 2012Selangor/Johor
(Two campuses: Cheras campus, Selangor and Johor)
36Putra Business Schoolestablished in 2012Selangor
37Global NXT Universityestablished in 2012Kuala Lumpur
38MAHSA Universityupgraded in 2009 and further upgraded to full university status in 2013Selangor
39International University of Malaya-Walesestablished in 2013Kuala Lumpur
40University Malaysia of Computer Science and Engineeringestablished in 2013Putrajaya
41Universiti Islam Malaysia, Cyberjayaestablished in 2014Selangor
42DRB-HICOM University of Automotive Malaysiaestablished in 2015Pahang
43Asia School of Businessestablished in 2015Kuala Lumpur
44City Universityupgraded in 2010 and further upgraded to full university status in 2016Selangor
45Meritus Universityestablished in 2016Kuala Lumpur
46Universiti Sultan Azlan Shanupgraded in 2012 and further upgraded to full university status in 2016Perak
47Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Sultan Abdul Halim Mu’adzam Shahupgraded in 2006 and further upgraded to full university status in 2018Kedah

2. How to apply for getting admission in University Putra Malaysia

University Putra Malaysia is the public university and is located in Selangor. University Putra Malaysia is the best young university in Malaysia.UPM is the abbreviation of the University Putra Malaysia. According to QS ranking 2019-2020, UPM ranked 159 in the world.

Do you want to study at University Putra Malaysia for Foundation, Bachelor’s, Master & Ph.D. Degree?

We are providing three important links to apply for admission at University Putra Malaysia.

For a Foundation Degree:

Bachelor Degree:

Master’s and Ph.D. Degree:

3. The Global Assistant Consulting Firm

The Global Assistant is one of the renowned consulting firm recognized and affiliated by University Putra Malaysia. Global Assistant Consulting firm has legitimate power to get students admitted to University Putra Malaysia.

Contact information of the Global Assistant Consulting Firm:


What’s app: +60176852551

Official Website:

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