3 Types of Communication Models- Linear, Interactive & Transactional Model

3 types of models of communication. The 3 types of communication models are Linear Models of Communication,  Interactive Models of Communication, and also Transactional Models of Communication.

Model of Communication Process

The communication model refers to the conceptual framework or theory that explains the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication between the sender and the receiver. The communication model tries to answer the 5WH questions; for example, what is it actually? who is involved in this process? when does it happen? where does it take place? and finally, why does it occur?  Additionally, communication models explain the element of the basic communication process including context. sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, feedback, also noise.  The model of communication also explains the factors that bar effective communication. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

3 Types of communication models

The 3 Types of the communication process model are

  1. Linear Models of Communication
  2. Interactive Models of Communication
  3. Transactional Models of Communication

The 3 types of communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A-List of the best communication models and establish year has been outlined below for obtaining more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also attached to the communication model’s table.

1. Linear Model of Communication
Communication Models Year Types  of Communication Models
For example, Aristotle’s Model of Communication 300BC Linear Model of Communication
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Lasswell’s Model of Communication 1948 Linear Model of Communication
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication 1960 Linear Model of Communication
Also, Two-Step Flow of Communication Theory 1948 Linear Model of Communication
2. Interactive Model of Communication
For example, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Also, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
3. Transactional Model of Communication
For example, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954 Interactive Model of Communication
Also, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957 Interactive Model of Communication
The Most Effective Model of Communication

The author is going to outline as well as discuss the most effective model of communication in the field of communication.

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear model of communication that mainly focus on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is the first model of communication. Aristotle’s model of communication consists of five elements of the basic communication process for example Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience, and Effect. Aristotle’s model of communication focuses on the speaker. The speaker plays the most important role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. The speech is the message of the speaker that might vary on the occasion.

Models of communication- Aristotle's model of communication
Figure 1: Aristotle’s Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) is delivering a speech to persuade the voter to vote for him in the election. The political leader is the most important person here who is delivering the message or information. The speech is the message that the leader delivers to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. A political leader might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters whether they are motivated to cast vote for him or not.

Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model of communication was introduced by professor Harold Lasswell in 1948. It is a Linear Model of Communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s explains the process of communication by answering the following questions;

  • Who?
  • Says What?
  • In Which Channel?
  • To Whom?
  • With What Effect?
Models of Communication- Lasswel's model of linear communication model
Figure 2: Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s model of communication and the example, firstly, the answer to the question “Who” is the news presenter of BBC News Channel. Secondly, Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the question of “In which Channel” indicates the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people who are watching this channel. Finally, With what effect indicates the awareness.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars Shannon and Weaver in 1948. Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models; although, it is a linear type of communication model.  At first, this model was designed to articulate the process of technical communication. Later, it discusses the process of effective communication. Shannon-Weaver model represents the basic six elements of communication including information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback therefore it is a linear model of communication. Later, this model was been criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is a vital element to create the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

What is the established date of the Shannon-Weaver model?

The Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948. Although there is conversely regarding the establishment year of the Shannon-Weaver model, in 1948, it was introduced by Claude Shannon through his article name Mathematical Theory of Communication. In 1949, Warren Weaver reprints the previous article adding more information. So, it is safe to say that the Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948.

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour- VALS 2 Model

VALS Segmentation Model in Consumer Behaviour. Vals Model in Consumer Behaviour. The Eight Segments of the VALS Model. Marketing Model of VALS, Vals 2 model, and also Vals Audience Segmentation Model.

VALS Segmentation Model

VALS Segmentation Model refers to the VALS 2 model that segments people into eight categories based on their lifestyles, psychological characteristics, and consumption patterns. Therefore, people term it as the Vals audience segmentation model in consumer behavior. The VALS is the acronym of Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles also psychographic factors.

In 1978, the research institute of Stanford established Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to develop a VALS (Values and Lifestyles) typology to categorize American consumers. In 1989, they developed a quietly modified system that considers individuals’ lifestyles, psychological characteristics, also consumption patterns.

Another name of the VALS Segmentation Model is the VALS 2 Model. VALS Segmentation Model divides people into 8 categories such as survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and also innovators.

8 Segmentations of the VALS 2  Model are:
  1. Survivors
  2. Makers
  3. Strivers
  4. Believers
  5. Experiencers
  6. Achievers
  7. Thinkers
  8. Innovators

VALS Segmentation Model

The Eight Categories of people of the VALS Segmentation Model are survivors, makers, strivers, believers, experiencers, achievers, thinkers, and innovators. 

1. Survivors/ Strugglers

Firstly, Survivors or strugglers are financially needy people. literally, they are poor, low-skilled, ill-educated, without strong social bonds, elderly and passive in contrast to innovators. They avoid risk because of feeling powerless. It seems like their prime motive to meet safety and security demands.

For example, a student.

2. Makers

Makers are practical people who have strong traditional values, constructive skills, self-sufficiency, and have enough income. They live within a traditional context of family, practical work, and also physical recreation. Makers are suspicious of new ideas, politically conservative, and respectful of government authority but resentful of government intrusion on individual rights.

For example, a religious leader.

3. Strivers

Strivers are attracted to others who exhibit qualities that they don’t have but that they admire. They inquire about motivation and self-definition. They expect to achieve goals through wealth and often feel that life has dealt them a bad hand because of the less money they have. Strivers feel easily bored because they are very impulsive.

For example, an unemployed person who is looking for a job after completing graduation.

4. Believers

Believers belong very conservative and deeply moral mentality similar to makers. They seem like makers because of having conservative and traditional values. They follow established routines, organized by the family, social and religious organizations. Their income, education, and energy are enough to meet demands.

For example,

5. Experiencers

Experiencers are very young, energetic, enthusiastic, impulsive, and rebellious people. They seek a variety of excitements but are politically uncommitted, and highly ambivalent about what they believe. They like to be associated with outdoor activities, sports, recreational, and social activities.

For example, a teenager.

6. Achievers

Actually, achievers are work-oriented successful people. They like to feel in control of their lives. They are also deeply committed to work and keep promises to family, society, and career. Achievers respect authority because they prefer to keeping the promise but politically conservative.

For example, an employed person.

7. Thinkers/ Fulfilled

Thinkers are enough adult and mature, well-educated, professional people with satisfying income. They stay current with international and national events and are often tended to increase knowledge. They often calm and self-assured because they depend on their decisions.

For example, a successful business.

8. Innovators/ Actualizers

Finally, Innovators are highly successful people with self-esteem and huge resources in contrast to strugglers. Innovators are supervised by both their principle and by the dreams around them. They want to be a leader in government and business because of having huge power and social consciousness.

For example, a political leader.

VALS segmentation model has become a very popular strategy for target audience segmentation for political campaigns and marketing publicity on social media such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Youtube, and so on.