Demographic Segmentation Example, Definition & Market Segmentation

Demographic Segmentation Example, Definition, and Market Segmentation. Demographic segmentation definition. Target market demographics examples. Demographic segmentation, meaning, demographic audience, demographic segmentation in marketing. Target market demographics.

Demographic Segmentation

Demographic segmentation refers to the process of separating people into similar subgroups based on demographic factors. The demographic factors or variables are age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, economic status, experience, also group membership. The three market segmentation techniques are demographic geographic, psychographic segmentation.

Demographic Segmentation Example

A political party is conducting an election campaign to motivate them. The party will persuade those people who are voters and residents at the constituency. According to the laws, people cannot exercise their voting rights who less than 18 years old. Therefore, the political party looks for more than 18 years old and residents in the same area.

Demographic Segmentation Example, Factors or Variables
Figure 1: Demographic Segmentation Example, Factors, or Variables

Demographic Segmentation Factors or Variables

The demographic factors mean a set of characteristics of the audience, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, religion, economic status, and so more. Demographic factors are also known as demographic variables.

The demographic segmentation factors or variables are (1)Age, (2)Gender, (3)Ethnicity, (4)Education, (5)Religion, (6)Economic status, (7)Experience, (8) Group Member, (9) Nationality,(10)Marital Status, (11)Employment Status, (12)Family Status and (13)Living Status.

1. Age

Age is the most significant demographic factor of audience segmentation because it divides people into similar subgroups based on their age boundary. People are categorized based on age limits. It sets the generation of people. A generation is a group of people who get birth and grow up throughout the same period of time. People of the same age have identical characteristics and experiences.

Demographic Segmentation Example-Age

For example, Generation X refers to the people who were born between 1965 and 1980. So, they are around 41 to 56 years old. On the other hand, Generation Z refers to the people born between 1997 and 2012; therefore, they are the newest generation, and their age is about 6 to 24 years. The characteristics, passion, attire, vision, and mission are different between Generation X and Generation Z.  Hence, the audience segmentation and market researcher will not use the same strategic plan for both of these generations because they are distinguished for their different ages.

2. Gender

Gender is another important demographic factor of audience segmentation that divides people into a similar subgroup based on their sexes( Males or Females). It is a biological factor that differentiates men and women. Gender is a biological factor that sets the people’s sex, whether they are males or females. Males are also called men, and females are known as women. Men and women are strongly distinguished for their dress-up, hobby, passion, belongings, and behaviors. Therefore, the market and audience researchers choose different social, political, and advertising campaigns between males and females.

For example, a cosmetic product selling company will surely target women for product marketing. Women are more interested in buying cosmetics than men; therefore, most cosmetic companies choose women to reach their upcoming and existing product information.

3. Ethnicity

Ethnicity is a demographic factor of audience segmentation that divides people into a similar subgroup based on their tradition, culture, language, history, etc. However, many scholars have suggested avoiding ethnic stereotypes. People in the same ethnic group share similar cultures, traditions, and experiences. But, two people of the same ethnic group may have diverse attitudes, interests, and experiences because of differences in their age, gender, education, income level, and religion.

4. Education

Education level is a demographic factor of audience segmentation that divides people into the same subgroup based on their education level. The difference between an educated and uneducated person is clearly visible. The interests, attires, mentalities, and behaviors are different between educated and uneducated people. Therefore audience segmentation researchers use a different approach for target market segmentation campaigns.

5. Religion

Religion is another famous demographic factor of audience segmentation that divides people into identical or similar subgroups based on their religions such as Christianity, Muslim, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Sikhism, etc.

For instance, advertising for alcoholic beverages is taboo in the Muslim religion, whereas marketing for alcoholic liquor is highly accepted in the Christian faith. The researcher should focus on demographic factors religion before starting marketing for alcoholic liquor.

6. Economic Status

Economic status is a demographic factor that separates people into identical or similar subgroups based on their income. Income denotes a prime factor of audience segmentation that affects people’s behaviors and attitudes.

For example, if a family earns little money to exist, the family members will probably be more concerned about fulfilling basic needs. On the other hand, if a family makes a perfect amount of money, they will focus on fulfilling other’s needs such as hobbies, passions, etc.  Researchers suggested that the higher the income of a family, the more conservative their attitudes.

 7. Experience

Experience refers to the skill and knowledge obtained from exercising and training. The market analyzer needs to use a different strategy for the experienced and non-experienced potential customers to motivate a client.

For example, the experience is not similar among the potential newcomer, expert, and veteran employees. Similarly, the first year, second year, and final year students differ in expertise and knowledge.

8. Group Member

Group members refer to a demographic factor of audience segmentation that separates people into similar subgroups based on joining a group to meet demands. People join a group to meet their diverse needs, for example, spending pastimes, satisfying hobbies, playing recreational activities, etc.  A group consists of a limited number of people who share a common independent goal. For instance, football team members share a similar common goal and also represent similar attitudes and behavior.

For example, as a marketing manager, if you want to sell football players’ accessories among cricket players, it would be a worse decision.

9. Nationality

Nationality indicates the citizen of the country. Every person is a citizen of a particular country that is also known as nationality. According to international law, It a legal identification of the people under a sovereign state.

For example, Jon is a citizen of America; so, his nationality is American, whereas, Xujiao is Chinese, so his nationality is china.

10. Marital Status

Marital status refers to the marital situation admittedly. There are many types of marital status; for example, single, married, divorced, widow, separated, single parent, and conditional partnership.

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine & Book Anatomy and Space 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.

Four Theories of the Press

Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson introduced the Four Theories of the Press book in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

The Four Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory
    1. Authoritarian Theory

The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.

The government has the right to filter any news published by the press.

If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.

John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900.  According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.

For example,

  • The press must free from the government.
  • Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
  • Press controlled by journalists and media.
    3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but is controlled by society’s people.

Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.

From this theory-  that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.

4. Communist Soviet Theory

The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.

  • Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
  • Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
  • Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?

The newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon, and sports events.

Newspaper Anatomy

Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy

Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Figure 1: Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Newspaper Space
Front Page  Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.
Local Section News about where you live is located.
National News about national information.
International News about international information.
Business stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market).
Sports stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories.
Entertainment Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.
Opinions & Editorials. This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.
Advertisement Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.
What Is Magazine?

Magazines are periodical publications ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.

Magazines Anatomy
Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Figure 2: Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Magazine Space
Cover Story refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.
Editorial Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.
Features Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places, and events.
Columns opinion pieces represent the strong, informed, and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance.
Reviews critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions, or a newly published book.

 

What Is a Book?

Books are written publication, printed, and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tool to keep the record of information in written and image form.

Books Anatomy
Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy
Figure 3: Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy

Books Space

PRELIM half-title
Title
copyright
content
foreword
preface
acknowledgments
TEXTS New chapter
END MATTERS Appendix
Reference
Index
Different Types of Content in Newspaper
  1. NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening.
  2. FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation, or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
  3. EDITORIAL: This space specializes in editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
  4. COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) to discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
  5. READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
  6. Advertisement
  7. Cartoon
Four Category of Readers
  1. HEAVY READERS
  • Read the newspaper for more than 2 hours.
  • Read front page, editorial, and columnist.
  • Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
  1. SPORADIC READERS

Read the newspaper for more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.

  1. SCANNER READERS
  • Read less than 15 minutes.
  • Just scan the information.
  1. APATHETIC READERS
  • Apathetic readers are less interested in reading the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.
ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT
  1. Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict and so more.
  2. Education- Educated people formally and informally.
  3. As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
  4. Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.