News Writing Process, How to Write a News? 5W and 1H of Report Writing

News Writing Process, How to Write a News? 5W and 1H of Report Writing in-journalism, Types of News Reporting in Journalism. Example of News Writing Process. How to write a complete news article. News article writing instruction for students.

5W and 1H of Report Writing

The 5 ws and 1h of journalism are who, where, what, when, why, and how. A reporter must need to answer all these 5 w’s and h question through the reporting. Therefore, these are the essential elements that the reporter should keep in mind during writing and publishing a news story.

  1. Who ( who are involved?)
  2. Where ( where it happen?)
  3. What ( what is happening?)
  4. When (when it happen?)
  5. Why (why it happen?)
  6. Also, how ( how its happen?)
News Writing Process- Element of News Writing, Types of News Reporting in Journalism. Example of News Writing Process. 
Figure 1: News Writing Process- Five W’S and H of Journalism
Types of News Reporting in Journalism
  1. Crime News Reporting
  2. Sports News Reporting
  3. Economic News Reporting
  4. Disaster news reporting
1. Crime News Reporting

Crime news reporting refers to the news reporting related to crime issues, including police, victim, and criminals.

2. Sports News Reporting

Sports News Reporting means writing and publishing news related to the development in the sports industry locally or internationally.

3. Economic News Reporting

Economic News Reporting means news writing related to the economic and financial system in-country or in the world.

4. Disaster News Reporting

Disaster News Reporting means news reporting that will affect on emotional of the victim whose are involved.

What Should Journalist Report?

Firstly, the journalist should report the serious issues in society.

The journalist reports extraordinary crime news in the society or community.

Finally, a journalist should report the local crime to the identity of the criminal and victim.

News Writing Process

The news writing process will help you to know how to write a complete news article. It also represents the basic elements of a news story and how to follow them one by one.

News Report Writing Format and Example

The 8 elements of a news report or newspaper article are:

  1. Title/ Headline
  2. Author name/ Byline
  3. Dateline
  4. Lead
  5. Body
  6. Conclusion
  7. Photo
  8. Caption
1. Title/Headline

The headline is the most important element of a news report to attract the reader to read the full article. A good perfect headline also concludes the news.

Elements of the Title or Headline

A good headline or title should be 1. Provocative, 2.Functional, 3. Simple, 4. Informal, 5. Relevant, also 6. Representative.

Example of Headline- Government officials accepting bribes are hunted

  1. Byline/ Author Name

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted

By: M M Kobiruzzaman
  1. Dateline

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July
  1. Lead

Lead is the most important section of the news for readers to understand the message of the news story. Actually, a good lead highlights the main issue of the news. Finally, a good lead of new never exceeds 25-35 words.

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands.

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.
  1. News Body or Content

News body refers to the main content of the news reporting that describes and explains the facts. It is the prime part of the report; because, it explains the whole story of the issue. If the full report covers 7 paragraph, usually, the body starts with paragraph 3 until 5.

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands.

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.
Body 1: Sources said the MACC will make follow -up arrests on the issue of leakage in Cameron Highlands soon.

Body 2: “If before, we arrested the bribe givers but after this we will conduct the same operation to hunt down those who accept bribes. Anyone including government officials and middlemen who helped launch the bribery process will be arrested.

Body 3: "We will also not hesitate to take action even against those in authority in the case of land encroachment there," said a source involved in the corruption investigation in Cameron Highlands here today.
  1. Conclusion

The conclusion again highlights the main fact of the issues that have already been reported on the lead and news body part.

For example,

Conclusion 1: Meanwhile, the director of the sprm intelligence division, Datuk Azam Baki, when contacted, stressed that his party would never compromise if there was any element of corruption involving government officials or enforcement officers in the issue.

Conclusion 2: “those arrested were bribe givers and the results of our further investigation have identified those who received bribes. further action will be taken, "he said
Example of Full News Report
Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted 
By: M M Kobiruzzaman 
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July 

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands. 

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.

Body 1: Sources said the MACC will make follow -up arrests on the issue of leakage in Cameron Highlands soon. 

Body 2: “If before, we arrested the bribe givers but after this we will conduct the same operation to hunt down those who accept bribes. Anyone including government officials and middlemen who helped launch the bribery process will be arrested. 

Body 3: "We will also not hesitate to take action even against those in authority in the case of land encroachment there," said a source involved in the corruption investigation in Cameron Highlands here today.

Conclusion 1: Meanwhile, the director of the sprm intelligence division, Datuk Azam Baki, when contacted, stressed that his party would never compromise if there was any element of corruption involving government officials or enforcement officers in the issue.

Conclusion 2: “those arrested were bribe givers and the results of our further investigation have identified those who received bribes. further action will be taken, "he said

Photography Composition Techniques- Different Techniques of Photo Composition

Photography Composition Techniques, 3 Different Photo Composition Techniques are Photographer-Based Composition, Equipment-Based Composition, and Subject-Based Composition Techniques.

Photo Composition

Photo composition means using all available techniques to pursue storytelling images that conform with the photographer’s fundamental approach. Composition techniques in photography harkened to the 15th century when painters embraced what now is called central perspective. This approach to painting yields an image similar to an adult’s mental perception.

The Importance of Photography Composition Techniques
  • Firstly it is an integral part of the fabric of images.
  • It also helps to convey messages.
  • Significantly affects how closely photographs approach or deviate from real life.
  • Composition puts together two or more elements of a scene. The resulting photograph becomes more than a sum of its parts; it is also the meshing of the factors to support each other, thereby enhancing the message.

Photography Composition Techniques

The 3 Types of Composition Technique in Photography are:

  1. Photographer-Based Composition Techniques
  2. Equipment-Based Composition Techniques
  3. Subject-Based Composition Techniques
1. Photographer-Based  Composition Technique

Photographer-Based  Composition Technique can be divided into five categories: Approach, Distance, Position, Space, and View Technique.

1.1 Approach Techniques in Composition

The approach Technique is divided into two fundamental approaches: the Overt approach and Truthful Essence.

Two Fundamental Approaches are:

A. Overt Approach: photographers record the easily viewed physical reality without concern for hidden meaning and hidden meaning.

B. Truthful Essence: It puts excellent responsibility on photographers. The photographer must be knowledgeable and savvy enough to picture the most appropriate truth and fairway. Truthful essence will not allow photographers or management to disclaim responsibility or misleading readers based on having presented physical reality.

How To Approach Truthful Essence

To avoid interjecting themselves into situations. It is to be knowledgeable of human behaviour, and it also makes people feel comfortable that they ignore the photographer—this makes the subject accurate.

1.2. Distance Techniques in Composition

Photographers must always select the distance from the main subject that best tells the story. It can be far from, close, and in between because looking at the finished product may tell you which distance is best.

Photography Composition Techniques, 3 Techniques of Photo Composition are Photographer-Based Composition, Equipment-Based Composition, and Subject-Based Composition Techniques.

1.3. Position Techniques in Composition

Position can be from any situation that best—low or high.

1.4. Space Techniques in Composition

Photographs should use every bit of their photographic space productively to support the message their photographers want to convey. This does not mean that space necessarily is wasted space; it may be highly desirable—a vital and telling ingredient. Photographers must decide what space to be included to support the subject of the photo.

1.5. View Techniques in Composition

View technique refers to the umbrella concept that incorporates all of the elements discussed above.

The two types of view techniques are common and uncommon views.

  • Firstly, Common is a standard view is one or more aspects of a photo on which visually untrained people focus from an uninvolved vantage point.
  • Secondly, uncommon to view is one more aspect of a scene on which a visually trained person focuses on looking for one or more eye-catching, visually intriguing elements.
2. Equipment-Based Composition Technique

Equipment-Based Composition Technique is the essential part of Photography Composition Techniques that allow the photographer to play with instruments. It is divided into six categories: Angle, Focus, Frame Location, Movement, Perspective, and Recording technique.

2.1 Angle Technique

Which lenses to use for any specific situation is a decision that photojournalists can alter the reality presented to the readers. Wide-angle give readers a sense of participation and intimate involvement with subjects.

2.2 Focus Technique

Focus refers to the area that the photographer chooses to make track sharp, with all other regions less distinct to one degree or the other. Focus is a significant tool for emphasising or isolating parts of scenes.

2.3 Frame Location- Rule of Thirds

The location of the ingredients of the image in the frame can help or hurt the message the photographer is trying to convey. Visualize a two-dimensional space as divided top to bottom side to side into thirds. The four points at which lines intersect are the points at which readers likely are comfortable with the main subject. This is called a rule of thirds; the main subject can be located at any one o the intersecting lines marked with a circle. However, putting the subject in the middle of frames creates static and boring.

Lines, objects, space, animals, or people can act as signposts, guide readers toward main subjects, and are often effective composition techniques (S curve can be one such line). Support for the main subject can be from the front or back to create depth.

Photography Composition Techniques, 3 Different Techniques of Photo Composition are Photographer-Based Composition, Equipment-Based Composition, and Subject-Based Composition Techniques.
Rules of Third Technique in Photography

We are using juxtaposition—combining two or more main subjects in a scene.

For example, the Rule of Third and S Curve Composition Techniques in Photography.

2.4 Movement Technique

Subjects can be tack sharp from the focus standpoint, but they may appear unsharp if the subject or the camera or both moved. If your concern is to stop movement, you should use a shutter speed that lets light strike. Planning is an instrumental technique that photographers use to imply movement by setting a long exposure time. Another way for the photographer is to move the camera simultaneously and in the same direction.

The illusion of movement in still photographs often is a highly effective conveyor of the message.

2.5 Perspective Technique

Journalistic photographs differ from reality most adults see to be published in newspapers or magazines.

To show realistic—only building a picture.

Typically, journalistic photographs make clear the proportions of their subjects, whether shown as lifesize or otherwise. Photojournalists must always keep proportion in mind. Failure to do so can deceive readers.

2.6 Recording Material

Photojournalists must remember medium is part of the message. Photojournalists should tell editors who decide whether to publish in colour/black or white.

2.7 Recording Technique

Still, the photograph can be;

  • Superb at isolating the telling moment of an ongoing situation
  •  Its limitation is great—typically seizes and presents it instead of the whole

Multiframe imaging can be in two ways; 

  • By using a film-advance device (to record rapid-fire); then the editor will select the best picture that represents
  • By grouping two or more pictures of the same situation (that taken for hour, days, month). Another way to record the subject indirectly is when light rays from the subjects reflect secondary objects, such as a mirror, a polished helmet, etc.
2.8 Sharpness Technique

Sharpness is subjective in photojournalism; it depends on the interpretive skills of viewers. What appears sharp or unsharp in a photograph can radically affect the message it conveys to readers. The same scene, the same subject, executed with a different sharp ambience, can convey additional messages.

3. Subject-Based Composition Technique

Subject-Based Techniques in Composition are divided into many photography composition techniques, for example, Balance, Expression, Form, Implied movement, Incongruity, Interposition, Introduction, Irony, Lines, Shapes, and Directions, Meaning and Message, Mood, Repetition, Subtlety, also Tension Technique in Composition.

3.1 Balance Technique in Composition

Balance Technique in Composition refers to the equal volume or weight on each side of the centre of the image; the sides may be more or less a mirror photo of each other (symmetry) or unlike but equal (asymmetry).

3.2 Expression Technique in Composition

Use the caption to clarify the inner feeling of subjects. For example, the photojournalist must probe cliché and not assume that crying means sadness and laughing means happiness.

These are few examples of expression Technique;

  • Joy, happiness, amusement, nervousness also futility—Laughing
  • Sadness, joy, also futility—crying
  • Disapproval or unhappiness—scowling
  • Approval, happiness, amusement, as well as nervousness—smiling.
3.3 Form Technique in Composition

KISS—”Keep it simple stupid” means that photographers should discard everything that does not support the message they want to convey. It also means the messages should be as simple as possible, even if they are complex in form.

  • Unifies form—all key aspects work together to convey the message; the picture is synergistic.
  • Confused from one or more other vital aspects conflict with one or more other vital aspects or with one or more important secondary aspects.
  • A minimal form shows one key aspect without complicating nuances.
  •  A complex form shows more than one key aspect or one key aspect with complicating nuances.
3.4 Implied Movement in Composition

The photograph records one moment, but by using several techniques, the movement has been implied.

3.5 Incongruity Technique in Composition

Actually, incongruity is the unusual or sometimes unexpected combination.

3.6 Interposition Technique in Composition

Scenes recorded without significant camera or lens distortion still can yield images that clearly are distorted. Such images are caused by light rays that bend while passing through or being reflected from one or more intervening objects or substances.

3.7 Introduction Technique in Composition

It can be divided into two, for example:

  • Firstly, Framed Images—foreground or other secondary subjects (s) enrich and enclose the main subject. Framing subjects is an effective composition tool by giving the aura of stealth and intimacy.
  • Secondly, Open Images—show main subjects devoid of enriching and enclosing foregrounds and secondary subjects.
3.8 Irony Technique in Composition

Irony refers to unexpected or unusual results with a dash of humour or low-key sarcasm. Irony adds an ingredient to photographs that can pique readers’ interest.

3.9 Lines, Shapes, and Directions in Composition

Lines, shapes, and directions exist in physical reality roads to the horizon, the circular sun, extended arms implying upwardness to infer physical reality.

 The use of lines, shapes, and directions is an important composition technique for emphasising one or more main subjects or directions and communicating more clearly or surely catching the reader’s eye.

Five important lines, shapes, and directions and what may occur if you use them;

  • Vertical implies action, as well as conflict.
  • Horizontal implies rest, relaxation, also serenity.
  • Diagonal implies pleasantness fulfilment.
  • Leading is actual or implied lines of any direction that guide readers to one or more than one subject, the usually main subject.
3.10 Meaning and Message in Composition

To focus more on only one main subject in the photo and anything else to support the photo. Likewise, if situations lend themselves to more complicated treatment, present them that way. Like meaning, massage is important too; single communication with no significant nuance increases the probability that readers will accurately understand what the photographer is trying to convey. More complex messages may communicate more in-depth information and in a more finely tuned way, but the risk of misinterpretation is greater.

3.11 Mood Technique in Composition

The mood is an essential goal of photojournalism to portray the inner feelings of their subject visually. Take great care to portray only the real inner feelings of the subject.

3.12 Repetition Technique in Composition

Repeating similar elements reinforces their importance and encourages readers to ponder their significance. Hence, repetition typically adds orderliness and stability to an often chaotic visual world.

3.13 Subtlety Technique in Composition

Whether with single or multiple subjects, subtlety depends on sophisticated and worldly-wise readers reorganizing and appreciating indirect or downplayed meaning.

3.14 Tension Technique in Composition

It is a clashing of wills, physical or psychological, that positions recorded images solidly in anxiety. Photographers can translate tension into a physical image with a variety of composition techniques. Hence, the tension must be reorganized as a technique in its own right before it becomes visual reality through one or more other processes.