List of Social Groups- Types & Examples of Social groups

List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups & Examples of Social groups. The 10 Types of Social Groups are Primary group, Social Group, Self-help Group, Educational or Learning Group, Service Group, Service group, work-group Public group, Virtual Group, also Political Group.

Social Groups

Social groups refer to many groups in society that formed by more than 2 people who communicate regularly to achieve individual as well as their respective group goal. The people in the same group share similar characteristics, mutual expectation and common identity. In society, many groups are prevalent since thousands of years ago, for example,  learning group, work-group, self-help group and so more.

Group communication has many stages, tensions, conflicts and so more that need to be maintained to achieve the final goal. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group discussion are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Members must need to overcome all these stages to achieve the independent and interdependent goal. Additionally, the four types of barriers in group communication are Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

List of Social Groups or Types of Social Group

The 10 Types of Social Groups are:
  1. Primary Group
  2. Social Group
  3. Self-help Group
  4. Educational or learning Group
  5. Service Group
  6. Civic Group
  7. Work-Group
  8. Public Group
  9. Virtual Group
  10. Also, Political Group

Based on the research, the author has revealed a list of the top 10 types of social groups. The list of the top 10 types of social groups with the overall purpose and example given below.

1. Primary Group

Some textbooks use also “long-standing group”, because of long term relationship. Firstly, Satisfy primary needs (needs for inclusion [affiliation, belonging] also affection [love, esteem]. The use of interpersonal communicative behaviours, for example, self-disclosure, empathy, trust also perceived understanding.

For example, Nuclear family, Roommates, and Several friends who meet daily around a table (best friends), co-workers who regularly share Coffee breaks.

2. Social Group

Some textbooks use also “secondary group”, usually formed for the purpose of doing work. Completing a project, solving a problem, also making a decision. The social group shares a common interest or engage in a common activity although an intimate relationship can develop among members

For example, Athletic Teams, and Peer Groups.

3. Self-help Group

Individuals who share a common problem or life situation. To offer support and encouragement to members who want or need help. Anonymous and support groups are available on the Internet providing help for health, personal, or relationship issues.

For example, Doctor Budak and MyEndosis.

4.Educational or Learning Group

Usually, the Educational or Learning Group is primarily discovering and developing new ideas and ways of thinking.
This group is intended to enhance members’ skills, abilities, also cognitive processes.  Actually, members hope to gain additional knowledge or improve behaviour.

For example, Professional Workshops, Health and Fitness Classes (Yoga).

5. Service Group

The service group is composed largely of volunteers who donate their time, energy, and effort to help others in need of a particular service or who lack something that would help them lead a functional life. The task of this group is to help someone less fortunate. To support worthy causes that help people outside the group.

For example, PT Foundation and Kiwanis.

6. Civic Group

A civic group is formed to support worthy causes that help people within the group.

For example, Fire and Police Auxiliary Groups.

7. Work-group

Work-group is also known as decision-making and problem-solving groups (solving and dealing with specific issues)-Occurs within an organizational context. Members complete specific tasks and routine duties on behalf of an organization whose members take collective responsibility for the task.

For example, Standing committees, Taskforces, and, Management Teams.

8. Public group

A public group is focused to discuss important issues in front of or for the benefit of the public. However, the members of this group are key decision-makers.

For example, Symposiums, Panel discussions, and Forums.

9. Virtual Group

The task-oriented group can collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. Members of the virtual group work interdependently on a task but from different physical locations via communication technology. This group evolves into a virtual community or a group that meets regularly in cyberspace for members to share their experiences, opinions, as well as knowledge on a particular topic or interest. Virtual group communicate via virtual meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom meeting, Microsoft Team, and so more. 

For example, a CEO from another country

10. Political Group

A political group is formed to discuss important issues of the political party and contribute to countries well being.

For example, the Democratic Party, Liberal Party, and many more.

Examples of Social Groups

List of Social Groups- Types of Social Groups & examples of social group

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication or Discussion. Six Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group or Team Communication.

Group Communication 

Group communication means intercommunication among a number of people who interact regularly to achieve a goal.

Small-Group Communication

In similar, Small group communication means intercommunication among a small number of people who communicate regularly to achieve a goal. It is also known as a small group discussion or team interaction. Small group communication is very important for group learning.

Group members need to overcome many stages, conflicts to achieve the individual and group goal. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group communication are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Additionally, the four types of barriers in group communication are ethnocentrism, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

Every group communication is intended to achieve a common goal. Group members communicate to achieve their individual and common goals. However, every group discussion or communication has its advantages and disadvantages. The advantages of Small Group communication are superior performance, Greater member satisfaction, Greater civic engagement, More learning, More creativity, Enhanced cultural understanding, and so on. In contrast, the disadvantages of small group communication are more time energy, and resources, conflict, social loafing, blaming for shared errors, sleeping members, and scheduling problem.

Based on the study, the author has outlined a list of the advantages and disadvantages of Small Group Communication.

Firstly, the author is going to discuss six advantages of a small group or team communication or discussion. After that, discuss six disadvantages of a small group or team communication or discussion.

Six Advantages of Small Group Communication
  1. Superior performance
  2. Greater member satisfaction
  3. Greater civic engagement
  4. More learning
  5. More creativity
  6. Enhanced cultural understanding
1. Superior Performance

According to MIT Management Professor, Peter Senge: “If you want something really creative done, you ask a team to do it, instead of sending one person off to do it on his her own”. Groups make better decisions also solve problems, especially complex, and unclear problems. Finally, groups share the workload within group members.

2. Greater Member Satisfaction

Social benefits – opportunity to make friends, socialize, receive peer support, and feel part of a unified and successful team or group. The more opportunities group members have to communicate with one another; the more satisfied they are with the group experience.

3. Greater Civic Engagement

You are able to apply theories, methods, and tools to better engage in service to the community that you learn in a group communication course. 

4. More Learning
  • A group provides many resources to work on a problem
  • “Synergistic” effect (Buckminster Fuller, the architect of the geodesic)
  • Synergy = the sum is greater than its parts
  • Members are able to learn from also with other members
  • New members learn from veterans, similar amateurs learn from experts.
  • They also learn more about how to work as a group in contrast just merely topics they discuss.
  • It also helps in the decision-making process.
  • It is the product of interacting individuals stimulating one another so that what emerges is a product that no one member could accomplish working alone.
  • Additionally, it allows group members to share collective information, stimulate critical thinking, challenge assumptions, and raise standards of achievement.
  • In the academic context, collaborative learning promotes higher individual achievement in knowledge acquisition, retention, accuracy, creativity in problem-solving, and higher-level reasoning.
5. More Creativity

The key to creativity is the mental flexibility required to mix thoughts from our many experiences. Groups provide a creative multiplier effect by tapping more information, more brainpower, and more insights.

6. Enhanced Cultural Understanding

Members differ in characteristics, life experiences, cultures, interests, and attitudes. Therefore, group members get a chance to enhance their cultural understanding of others. Working effectively = understand, respect, and adapt to differences in members’ skills, experiences, opinions, and behavior as well as differences in gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, race, status, and worldviews.

Advantages and Disadvantages or Pros and Cons

Six Disadvantages of Small Group Communication
  1. More time, energy, and resources
  2. Conflict
  3. Social Loafing
  4. Blaming for shared errors
  5. Sleeping Member
  6. Scheduling
1. More Time, Energy, and Resources
  • A group needs more time, energy, and resources to discuss issues and to analyze and resolve problems. In contrast, less time, energy, and resources are needed when individual works alone.
  •  A group does not have a long attention span rather it has a short attention span (David Berg, 1967). A long attention span is an inevitable element to complete a task within the time period.
  • In group communication, there have a tendency to get side-tracked.
  • Similarly, topics that do not pertain to the discussion at hand may be brought up.
2. Conflict
  • Disagreement = aggressive also disruptive
  • Members in a group often are confronted with an individual who wants to take over therefore conflict exists in the group.
3. Social Loafing

Social loafing refers to the idle activity of a person or group member who pays less effort compared to other members to achieve a goal. Actually, they work very well alone for completing their own tasks but pay less effort while working in a group. Therefore, sometimes, social loafing stimulates to makes a group less productive.

4. Blaming for shared errors

A proverb says that to err is human. Errors come from both personal and group activities; therefore, it is important to identify the root cause of errors as well as the person who creates the errors. In group communication, sometimes, group members do not acknowledge the responsibility of shared errors rather they blame each other. Therefore, blaming for shared errors might increase conflict among group members that reduce productivity.

5. Sleeping Member

Sleeping members are always barriers to reduce production in Small groups because they do not contribute to achieving the goal.

6. Scheduling Problem

Scheduling a group or team meeting is a great challenge that the group faces regularly. Usually, all members of the group are not available to join the meeting at the same time for their personal busyness. Scheduling for group meetings is the essential element to increase group member’s commitment. Hence, it reduces the group productivity not for scheduling regular meetings among members.


The advantages and disadvantages of small group communication have been discussed elaborately in this article so that readers get an idea about small group or team communication. The group or team needs to take the necessary steps to handle effective communication among group members. However, reducing the disadvantages of small group communication will surely increase the productivity of the group.


Berg, D. M. (1967). A thematic approach to the analysis of the task‐oriented, small group. Communication Studies18(4), 285-291.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication. Educational Website For Online Learning.