Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine & Book Anatomy and Space 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.

Four Theories of the Press

Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson introduced the Four Theories of the Press book in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

The Four Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory
    1. Authoritarian Theory

The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.

The government has the right to filter any news published by the press.

If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.

John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900.  According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.

For example,

  • The press must free from the government.
  • Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
  • Press controlled by journalists and media.
    3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but is controlled by society’s people.

Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.

From this theory-  that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.

4. Communist Soviet Theory

The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.

  • Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
  • Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
  • Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?

The newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon, and sports events.

Newspaper Anatomy

Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy

Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Figure 1: Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Newspaper Space
Front Page  Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.
Local Section News about where you live is located.
National News about national information.
International News about international information.
Business stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market).
Sports stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories.
Entertainment Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.
Opinions & Editorials. This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.
Advertisement Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.
What Is Magazine?

Magazines are periodical publications ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.

Magazines Anatomy
Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Figure 2: Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Magazine Space
Cover Story refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.
Editorial Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.
Features Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places, and events.
Columns opinion pieces represent the strong, informed, and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance.
Reviews critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions, or a newly published book.

 

What Is a Book?

Books are written publication, printed, and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tool to keep the record of information in written and image form.

Books Anatomy
Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy
Figure 3: Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy

Books Space

PRELIM half-title
Title
copyright
content
foreword
preface
acknowledgments
TEXTS New chapter
END MATTERS Appendix
Reference
Index
Different Types of Content in Newspaper
  1. NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening.
  2. FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation, or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
  3. EDITORIAL: This space specializes in editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
  4. COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) to discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
  5. READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
  6. Advertisement
  7. Cartoon
Four Category of Readers
  1. HEAVY READERS
  • Read the newspaper for more than 2 hours.
  • Read front page, editorial, and columnist.
  • Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
  1. SPORADIC READERS

Read the newspaper for more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.

  1. SCANNER READERS
  • Read less than 15 minutes.
  • Just scan the information.
  1. APATHETIC READERS
  • Apathetic readers are less interested in reading the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.
ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT
  1. Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict and so more.
  2. Education- Educated people formally and informally.
  3. As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
  4. Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.

Online Meeting Platforms- Best Free Virtual Meeting Platforms

 Online Meeting Platforms- Free Best Virtual Meeting Platforms also Web Meeting Platforms List. The Best Free Online or Virtual Meeting Platforms are Google Meet, Zoom Meeting, Microsoft Team, GoToMeeting, Skype, Cisco WebEx Meetings, Adobe Connect, Uber Conference, and Ring Central Meetings. Virtual business meetings platform. Best Online Meeting Platforms for Business Meeting and Online Learning.

Online Meeting

Online meeting refers to the virtual communication among a group of people who stay far away from each other. It is a process of virtual discussion in which the speaker and audiences remain far from each other, and they use communication tools or software to interact. The alternative name of the online meeting is virtual meeting, web meeting, conference call, web-based seminar, web conference, e-learning, mediated group discussion, and so more.

For example, a lecturer University of Putra Malaysia is giving a class via Zoom meeting. The student participates in class from different countries, including China, Singapore, Indonesia, Nigeria, Somalia, Yemen, UAU, Iraq, Iran, Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, etc. The lecturer is the host of the meeting, and students are the participants who join the class via a mobile tab, computer, or laptop.

Online Meeting Platforms

Online Meeting Platforms refer to social media tools and software that allow multiple people to communicate virtually through video or audio calls. People use the online meeting platform to conduct personal, social, political, educational, and professional meetings. These are virtual conference calling tools that allow connecting a group of people to interact simultaneously. Online meeting platforms are also known as virtual meeting platforms, virtual conference platforms, web meeting sites, or web conferencing software. A virtual meeting is the part of mediated communication conducted among a group of people, and online meeting platforms are the media or channels of the communication process. These online meeting platforms, such as Zoom, Google Meet, and Microsoft Team, are also known as communication channels.

For example, Google Meet, Zoom Meeting, Microsoft Team, GoToMeeting, Skype, Cisco WebEx Meetings, Adobe Connect, Uber Conference, and Ring Central Meetings are online or virtual meeting platforms.

Best Free Online Meeting Platforms

The Best Free Online Meeting Platforms are

  1. Google Meet
  2. Zoom Meeting
  3. Microsoft Team
  4. GoToMeeting, Skype
  5. Skype
  6. Cisco WebEx Meetings
  7. Adobe Connect
  8. Uber Conference
  9. Ring Central Meetings.

They are also known as the best virtual meeting or web meeting platforms.

Online Meeting Platforms, Virtual Meeting Platforms
Figure 1: Best Free Online Meeting Platforms or free virtual meeting software, free online conference platforms

1. Google Meet

Google Meet is the most popular free virtual meeting platform that allows around 100 participants to join video and audio conferencing calls for 60 minutes. Actually, Google Hangouts is the former name of Google Meet. Anyone can use this platform via a browser to conduct a virtual meeting with the Google account. The meeting duration for the free plan is up to 60 minutes, so participants need to join again if the discussion is not finished within 60 minutes. Google Meet uses an anti-hijacking feature; therefore, it protects participant’s personal information.  More than 250 participants can join the virtual conference meeting internally and externally, and around 100,000 audiences can enjoy live streaming.

Google Meet launched its operation in 2017, and it is a replacement for Google Hangouts.

The official website link is meet.google.com.

Google Meet Plan

Google Meet offers three users, including Free-plan, Google Workspace Essentials, and Google Workspace Enterprise. It charges USD 8 per active user/month to increase participant up to 150 and time duration up to 24 hours. In contrast, only 60 participants can join for up to 60 minutes through the free plan.

Free Google Meet Duration and Participant

The total meeting duration for free users is 60 minutes, and 100 participants can join the virtual meeting via Google Meet. Anyone can join with a Gmail account.

Google Meet Online Meeting Platforms- Google Meet Setting
Figure 2: Google Meet Setting
Google Meet Setting

Google Meet online meeting platform offers many features, including whiteboard writing, Change Layout, Full-screen, Change background, captions, and so more. The user can write on the whiteboard to inform other participants. The user can share the screen via Google Meet virtual meeting platform.

Google Meet has four layouts that you may apply one by one during an online meeting, for example, Auto, Title, Spotlight, and Sidebar. The user can view a maximum of 49 titles or participants’ names with photos on-screen during the meeting. You need to click the change-layout option to maximize the number of on-screen titles.

Does the user able to set customize the background in Google Meet software?

Answer: No, Google meet allows you to choose the auto-generated background but not the customized background.

2. Zoom Meeting

Zoom meeting is another famous free web conferencing software to conduct virtual meetings. The user applies this online meeting platform in multiple sectors, for example, education, finance, government, and healthcare. Zoom meeting has become the most popular tool for offering various features, including virtual meeting, phone, chat, zoom room, webinars, and so more. Usually, students prefer to use this platform for easy accessibility and free feature. There is no communication noise in the Zoom meeting, so students hear the lecture clearly.

Zoom meeting platform started its operation in 2011. People can use it from a PC or Smartphone. The application is available at Google play store and Apple app store to download free for mobile users. However, the user might download the zoom meeting software from the official website link- zoom.us/download.

Zoom Meeting Setting

Firstly, download the zoom meeting software and click the new meeting icon to organize a web meeting discussion. Participants can join the virtual meeting via Zoom software or Browser, so it is unnecessary to download the software to join. The host needs to click on the new meeting icon to conduct a new meeting.

Zoom Online Meeting Platform Setting
Figure 3: Zoom Online Meeting Platform Starting Point

Secondly, click the blue icon top of the left corner to find the online meeting joining link. Additionally, you will get a setting icon mentioned below in Figure 4. The user clicks the setting icon to copy the meeting link and share it among participants to join the meeting. Additionally, participants may click the setting icon to get all settings mentioned in Figure- 4.

Zoom Online Meeting Platforms, Free Online or Virtual Meeting Platforms Zoom meeting settings
Figure 4: Zoom Online Meeting Copy Link and Setting Icon

Furthermore, Figure 5 represents how to share the screen, change the background image, record the meeting, and so more.

Zoom Online Meeting Platforms, Free Online or Virtual Meeting Platforms Zoom meeting settings
Figure 5: Zoom Meeting Share Screen, Background & Filters, Recording, and so more.
How To Use Zoom Whiteboard?

Click on the share button and click the whiteboard icon to optimize the feature. Follow Figure 5 to get visual instruction.

Free Zoom Meeting Duration and Participant

The total meeting duration for free users is 40 minutes. Around 100 participants can join at the same time in the virtual meeting.

Zoom Meeting Background

Does the Zoom Meeting software allow users to set customize the background?

Answer: Yes, You can upload your company logo or any other photo as a background of the Zoom meeting platform.

The employees can use their company logo as a background when conducting professional meetings with stakeholders. Students also can use the logo when they need to present a dummy company as an assignment. It will definitely impress the lecturer and audience to watch the presentation.

3. Microsoft Teams

Microsoft Teams is an exclusive virtual business communication platform established and regulated by Microsoft. Apart from Google Meet and Zoom, It has also become trendy during the COVID-19 pandemic. The team has replaced other Microsoft-regulated online meeting platforms, for example, Skype and Microsoft classroom.

Microsoft launched the Microsoft Teams virtual conference meeting platform in 2017. The official website link is Microsoft-Teams.

Free Microsoft Team Online Meeting

Similar to zoom meetings, the total meeting duration for free users is 45 minutes, and 100 participants can join the online meeting simultaneously via Microsoft Team.

4. GoToMeeting

Go To Meeting is a familiar online business meeting platform for its clear and noise-free audio and video conference call. It is owned by LogMeIn, also known as a software development company. In 2004, it started its journey as a virtual or online meeting and video conferencing tool. Usually, administrative management authorities and employees use GoToMeeting online meeting software via computer or laptop to conduct real-time corporate meetings.

GoToMeeting provides the service free of charge for 14 days of the trial option, so users need not pay to enjoy the benefits.

Download the App from the official Website link – Download GoToMeeting.

GoToMeeting Best Free Online or Virtual Meeting Platforms
Figure 6: GoToMeeting Virtual Meeting Conference
GoToMeeting Services

GoToMeeting online meeting platform provides the following services:

Conference Calling

Firstly, it provides a conference calls service to interact with many people at the same time. Conference calling event saves both time and money.

Video Conferencing

GoToMeeting also allows conducting a face-to-face HD video conference call.

Screen Sharing

Apart from Google Meet, Zoom, and Microsoft Team, the GoToMeeting also has a screen-sharing option for all participants.  The user can share desktop, smartphone, or tablet screens quickly and securely from anywhere.

Meeting Recording & Transcription

The user can record the real-time meeting event to share with others after the meeting. It also provides HD video, taking notes, marking action items services.

5. Skype

In contrast to the zoom and Google meet and Microsoft team, the total meeting duration for free users is 24 hours; however, only 50 participants can join the online meeting simultaneously via Skype.

Skype is an instant messaging platform that allows users to send text, images, audio, and video. It also provides a video conference call service.

Skype Features

Skype provides some outstanding features for free users, including audio and HD video calling, smart messaging, call recording and live subtitles, call phones, screen sharing, private conversations, and so more. Call phones at low rates is an exceptional service that Skype provides in 25 countries or regions. The user can call any landlines and mobiles from anywhere globally at great low rates using Skype Credit.

The additional Skype features are share location, background effects, send files, Skype translators, custom reactions, raise a hand, search within a conversation, forward call, voice mail, caller ID, and so more.

6. Cisco Webex Meetings

Webex is a leading platform to conduct virtual meetings from an organizational and personal viewpoint. One host can organize the meeting via a free plan where around 100 participants can join for up to 50 minutes.

Cisco WebEx Online Meeting Platforms, Free Best Online
Figure 7: Cisco WebEx Virtual Meeting Platform

The four basic plans of WebEx are free, Starter, Business, and Enterprise. The user might enjoy almost all the entire features via a free plan, including screen sharing, whiteboard, recording, personal text, reactions, and so more. However, users need to pay $13 to enjoy a starter plan in which more than 150 participants can join the meeting smoothly for 24 hours.

The official website link for all features and plans is WebEx Feature & Plans.

7. Adobe Connect

Adobe Connect is a free web conferencing software that users optimize to conduct virtual meetings. It is a very popular tool for remote training and web calling. The trainer can easily share the desktop to teach students and trainees.

The significant features of Adobe connect are chatting options, whiteboard, screen sharing, recording, and so more.

8. Uber Conference

UberConference is an unlimited conference meeting software. It provides amazing free features for users. Craig Walker launched this feature in May 2012. It is also known as Dialpad UberConference.

The free plan allows joining about 10 participants for up to 45 meetings. However, the business plan allows joining up to 100 participants for 5 hours. The business plan charges $15 to provides multiple features.

9. Ring Central

Ring Central is a virtual meeting platform for voice, video meetings, team messaging, and collaboration. It has 7 layers of security and redundant data centers to ensure user protection and high availability.

Ring Central’s features are video conferencing, team messaging, screen sharing, remote working, and so more.

The Purposes of Online Meetings

The purpose of using the online meeting platform is to complete personal, social, educational, and organizational meetings virtually. People from different professions utilize these online meeting platforms to conduct virtual class meetings, virtual business meetings, virtual family meetings, etc. The online meeting platform has become an inevitable medium to maintain communication during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The most significant purposes of online meetings are virtual class meetings, virtual business meetings, and virtual family meetings.

1. Virtual Class Meeting

Firstly, educators, including lecturers, instructors,  and administrators, use online meeting platforms for offering classes to the students.  Students adopt online or web meeting platforms to conduct group discussions. Students also use it due to the easy accessibility feature. Sometimes, teachers instruct students to conduct virtual meetings among group members to discuss the topic and submit the online meeting minutes.

2. Virtual Business Meetings

To make the workplace safe from COVID-19, Many organization decides to adjust to new work norms, namely work from home (WFH). Therefore, the employees use these virtual business meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom Meeting, Microsoft Team, GoToMeeting, Skype, Cisco WebEx Meetings, Join.me, Adobe Connect, Uber Conference, and Ring Central Meetings. Corporate people must need to use these web meeting sites to operate organizational activities. Many social organizations utilize virtual or online and web meeting platforms to create social awareness among people. For example, in the COVID-19 pandemic, social welfare organizations use these online meeting sites to spread emergency information on how to stay safe from coronavirus.

3. Virtual Family meeting

The individual applies the online meeting platform to organize family programs such as marriage ceremonies, birthday celebrations, anniversaries, and so more.

In short, individual, educator, government, and non-government organizations enjoy taking advantage of web conferencing software.