Proofreading: Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, Purpose & Process.

Proofreading: Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, Purpose & Process. What is Proofreading in journalism? Difference Between Proofreading and Editing, The Purpose and Process of Proofreading, Proofreading Tips, Do’s, and Don’ts of Proofreading, EFFECTIVE WAYS TO PROOFREAD WRITING.


Proofreading symbols are the marks that a proofreader makes on a paper when they edit it. They are a coded set of instructions that point out where mistakes have been made and how a piece of writing can be improved.

Proofreading, or ‘copy checking’, originally referred to newspapers, where an editor would take typeset paper and check the text for errors against an original manuscript. These days, even in newspapers and magazines, which often have their sub-editors proof on-screen, it’s all done digitally.

Proofreading is a surface-level check. It is the final check performed on a document. A proofreader will look for misspellings, incorrect/missed punctuation, inconsistencies (textual and numerical), etc. Editing, on the other hand, corrects issues at the core of writing like sentence construction and language clarity. Although editing will help improve the readability, clarity, and tone of the text. An editor will scrutinize and polish your writing for a smooth narration.

What is Proofreading in journalism?

Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to find and correct production errors of text or art. Proofreading is the final step in the editorial cycle.

Difference Between Proofreading and Editing

Proofreading and editing are often viewed similarly, but they are very different parts of any publishing process. They also ought to be very different parts of the draft writing process. Proofreading ought to be done at the end of the writing process, as the final stage of writing before the draft, is ready.

Editing must be done earlier to perfect the document in advance. Editing deals with basic language usage and communication. Editors are going to look at word choice, whether or not a document uses too much passive voice. They also check whether or not there are too many words used in
general. Editing is concerned with trying to improve the writing content in a way that relates to the text quality, not just its presentation.

The Purpose of Proofreading

1.For better or for worse, people do tend to dismiss the value of almost any piece of writing based on a few spelling errors or other minor surface language errors.
2. It is also important to proofread because a poorly checked writing would be harder to read. Well-read people are going to learn by word recognition.

The Process of Proofreading a Paper

First, you will need to take note of all the errors you should fix. Otherwise, you might end up proofreading for spelling errors but not for punctuation errors. Once you have familiarized yourself with everything you should do during the proofreading process, start picking every sentence apart. Look for the potential surface language errors that might be there. While reading
each sentence, check the spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors as well as typing mistakes.

When the paper or piece of writing is proofread the first time, read through it a second time. Just use the same proofreading process. People who have missed a few errors should manage to find them during the second reading. Depending upon the nature of the situation and the importance of the writing, it might be a good idea to do a third reading.

Proofreading Process

Figure 1: Proofreading Symbols

Proofreading Tips

Tip 1. It is important not to rely on spell-checkers entirely. Some of them might misdiagnose words as misspelled due to the dictionary’s limitations. Some of them might not pick up on misused words.

Tip 2. Certain words are more likely to be mistyped than others based on the position of the letters on the keyboard. For instance, the word ‘the’ is often typed in as ‘teh’ for the people who are typing very quickly. You should remember which words these are to scrutinize them more carefully when writing.

Tip 3. People who are prone to misspell certain words should keep in mind which words these are. You might want to avoid using them altogether. Otherwise, just keep your eyes on these words.

Tip 4. Getting a rhythm going is an essential part of proofreading. And it is not the most exciting writing task that is out there. People who try to view the task mechanically will be that much more likely to get through it.

Do’s and Don’ts of Proofreading

• Do repeat the proofreading process more than once.
Don’t proofread during the writing and editing process.
• Do look for grammatical errors, typing errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors.
Don’t proofread only certain sections of the document at the exclusion of others.
• Do pay attention to words that are frequently mistyped, misspelled, or misused.
Don’t spend too much time on the proofreading process.


Spell checkers are great as the first port of call and will be useful in assisting you to identify high-level errors. However, automated spelling and grammar checkers are severely limited and they cannot identify many common grammatical errors. Furthermore, they often make serious mistakes that can mislead even the most diligent writer.


Proofreading really is a meticulous and time-consuming process, but the more you put into it, the more you get out. If you attempt to identify and correct all errors within one sitting, you risk losing focus and you may find that you miss major mistakes. Sometimes it’s useful to check for spelling mistakes and punctuation errors separately. This will make it easier to spot issues and you can vary the proofreading technique you use on each pass to suit the type of mistakes you are searching for.


One technique that the majority of professional proofreaders use is to read the writing they are proofreading out loud. This forces you to voice every single word and involves your auditory senses in the process, meaning that you can hear how the text actually sounds when it is read. Trying to read something quickly forces your brain to skip some words and make unconscious corrections.


Breaking the text into separate sections provides you with more manageable tasks. Read each section carefully and then take a break before you progress to the next. This will prevent you from feeling overwhelmed by the task ahead and will allow you to concentrate more effectively on the section of writing that you are proofreading. This technique is especially useful if you are proofreading a very large document, such as a thesis or dissertation.


This method may seem over the top but it is one of the most effective methods out there for spotting punctuation mistakes. By circling every single punctuation mark, you force yourself to look at each one in turn and question if it really has been used correctly.


This proofreading method is useful for identifying spelling mistakes because it forces you to concentrate on each word in isolation. Start with the last word in your text and follow each one separately until you reach the beginning of the document. While you are doing this, you are not really interested in punctuation and grammar; you are focusing entirely on how the words have been spelled. Many proofreaders also recommend reading papers backward, sentence by sentence.


Proofreading writing on a regular basis can help you to identify your own strengths and weaknesses and understand where you make mistakes. If you are aware of the common errors you make, you can learn to look for them during the writing process itself and, over a period of time, will learn to avoid them altogether. Keep style guides and grammar rules to hand as you proofread, and look up any areas that you are uncertain about. Over time you will develop your knowledge and your writing skills will improve.

List of Five Hard Skills and Soft Skills That I Need To Master To Become Efficient Leader

Hard Skills and Soft Skills That Need to Master to Become Efficient Leader. Top Five Hard and Soft Skills to become the Future Ready Leader.

Hard Skills and Soft Skills

 Hard Skills

A set of abilities and skills that are quantifiable and tangible. It refers to those skills that we can acquire in different ways such as by reading books, practicing, learning from TV or the internet, and so on.  For example, Computer Programing, driving, cooking, using different kinds of types of machinery.

Soft Skills

Soft skills refer to those skills or abilities that are not tangible but unquantifiable. These skills are one’s personal skill, their specialty. Soft skills cannot be taught, unlike hard skills. These are called people skills.

List of five hard skills that need to master
Bilingual or Multilingual

A leader must know foreign languages to communicate with people or leaders of other nations. It is essential for every leader, from a nation’s prime minister to an organization’s owner or stakeholders. Hence, I want to know this skill to collaborate, cooperate with other people of other countries.

Computer Expert

In the present time of globalization and the internet revolution, being a computer expert is very important. Every leader needs to know how to use a computer. I must have to know this skill for getting information to analyze, market assessment, learning new technologies to security development in every aspect.


A researcher enriches the world with new in-depth knowledge, influences people’s Perspectives, come up with new thoughts.  People all over the world get to know his findings and get to learn more.

Time Management

A leader must know to use his time properly. There are a lot of employees in his organization and he is the only responsible person who needs to manage everything. I want to learn managing time properly for making done all tasks on time.


A leader must have to be a good listener. He can’t just protest or disagree with every statement of his or her employee. A leader should try to listen to everyone’s statement before giving his or her statement. I want to be a good listener.

List of five soft skills that need to master

A good communicator can deliver his speech clearly. People will not believe your statement without clear speech. I want everyone to believe my words for my effective communication skill.


I need to be flexible in terms of different environments or situations.  I have to be calm to understand the situation before taking action. Angriness is very harmful if you get it when need to make a decision.


Teamwork is an important soft skill that makes a leader to be associated with employees or partners. I need this skill to build up unity to gain the objectives.


I want to have empathy skill that helps to understand the emotions of others. I think it is one of the most important skills that will make me able to feel other’s emotions and conditions.


A leader should never stop if he or she decides to start. It is very difficult to gain success without consistency. I want to have this skill for being a good leader in the future.

Personally I want to master all these hard and soft skills from now and onward to become a good leader. I think these skills would be quite enough for being a good leader.

Importance and Contribution of Leadership in the Challenging Environment of Post-COVID-19 and V.U.C.A World

Importance & contribution of leadership in post-COVID-19 & V.U.C.A world. Importance & contribution of leadership in the challenging environment of post-COVID-19 and V.U.C.A world. 

Importance & contribution of leadership in post-COVID-19 & V.U.C.A world

Importance of leadership in post-COVID-19 and V.U.C.A world

Leadership is the ability to guide others without force into a direction or decision that leaves them still feeling empowered and accomplished (Gupta, 2009). In an Organization, Leadership is the action of leading people in an organization towards achieving goals (Ross, 2014).

In the challenging environment after COVID-19, an effective leader is essential to put up all things back to the previous situation. After ending this pandemic, every leader of a nation or organization must come up with recovery processes. All we know that the current situation of the world is not the same as it was before. This pandemic made critical situation filled with uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity. So, a leader will plan to execute all the procedures by motivating people for managing the crucial situation. There is no alternative but an effective leader can fill the gaps to move forward for the development. We have work hand in hand for a better future. Hence, effective leadership is the most important thing to recover from the post-COVID-19 situation.

Contributions of leadership in the challenging environment of post-COVID-19 and V.U.C.A world. 

A country’s or an organization’s recovery, development, and profit certainty all depend on its leadership contributions. There are some basic contributions to the leadership that are very necessary to cope with this challenging environment of post-COVID-19 and V.U.C.A world such as decision making, effective communication, motivation, and determination.

First of all, decision Making is seems a prime step to recover from the VUCA world. A good leader makes new decisions spontaneously through using the information and analyzes the condition situation. He will visualize the whole scenario with his experiences and finally come up with better plans or policies to proceed on.

Secondly, effective communication can accelerate the pace of recovering situation.  An effective leader will communicate with employees, co-workers, and others to develop and redesigning plans. He connects all the people together to work as a team which makes it more efficient to come up with any plan.

In addition, Inspiration and Motivation is another important skill for efficient leadership. The leader will inspire and motivate others to work together effectively. A leader can make new leaders with this admirable quality. He shares his experience, thoughts which encourage others to work for him or work like him. Eventually, it will accelerate the process of planning and its implementation.

Furthermore, Integration and determination skill should have possessed by every effective leader. He can overcome any situation with his integrity, honesty, and a good level of confidence. In the post-pandemic situation, there is too much uncertainty. If there is a lack of confidence and integrity no plans can work.  Therefore a leader with these qualities can help to overcome devastating situations and to achieve success.

Finally, Effective leaders should come up with versatile and strong personality skills. An effective leader will be versatile in terms of decision and policymaking. And, a strong personality includes public speaking, a good listener, a learner, in-depth knowledge, and so on. These characteristics of a leader influence people of a nation or organization to follow him. According to the opinion, these are very good contributions that leaders should possess.


Ross, S. (2014). A conceptual model for understanding the process of self-leadership development and action-steps to promote personal leadership development. The Journal of Management Development33(4), 299-323.