Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage

Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model and Lewin’s Change Theory. Lewin’s change model consists of three stages, such as unfreeze, change & refreeze. Change Communication during Change Management.

Lewin’s Change Model

Lewin’s change model refers to the three stages of management change theory. The three stages of Lewin’s change model are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Therefore, Lewin’s change model is also known as Lewin’s change management theory. The alternative name of the Lewin change model is the three-stage change model or unfreeze change refreeze model.

Who and When Established Lewin’s Change Model?

Kurt Lewin established the three stages of the organizational change model in 1947.

In 1947, Kurt Lewin introduced the 3 phases of the change management model known as Kurt Lewin’s change model. After that, researchers and scientists established many models to describe organizational changes, such as Kotter’s Change Management Model, Kübler-Ross Five Stage Change Management, ADKAR Change Management Model, McKinsey 7-S Change, Management Model, also Lewin’s Change Model or Theory. However, Lewin’s change model has become the most popular for its simplicity and fewer stages, for example, unfreeze, change, and refreeze.

Nowadays, researchers have developed multiple theories based on Lewin’s change management model. So, it is the foundation of all modern change management theories. For example, John Kotter’s 8-stage management change model was developed based on Lewin’s change model. Now, the management system is complex compared to before when the model was introduced. Therefore, the practice of Lewin’s change management model is controversial in modern organizations. It has excellent theoretical significance in the research arena rather than practical importance.

Lewin’s Change Model Real-Life Example

Many reputed companies apply Lewin’s change management model to survive in the current situation. For example, Netflix has used a change model to adjust to the digital era. Netflix’s change management process handled the force of organizational change to achieve a competitive advantage. Now, they are one of the most successful companies globally. Netflix is a real-life example of Lewin’s change management model. It is known as Lewin’s Change Model Business Example.

Lewin’s Change Management Model Example

An ice block cannot get converted into a new shape without melting it. So it would be best if you created a hot environment to melt the ice block. The temperature must be more than 32°F (0°C) temperature to melt the ice. So, here, increasing the temperature denotes the unfreezing stage.

According to Lewin’s theory, unfreezing refers to preparation for accepting the new norms of the workplace. It is the initial stage to get ready to accept the change. The management needs to motivate employees to accept change.

It will take time to transform the entire ice block into the water.  Keep the glass in an isolated place and ensure the temperature is suitable for melting ice. When the ice block completely transforms into water, pour it into a new pot to give it a unique shape. Here, pouring the water into a glass is changing steps or moving stage. Melting the ice denotes the change stage of Lewin’s theory.

According to Lewin’s theory, changing refers to accepting the new norms and moving on to change. Thus, the employee starts to change and accept the new norms of the working place.

Finally, keeping the glass in a cold place to transform the water into ice again. It is the way of freezing the water transform again into a new solid shape. It is called the process of refreezing and the final stage of Lewin’s change management model.

Refreezing refers to adjusting to the new norms of the workplace. The employee has already accepted the change, and they adapt to the new environment.

The model summarized that successful management change is accomplished through a three-stage process; unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.

Lewin’s Change Theory Examples

For example, the educational institute has shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, all organizations, including educational institutes, decided to conduct virtual or online classes to ensure the continuation of education for students. These educational institutes are applying online meeting platforms, for example, Zoom, Google Meet, to conduct virtual classes and organizational meetings. It was a new experience for lecturers; therefore, they were afraid of uncertainty and interested in taking online courses. But, the university authority compels them to accept the change. The university authority maintains effective communication through social media platforms to motivate employees to get change. They thought that organizational change would help achieve competitive advantages as the other educational institutes adopt the changes. So, finally, they accept the change and adjust to the new working environment. It is a perfect example of Lewin’s Change Theory.

Lewin’s Stages of Change

The three stages of Lewin’s change model are:
  1. Unfreeze stage
  2. Change stage
  3. Refreeze stage
Lewin's Change Model- Lewin change management model
Figure 1: Lewin’s Change Model or Theory

Unfreeze Change Refreeze

1. Unfreeze Stage

Unfreeze is the initial stage or step of Lewin’s change model or Lewin’s change management model. In this stage, employees take mental preparation to accept the change of the organization. In the management system, the unfreeze stage refers to breaking down the existing state of circumstances to accept the organizational changes. Usually, employees feel comfortable in the organization’s current condition; therefore, some do not like to accept organizational change quickly due to uncertainty. The unfreezing stage consists of the process of educating people about opportunities for organizational change. The organization should practice the change communication strategy to prepare employees for the change.

The key point of this stage is to compel employees to accept organizational change through effective change communication. It is essential to maintain effective interaction within the organization to persuade employees to accept change. Employees will receive the change if they can understand the new things cannot protect the company or organization from surviving.  Additionally, they need to realize that change is essential to sustain the organization and achieve competitive advantages.

A high level of positive motivation among employees helps to accept organizational changes. Next, the organization needs to persuade the stakeholders that the change will bring benefits to everyone. Some people will receive it quickly, but some of them will deny it at the initial time. Finally, everyone will come up with the motivation to make the change.

Communication During the Unfreeze Stage

The primary communication objective is to prepare stakeholders, employees, and the organization to accept the change – “Readying” the organization. However, resistance will increase at the same speed with how huge the change is and how much it affects the organization. Effective communication can overcome resistance. To ‘ready’ the organization for accepting the change, it is essential to declare the objective of the change. Additionally, you have to ensure that everyone in the organization knows what will happen and why. The first factor must be communicated for change by pointing out the difference between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. This first message or declaration should come from the top-level management of the organization to avoid communication conflict.

2. Change (Move) Stage

Actual changes occur in this stage when everyone in the organization decides to accept the change with positive motivation. Employees receive and adjust to the new working atmosphere. Changes can be major or minor based on the organization’s needs. The organization needs to provide sufficient training and support for the employees to embrace the changes. It is the stage of implementing the entire process of changes; therefore, many issues need to be done consciously. Some employees may spread misleading information due to having insufficient knowledge about organizational change. So, the organization needs to practice an effective communication process within organization to avoid unwanted issues. However, at the end of the day, employees will be focused on practicing the new work.

Communication During the Change Stage

The organization should ensure effective communication among employees to reduce uncertainty as well as rumors. People may indulge in spreading disinformation and lies that have less information about the process of change. Therefore, the communication has to have a more specific character in this stage than in the previous phase. Communication in these steps is essential to provide authentic, accurate, and detailed information on what will happen to those who have less sketchy details on implementing changes. Finally, it distributes the new responsibility among assigned people in the organization.

3. Refreeze Stage 

In this stage, employees adjust to the organizational change day by day. Refreezing is a slow process of adopting the new culture and atmosphere of the corporate workplace. Employees and stakeholders may take a long time to adjust to the new systems. The pace of the practice among employees determines the time of the refreezing stage. So, refreezing is the most crucial stage in Lewin’s change model so, everyone deals with it efficiently. The new attitude and behavior of employees become solidified as the norm of the organization. Finally, everyone starts to feel comfortable as in the previous stage before unfreezing.

Communication During the Refreeze Stage

The communication process should answer employees’ queries regarding rewards, control, efficiency, and relationship roles. In this stage, the information flow should be concrete, continuous, and multidirectional so that employees have a sufficient understanding of the personal associations of the change. Unavoidable misunderstandings may occur in this step, so; communication should focus on making the change successful.

Lewin’s Change Model Advantages and Disadvantages.

Lewin’s change model strengths and weaknesses

Advantages of Kurt Lewin Change Model

Firstly, Kurt Lewin’s model is straightforward to understand; therefore, any organization can implement it easily. The management need not hire experts to execute the model. The existing employees will be able to apply it and evaluate the outcome. Additionally, it has only three stages, such as unfreeze, change, and refreeze. For example, the McKinsey 7-S model has seven elements that are challenging to implement.

Kurt Lewin 1951 References
Lewin, K. (1951). Forces of change: Field theory in social science.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/lewins-change-model-3-steps-management-change-and-communication/

Red Ocean & Blue Ocean Strategy- Difference Between Blue & Red Ocean Strategy

Red Ocean Strategy- Red Ocean vs Blue Ocean Strategy. Difference Between Blue ocean and Red ocean strategy. Examples of Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy. Also, Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework.

Red Ocean Strategy

Red ocean strategy refers to the traditional marketing strategy to compete with the competitors. It is demonstrated when many companies compete to achieve a competitive advantage in the existing market. These companies contest in the same marketplace to beat their opponents. Red ocean strategy influences the company to provide better service to buyers. It mainly focuses on the existing customers and buyers rather than creating new customers. So, they provide better services and products to attract customers.

For example, Ryanair and Air Asia Airlines follow the red ocean strategy to beat their competitors.

Red Ocean Strategy Example

Air Asia is a renowned airline company in Malaysia. It always tries to compete with other airline companies in Malaysia, for example, Firefly, Malindo, and Malaysia Airlines, to achieve competitive advantages. Air Asia offers low prices in domestic and international flights to beat the competitors. On the other hand, Malaysia Airlines also reduce the price to beat Air Asia. So, they fight each other in the same marketplace. It is a real-life example 0f the Blue Ocean Strategy.

Suppose we infer these giant companies with sharks and the marketplace with the ocean. So, imagine what will happen if all these sharks fight with each other. The ocean gets bloody due to the fierce fight of sharks.

Advantages of Red Ocean Strategy

Firstly, the market has already existed, so no need to create a new marketplace.

Secondly, the services and products have good demand by the customers. Many customers want the products; so, the new companies can utilize the existing consumers.

Additionally, the company can recruit skilled employees easily who have deep experience in the sector.

Finally, the new companies can get ideas on how to improve the business from their competitors.

Disadvantages of Red Ocean Strategy

Firstly, The competitors are experienced in this market so difficult to beat them.

Secondly, the company needs to focus on cost and differentiation that is quite difficult for a new business.

Blue Ocean Strategy

Blue ocean strategy refers to the uncontested marketing policy that focuses more on the innovation to reinvent the business than the head-to-head competition.  W. Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne together introduced the Blue ocean strategy in 2005. It is a simultaneous process of opening a new business market and creating new demand; therefore, competition is irrelevant.

Examples of Blue Ocean Strategy

There are several examples of the blue ocean strategy worldwide. Many industries had accepted it to get benefits, such as Canon, iTunes, Cemex, Philips, NetJets, Curves, JCDecaux, Quicken, Polo Ralph Lauren, etc. iTunes solved the problem of recording industries when it started the business. Before launching iTunes, consumers download a song illegally from the internet platform. ITunes’s blues ocean strategy created a new way of selling music legally, where consumers and artists became mutually benefited. They managed to make a new category of music selling through digital music platforms for listeners. Still, it is dominating the marketplace of music platforms for years. Netflix organizational change is the most appropriate example of the Blue Ocean strategy.

For example, Netflix, Canon, and iTunes follow the blue ocean strategy to achieve the competitive goal.

Blue and Red Ocean Strategy Example

For example, you put some sharks in a pond. Now, they are fighting each other. The sharks are trying to kill others. A few hours later, you can see the water has been red for the shark’s blood. We can infer this pond to the red ocean where many companies are competing with each other.

On the other hand, you put a shark in a separate pond. There is no other shark that can fight, so the water is blue and fresh. We can infer it to the blue ocean strategy where only one company controls the marketplace.

Red Ocean Strategy and Blue Ocean Strategy- Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean strategy. What is the Blue ocean strategy? What is the Red Ocean Strategy? Blue and Red Ocean Strategy. Examples of Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy.
Figure 1: Red Ocean Strategy and Blue Ocean Strategy
Difference Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy
Red Ocean Strategy vs. Blue Ocean Strategy
Red Ocean Strategy
Blue Ocean Strategy
The contest in the same market. Create an uncontested new market.
Many Companies compete with each other in the existing market. One Company dominates the new Market.
Beats competitors. Competitors are irrelevant.
The company pursues both cost and differentiation. The company chooses between cost and differentiation.
Make the value-cost trade-off. Break the value-cost trade-off.
Capture new demand. Exploit existing demand.
Focus on rivals within its industry. Focus across the alternative industry.
Intend to provide better service to buyers. Redefine the buyer group.
Focus on current customers. Focus on new customers.
The market is already established. Need to make the new market.
For example, Ryanair and Air Asia Airlines. For example, Netflix, Canon, and iTunes.
Red Ocean vs Blue Ocean strategy
Figure 2: Red Ocean vs. Blue Ocean Strategy
Three Most Important Differences Between Red Ocean and Blue Ocean Strategy
  1. Focus on Current Customers vs. Focus on New Customers

Most industries focus on attracting existing customers to sell more products and services in the red ocean strategy. Thus, they focus on the current customer to make a benefit by selling products and services.

In contrast, in the blue ocean strategy, the industry tries to change the pattern of the business to yield something new for the customers. The company also broadens the business area to develop new products or services for the customers; therefore, customers are irrelevant here. Thus, this strategy allows the company to focus on business patterns rather than customers.

2. Compete in Existing Markets vs. Create New Markets

From the red ocean strategy perspective, the industry is doing business with the customers where some industries gain more clients, and some other sectors lose clients. They are doing business among the same customers and competing with each other to get more customers. The company will earn more money if it can bring more customers to its umbrella.

The blue ocean strategy never suggests the company compete because it makes a new uncontested marketplace. The product and service are unique; therefore, no company will come to compete with you. So, this strategy creates an uncontested market to serve its customers.

3. Beat the Competitor vs. Make the Competitor Irrelevant

The competition must exist in the marketplace of the company that follows the red ocean strategy. They compete with each other to sell more products and services to increase profit margins. So, they always intend to beat the competitors through marketing policy, product quality, and services.

The blue ocean strategy makes the competition irrelevant because they need not compete with other industries to sell products and services. It makes a new marketplace for the industry.

The 8 Key Points of Blue Ocean Strategy

The eight key points of the Blue ocean strategy are as follows;

  1. It’s grounded in data.
  2. It pursues differentiation and low cost.
  3. Blue ocean creates an uncontested market space.
  4. It empowers you through tools & framework.
  5. Blue ocean strategy provides a step-by-step process.
  6. It maximizes opportunity while minimizing risks.
  7. Blue ocean also builds execution into strategy.
  8. It shows you how to create a win-win outcome.
Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework

Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne developed the four action framework to destroy the trade-off between low cost and differentiation and rebuild an industry’s strategic logic. The four Actions Template determines whether the investment money is properly used to maximize consumer gain and minimize consumer pain. It also assesses the gains that matter with this template and the pains that matter for your product. It is the best way of getting the most benefit with the least price within the total product market.

 

Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework
Figure 3: Blue Ocean Strategy Four Action Framework
How to Use Four Action Templates
Eliminate

Firstly, you have to identify the factors of the industry that need to be eliminated because of defectiveness. Find out the elements where you give significant investment and efforts but getting very little output. These factors can also be made more contribution in the past but now useless, so you need to eliminate them because of becoming obsolete.

Reduce

Secondly, you need to identify factors that are not completely unnecessary for the industry and cannot correctly benefit the industry. These factors are well below the industry’s standard. For example, the higher cost of manufacturing can reduce the product.

Raise

These are the significant factors that need to be increased to fulfill the industries well above standards. For example, to exceed the customer’s challenges, the company needs to rebuild the features.

Create

These are the new features that the company never provided. To create these new features, you need to investigate the customer’s desire to fulfill them. The industry also can create new products or offer unique services for consumers in an innovative way. It will help the company to create a new marketplace distinguished from the competition.

Conclusion

In short, Red ocean strategy refers to competing for the existing marketplace, where the blue ocean strategy denotes making a new uncontested marketplace. Based on the discussion, it is safe to say that the blue ocean is a better way to bring fewer risks, more success, and increased profits for the company. In addition, the four action templates appear as the best solution to identify the industry’s investment is properly or not. Hence, the blue ocean strategy and the four action framework have become innovative inventions for the business arena.