Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine & Book Anatomy and Space 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.

Four Theories of the Press

Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson introduced the Four Theories of the Press book in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

The Four Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory
    1. Authoritarian Theory

The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.

The government has the right to filter any news published by the press.

If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.

John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900.  According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.

For example,

  • The press must free from the government.
  • Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
  • Press controlled by journalists and media.
    3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but is controlled by society’s people.

Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.

From this theory-  that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.

4. Communist Soviet Theory

The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.

  • Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
  • Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
  • Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?

The newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon, and sports events.

Newspaper Anatomy

Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy

Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Figure 1: Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Newspaper Space
Front Page  Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.
Local Section News about where you live is located.
National News about national information.
International News about international information.
Business stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market).
Sports stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories.
Entertainment Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.
Opinions & Editorials. This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.
Advertisement Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.
What Is Magazine?

Magazines are periodical publications ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.

Magazines Anatomy
Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Figure 2: Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Magazine Space
Cover Story refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.
Editorial Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.
Features Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places, and events.
Columns opinion pieces represent the strong, informed, and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance.
Reviews critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions, or a newly published book.

 

What Is a Book?

Books are written publication, printed, and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tool to keep the record of information in written and image form.

Books Anatomy
Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy
Figure 3: Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy

Books Space

PRELIM half-title
Title
copyright
content
foreword
preface
acknowledgments
TEXTS New chapter
END MATTERS Appendix
Reference
Index
Different Types of Content in Newspaper
  1. NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening.
  2. FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation, or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
  3. EDITORIAL: This space specializes in editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
  4. COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) to discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
  5. READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
  6. Advertisement
  7. Cartoon
Four Category of Readers
  1. HEAVY READERS
  • Read the newspaper for more than 2 hours.
  • Read front page, editorial, and columnist.
  • Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
  1. SPORADIC READERS

Read the newspaper for more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.

  1. SCANNER READERS
  • Read less than 15 minutes.
  • Just scan the information.
  1. APATHETIC READERS
  • Apathetic readers are less interested in reading the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.
ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT
  1. Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict and so more.
  2. Education- Educated people formally and informally.
  3. As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
  4. Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.

News Writing Process, How to Write a News? 5W and 1H of Report Writing

News Writing Process, How to Write a News? 5W and 1H of Report Writing in-journalism, Types of News Reporting in Journalism. Example of News Writing Process. How to write a complete news article. News article writing instruction for students.

5W and 1H of Report Writing

The 5 ws and 1h of journalism are who, where, what, when, why, and how. A reporter must need to answer all these 5 w’s and h question through the reporting. Therefore, these are the essential elements that the reporter should keep in mind during writing and publishing a news story.

  1. Who ( who are involved?)
  2. Where ( where it happen?)
  3. What ( what is happening?)
  4. When (when it happen?)
  5. Why (why it happen?)
  6. Also, how ( how its happen?)
News Writing Process- Element of News Writing, Types of News Reporting in Journalism. Example of News Writing Process. 
Figure 1: News Writing Process- Five W’S and H of Journalism
Types of News Reporting in Journalism
  1. Crime News Reporting
  2. Sports News Reporting
  3. Economic News Reporting
  4. Disaster news reporting
1. Crime News Reporting

Crime news reporting refers to the news reporting related to crime issues, including police, victim, and criminals.

2. Sports News Reporting

Sports News Reporting means writing and publishing news related to the development in the sports industry locally or internationally.

3. Economic News Reporting

Economic News Reporting means news writing related to the economic and financial system in-country or in the world.

4. Disaster News Reporting

Disaster News Reporting means news reporting that will affect on emotional of the victim whose are involved.

What Should Journalist Report?

Firstly, the journalist should report the serious issues in society.

The journalist reports extraordinary crime news in the society or community.

Finally, a journalist should report the local crime to the identity of the criminal and victim.

News Writing Process

The news writing process will help you to know how to write a complete news article. It also represents the basic elements of a news story and how to follow them one by one.

News Report Writing Format and Example

The 8 elements of a news report or newspaper article are:

  1. Title/ Headline
  2. Author name/ Byline
  3. Dateline
  4. Lead
  5. Body
  6. Conclusion
  7. Photo
  8. Caption
1. Title/Headline

The headline is the most important element of a news report to attract the reader to read the full article. A good perfect headline also concludes the news.

Elements of the Title or Headline

A good headline or title should be 1. Provocative, 2.Functional, 3. Simple, 4. Informal, 5. Relevant, also 6. Representative.

Example of Headline- Government officials accepting bribes are hunted

  1. Byline/ Author Name

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted

By: M M Kobiruzzaman
  1. Dateline

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July
  1. Lead

Lead is the most important section of the news for readers to understand the message of the news story. Actually, a good lead highlights the main issue of the news. Finally, a good lead of new never exceeds 25-35 words.

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands.

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.
  1. News Body or Content

News body refers to the main content of the news reporting that describes and explains the facts. It is the prime part of the report; because, it explains the whole story of the issue. If the full report covers 7 paragraph, usually, the body starts with paragraph 3 until 5.

For example,

Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted
By: M M Kobiruzzaman
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands.

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.
Body 1: Sources said the MACC will make follow -up arrests on the issue of leakage in Cameron Highlands soon.

Body 2: “If before, we arrested the bribe givers but after this we will conduct the same operation to hunt down those who accept bribes. Anyone including government officials and middlemen who helped launch the bribery process will be arrested.

Body 3: "We will also not hesitate to take action even against those in authority in the case of land encroachment there," said a source involved in the corruption investigation in Cameron Highlands here today.
  1. Conclusion

The conclusion again highlights the main fact of the issues that have already been reported on the lead and news body part.

For example,

Conclusion 1: Meanwhile, the director of the sprm intelligence division, Datuk Azam Baki, when contacted, stressed that his party would never compromise if there was any element of corruption involving government officials or enforcement officers in the issue.

Conclusion 2: “those arrested were bribe givers and the results of our further investigation have identified those who received bribes. further action will be taken, "he said
Example of Full News Report
Government Officials Accepting Bribes are Hunted 
By: M M Kobiruzzaman 
KUALA LUMPUR 2 July 

Lead 1: KUALA LUMPUR 2 July - The malaysian anti -corruption commission (sprm) has detected several government officials suspected of being involved in corrupt activities in cameron highlands. 

Lead 2: Government officials are suspected among the recipients of bribes that are the cause of government efforts to restore environmental damage in cameron highlands failed.

Body 1: Sources said the MACC will make follow -up arrests on the issue of leakage in Cameron Highlands soon. 

Body 2: “If before, we arrested the bribe givers but after this we will conduct the same operation to hunt down those who accept bribes. Anyone including government officials and middlemen who helped launch the bribery process will be arrested. 

Body 3: "We will also not hesitate to take action even against those in authority in the case of land encroachment there," said a source involved in the corruption investigation in Cameron Highlands here today.

Conclusion 1: Meanwhile, the director of the sprm intelligence division, Datuk Azam Baki, when contacted, stressed that his party would never compromise if there was any element of corruption involving government officials or enforcement officers in the issue.

Conclusion 2: “those arrested were bribe givers and the results of our further investigation have identified those who received bribes. further action will be taken, "he said