Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.
Four Theories of the Press
Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson introduced the Four Theories of the Press book in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.
The Four Theories of the Press are:
- Authoritarian Theory
- Libertarian Theory
- Social Responsibility Theory
- Communist Soviet Theory
1. Authoritarian Theory
The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.
The government has the right to filter any news published by the press.
If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.
2. Libertarian Theory
Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.
John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900. According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.
- The press must free from the government.
- Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
- Press controlled by journalists and media.
3. Social Responsibility Theory
Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but is controlled by society’s people.
Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.
From this theory- that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.
4. Communist Soviet Theory
The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.
- Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
- Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
- Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?
The newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon, and sports events.
Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
|Front Page||Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.|
|Local Section||News about where you live is located.|
|National||News about national information.|
|International||News about international information.|
|Business||stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market).|
|Sports||stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories.|
|Entertainment||Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.|
|Opinions & Editorials.||This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.|
|Advertisement||Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.|
What Is Magazine?
Magazines are periodical publications ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.
|Cover Story||refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.|
|Editorial||Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.|
|Features||Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places, and events.|
|Columns||opinion pieces represent the strong, informed, and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance.|
|Reviews||critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions, or a newly published book.|
What Is a Book?
Books are written publication, printed, and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tool to keep the record of information in written and image form.
Different Types of Content in Newspaper
- NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening.
- FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation, or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
- EDITORIAL: This space specializes in editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
- COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) to discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
- READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
Four Category of Readers
- HEAVY READERS
- Read the newspaper for more than 2 hours.
- Read front page, editorial, and columnist.
- Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
- SPORADIC READERS
Read the newspaper for more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.
- SCANNER READERS
- Read less than 15 minutes.
- Just scan the information.
- APATHETIC READERS
- Apathetic readers are less interested in reading the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.
ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT
- Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict and so more.
- Education- Educated people formally and informally.
- As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
- Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.