8 Principles of TQM- Total Quality Management (TQM) Tools Pros & Cons

8 Principles of TQM- Total quality management (TQM) 8 Principles. The Eight Principles and Practices of Total Quality Management (TQM) are Customer Focus, Leadership, Involvement of People, Processes Approach, System approach to management, Continual improvement, Factual approach to decision-making, and Mutual beneficial supplier relationship. Also, the advantages of the 8 Principles of TQM.

The Definition of the Quality

Quality means satisfying the demand of the customers by providing excellent products and services. There are many researchers and practitioners who have defined the quality in many ways, but the essence of the definition is almost similar. Edward described that “quality is the ability to exceed the customer’s satisfaction by proving service and product”. In addition, Crosby defined that “quality is conformance to the requirements of customers”. Moreover, Juran defined quality as being ‘fitness for use. So, quality is the standard or degree of the products or services that can differentiate them from others by measurement.

8 Practices of TQM

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to the management process that includes the commitment and dedication of every employee in the organization to maintain a high-level quality in every sector, and attention to customer gratifications. The employees of the company have to be informed about the strategy before implementing it in the organization. In the mid-1980s, total quality management (TQM) was introduced based on the Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC) and benchmarking process. Later, many scholars, such as Juran, Deming, and Ishikawa gave their contributions to the practices and improve the content of TQM. The most important contributions of the TQM are Deming 14 points, Juran quality trilogy, and Ishikawa’s Fishbone diagram, and CWQC (Yang, 2012).

8 Practices of TQM- Total quality management (TQM)

Figure-1: Total Quality Management

Many worldwide companies practice the Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy, for example;

  • Ford Motor Company
  • Phillips Semiconductor
  • SGL Carbon
  • Motorola and
  • Toyota Motor Company.
The 8 Practices of TQM

The Eight Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM) are 1. Customer focus, 2. Leadership, 3. Involvement of people, 4. Processes Approach, 5. System approach to management, 6. Continual improvement,7. Factual approach to decision-making, and 8. Mutual beneficial supplier relationship.

In the mid-1990s, the eight basic principle or elements of the total quality management (TQM) was proposed by some well-known philosophers (Evans, 2013). These 8 principles of TQM entirely work together to develop the process and to yield satisfaction for the customers.

Principle-1: Customer focus

The first and prime principle of total quality management (TQM) is to focus on the customers who are buying the products and services as well as potential customers. Customers are the people who justify the quality of the products and services. Customers will feel that they have spent their money on a quality product if the product can last long to fulfill demands. You can exceed customer satisfaction only when you will know their demands, so align company objectives with the client’s demands.

Principle-2: Leadership

Leadership is an important role to maintain unity among employees to achieve the interdependent goal (Evans, 2013). Although there are mainly three types of leadership in the industry, the democratic leadership style is the best to perform well. Leaders can form a convenient environment to work effectively inside the organization, in which all employees work to achieve the organization’s goal.

Principle-3: Involvement of people

People from every level in the organization give their all-out efforts, dedication to the organization’s profits. The total employee commitment enables the industry to develop productivity, process, and raise sales growth. So, all the employees in the organization have to well-trained, committed, and dedicated to achieving an interdependent goal on time. The industry needs to create a responsive environment where every employee will be motivated to complete the task properly. The activeness, motivation, and retention of the employees can yield customer gratifications. The involvement of people can produce effective teamwork. According to Evans (2013), there are three types of teamwork such as vertical, horizontal, and inter-organization.

Principle-4: Processes approach

The company needs to improve the process consistently to yield good output. A good output of the business from the processes approach can bring customer satisfaction. Hence, TQM focus on the process approach strongly to assure the quality of the product or service.

Principle-5: System approach to management

The total quality (TQM) highlights executing the strategy in a systematic approach. The industry makes a proper plan of implementation, and they collect data during applying those processes.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes this principle as:

“Identifying, understanding, and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.”

Principle-6: Continual improvement

Continual improvement of the process is an important step for every industry to make their customer are satisfied. Therefore, TQM assists the company to keep watching the continual improvement of the system to improve the service and product of the industry.

Principle-7: Factual approach to decision-making

It eases the way of taking the decision based on the information collected from data. Making a decision based on the actual fact is an effective way to customer satisfaction. This principle uses the actual method to collect and analyze data.

Principle-8: Mutual beneficial supplier relationship

Usually, a business is conducted by combined multiple departments, and each of the departments is assigned the individual tasks, although the function of these departments is interconnected. The total quality management process helps all sections work combined to achieve an interdependent objective. The company uses visual aids and flowcharts to understand employees how to perform perfectly. The execution of the total quality management (TQM) properly is not an easy task; TQM represents a big cultural shift so the company needs to implement it slowly and accurately (Evans, 2013).

In addition to the eight principles, effective communication is the key principle to conduct business successfully. Everybody in the company has to be conscious of the plan, method, and strategy to achieve a goal. The risk of failure can increase due to the communication gap. Make sure that every employee is aware of their duty and involve them in the decision-making session. It will motivate the employees letting them know that they are contributing to the industry. However, Effective communication reduces silos and increases coordination and cooperation.

The advantages of the 8 Principles of TQM

At first, Japan identified the advantages of total quality management (TQM) in the mid-1950s. After a few decades, the benefit of the TQM had been disclosed all over the world. The most important benefits of the TQM are:

  • Firstly, Develop the quality of products and services to satisfy customers.
  • Secondly, Motivate employees morally.
  • Thirdly, Boost productivity in the organization.
  • Fourthly, Reduce production costs and faults.
  • In addition, Raise profits margin.
  • Further, Make processes more efficient and reliable.
  • Moreover, Involves employees.
  • Additionally, Improves the condition of the work environment.
  • Finally, Improve the communication process.
Total Quality Management Tools

There are many tools of the TQM that help the industry to operate smoothly with profit. These tools can help the industry in many approaches. The most important approaches are;

  • Firstly, Identify difficulties with quality.
  • Secondly, Analyze data.
  • Thirdly. Collect information.
  • Moreover, Identify the main causes of the problems.
  • Finally, Assess the results.
Quality Strategy to Profitability in the Organization

Since the 1980s, many quality strategies or quality management systems have been launched to maintain the quality of the products and services in the organization such as total quality management system (TQM), Six-sigma, reengineering, lean system, and so on (Yang, 2012). Yang (2012) argued that most of the quality improvement strategies have been executed by the company all over the world to yield good results by solving problems or faults.

The History and Evolution of Quality Management Strategies
  • Inspection quality control (IQC), since 1910
  • Statistical process control (SPC), since 1930
  • Total quality control (TQC), since 1950
  • Company-wide quality control (CWQC), since 1970
  • Total Quality Management (TQM), since 1985
  • Six-Sigma (6σ), since 1986
  • Business Excellence Model, since 2000
  • The development and implementation system of the DMAIC Six Sigma program

References:

Yang, C. C. (2012). The integration of TQM and Six-Sigma. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, 219.

References
  • Evans, J. R. (2013). Quality & performance excellence. Cengage Learning.
  • Yang, C. C. (2012). The integration of TQM and Six-Sigma. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, 219.
Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Total quality management (TQM): Eight Principles and Practices of TQM. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/total-quality-management-tqm-eight-principles-and-practices-of-tqm/

Symbolic Convergence Theory Definition, Example and Strengths & Weaknesses

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Example and  Strengths & Weaknesses. Examples of Symbolic Convergence Theory.

Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic convergence theory refers to a communication model that represents the fantasies that transform from individual to cohesive group.  It was developed by Ernest Bormann. People share common fantasies and visions and these collections of individuals are merged into a cohesive group. SCT presents an explanation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Symbolic Convergence Theory consists of three words such as symbolic, convergence, and theory. Group members cooperatively create and sustain a shared consciousness including shared meaning through interaction.

 Symbolic

Symbolic means a symbol that represents or expresses something else such as an idea, an action, quality without using words such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Example of Symbolic

Code Words: What does FF: AC stands for?

FF: AC stands for “Final Fantasy: Advent Children”. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy action drama film.

For example,  K.L = Kuala Lumpur, K.G= Kilogram, A.C= Air Conditioner

Phrases: Friday becomes a cool, wet afternoon.

Slogans: Think different is an advertising slogan of Apple Computer, Inc.

Gestures: The common thumb up sign represents something approved and accepted.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT)- Code Words Phrases Slogans Gestures

Convergence

Convergence means forming a new unified whole or evolving into one through coming together with two or more things. It comes from the prefix con- and verb verge. Here, prefix con means together, and the verb verge, which means to turn toward. We can use convergence to explain things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together. For example, a crowd of mass people all move together into a group.

 Theory

The theory is a set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. It is a formal concept or set of ideas that aim to explain something. For example, the Tw0-step flow of communication theory, Groupthink Muted Group Theory, SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY,  Tubb’s Theory- Small Group Communication, and so on.

Symbolic convergence: When 2 or more private symbol worlds incline toward each other, come closer, or overlap. It is called a symbolic convergence.

History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory

Ernest Bormann established Symbolic Convergence Theory in 1972. SCT was first proposed by Ernest Bormann in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in 1972. Bormann and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota introduced SCT as a framework for discovering, describing, and explaining the dynamic process by which humans come to share symbolic reality.

SCT is a communication-related theory introduced by Ernest Bormann who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota in the United States. American communication theorist knew as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness.  He argued that group consciousness can occur at any level of communication, from within small groups to mass media. Thus, he identified symbolic convergence as a general theory of communication.

Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic Convergence Theory offers elucidation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Through SCT, members of the group can build a community or a group consciousness that grows stronger if they share a cluster of fantasy themes. Although this theory allows theorists and practitioners to anticipate or predict what did happen and what will happen it does not allow for control of human communication.

It attempts to explain how communication can create and sustain group consciousness through the sharing of narratives or fantasies. SCT explains that meanings, emotions, values, and motives for action are in the communication contexts by people trying to make sense out of a common experience. It is a process through which collectives create and share a consciousness and develop a common symbolic reality.

Symbolic Convergence Theory has a three-part structure

Firstly, elucidation of the recurring forms of communication involved in shared group consciousness.

Secondly, the illustration of why group consciousness begins rises and is maintained.

Thirdly, an explanation of the process of how an individual begins to share (or stops sharing) a common symbolic reality.

Anatomy of symbolic Convergence Theory

The social sciences and the communication discipline readily accept the use of several metatheoretical concepts (for example, power and scope, heuristic and isomorphic, elegance and parsimony, and validity and utility) to evaluate the quality of theories. There is less agreement about the metatheoretical concepts that would allow us to compare the anatomy (muscles, bones, arteries) of one theory with the anatomy of another.

A diagram of the Anatomy of the symbolic Convergence Theory has given below.

Symbolic Convergence Theory

Basic Concepts: (Fantasy themes)

A fantasy theme is a dramatizing message that depicts characters engaged in action in a setting that estimates for and explains the human experience. It is not something imaginary, but rather it is a “creative or imaginative interpretation of events which fulfils a psychological or rhetorical need.

Fantasy Theme Analysis is a form of rhetorical criticism. Rhetorical criticism explains the symbolic artifacts of discourse include the words, phrases, images, gestures, performances that people use to communicate. It shows how the artifacts work, entertain and arouse, and convince and persuade the audience. Rhetorical criticism studies and analyzes the purpose of the words, sights, and sounds that are the symbolic artifacts used for communications among people

Collective consciousness refers to the set of shared beliefs, ideas, attitudes, and knowledge that are common to a social group or society.

The basic concept is the fantasy theme and its associated basic concepts include symbolic cue, fantasy type, and saga.

Symbolic Cue

A symbolic cue is a code word, phrase, slogan, or a nonverbal sign or gesture that works to trigger previously shared fantasies and emotions. Symbolic cues can also heighten a group’s cohesiveness.

Fantasy types

A fantasy type is a stock scenario that uses to explain new events in a well-known, dramatic form such as Watergate, Irangate, and Whitewatergate. Taking stock is to think about all the aspects of a situation or event before deciding what to do next. A fantasy type is a fantasy theme that has a large number of rhetorical visions. They help make sense of a new phenomenon by providing known references.

Notable Example of Fantasy types

For example, a fantasy type would be when Richard Nixon was campaigning through his home state of California in 1952. A fund was put together by some wealthy Southern California businessman on behalf of Nixon. The newspapers picked this up and ran headlines such as “Secret Rich Men’s Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary”. The purpose of this fund was to help Nixon pay for expenses that he could not otherwise pay for out of his income. National newspapers were two to one in the favor of dropping Nixon from the ticket after this. And, his only hope was to find a way to regain public trust and support. Six days after the crisis, Nixon addressed the public by radio to respond to the charges against him.

A fantasy theme emerging from this story would be Nixon presenting himself as the American dream. During his speech over the radio, he emphasized how he made his own way in the world and had to work for a living. Richard Nixon also said, “How does a candidate pay for political expenses not covered by the government? The first is to be a rich man, which I am not. I feel that it is essential in this country of ours that a man of modest means can run for President. He offers autobiographical references that allow him to appear like the average man. This is an appropriate fantasy theme because it developed a response to the allegations. He is not a rich man who is getting money from everyone, but a hard-working man who started from the ground and worked upwards.

Saga

A saga is a long story of heroic achievement of the life of an individual, group, organization, or larger entity such as a nation. It is a great historical achievement and event for individuals or a nation.  For instance, examples of American sagas include “the spirit of entrepreneurship” and “the power of the ballot box. Symbolic convergence theorists claim that the Soviet Union had difficulty managing the coherence of the fifteen republics due to the weakening of the communist rhetorical vision and decreasing sagas.

Finally, this theory declares that communities are formed and maintained by the stories they share. The theory also suggests that humans are storytellers and share dramatization of an event. They make sense out of complexities by creating a script or narrative to account for what happened. People share the symbolic facts called fantasies, cues, and types with each other.

Message Structural Concepts: (Rhetorical vision)

A rhetorical vision is a composite drama that unifies people in a common symbolic reality. A rhetorical vision has five elements such as:

  1. Dramatis personae – the actors and players who give life to the rhetorical vision
  2. Plotline – provides the action of the rhetorical vision
  3. Scene – details the location of the rhetorical vision
  4. Sanctioning agent – legitimizes the rhetorical vision
  5. Master analogue – the reflection of a deeper structure within the rhetorical vision
Dynamic Structure Concepts

At the meta-theoretical level of analysis, the dynamic structure concepts of any communication theory refer to the deep structure tension or war underlying a message’s cast, form, or mould. With SCT the war occurs between righteous, social, and pragmatic fantasy themes and ultimately competing for rhetorical visions.

Righteousness refers to the quality of being morally correct and justifiable. A pragmatic way of dealing with something is based on practical considerations, rather than theoretical ones. A pragmatic person deals with things in a practical way.

Communicator Structure Concepts

At the metatheoretical level of analysis, communicator concepts focus on the names given to communicators from the lens of a particular theory. With RAT, the communicators are called arguers, audiences, and critics. With Symbolic Convergence Theory, the major communicator concepts are fantasizers and rhetorical community along with their attributes such as the inclination to fantasize and dramatic communication style.

Medium Structure Concepts

This metatheory concept allows us to understand the medium as a propagating matter, such as in the statement: corn grows best in sandy loam soil. For example, IST grows best in open and mixed communication systems and not well in closed communication systems. RAT grows differently in field invariant and field-dependent media. URT operates differently in high-context, collectivist cultures than it does in low-context, individualist cultures. Likewise, NPT grows best in an open, democratic society and does not do well in a closed, totalitarian state. Fantasies (and thus SCT) grow best in a medium that fosters group sharing or public sharing as opposed to just personal fantasizing.

As Bormann (1972) noted, fantasies that begin in small groups often are worked into public speeches, become picked up by the mass media, and “spread out across larger publics”. With both group and public sharing the tendency for fantasies to be embellished, reconfigured, reworked, and evolved increases. The result is that members of groups and public rhetorical communities come to have a stake in the symbolic construction. The resultant symbolic construction has then entered their consciousness through the causative entity.

Evaluative Concepts

At the metatheoretical level of analysis, all communication theories posit one or more technical concepts. These concepts allow for the evaluation of communication that falls within the purview of a particular theory. For example, with IST, the primary evaluative concepts are fidelity, capacity, and uncertainty reduction.

With SCT, three primary technical concepts enable the evaluation of the quality and effects (outcomes) of fantasy-sharing among the members of rhetorical collectivities:  shared group consciousness, and rhetorical vision reality-links, and fantasy theme artistry.

Shared group consciousness

A shared group consciousness must exist within a rhetorical community in order for a fantasy theme to chain out, a rhetorical vision to develop, a saga to exist, or a symbolic cue to imbue meaning. Some terms that portray a shared group consciousness are a common ground, mutual understanding, created social reality, meeting of minds and empathic communication. Once a group has reached shared group consciousness, they no longer think in terms of “I” or “me” but in terms of “us” and “we.” After all, communication is the drive that allows groups of people to move towards their goals. A shared group consciousness also reduces uncertainty by allowing groups to develop an identity that shapes their culture. Shaping their own culture can influence norms, roles, and even decision making.

Rhetorical vision reality link

A rhetorical vision reality link allows for a viable rhetorical vision that chronicles an authentic account of the phenomena along with tangible evidence. The lack of a rhetorical vision reality link, with no clear observational impressions of the facts, may lead to disprovable fantasies, characterized by rumour, innuendo, gossip, and even paranoia.

Fantasy theme artistry

Fantasy theme artistry is the rhetorical ability to present situations in a form that appears attractive to people so that they will share them. By presenting situations in a form that appears attractive to an audience, or showing that you have an understanding of the stories that the group shares. You can speak to their stories and turn their opinions in your favour.

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Symbolic Convergence Theory
Strengths of the Symbolic Convergence Theory

The stories or fantasies of symbolic convergence theory can help businesses, corporations, or politicians. Because SCT is a general theory built on the method of natural sciences. People apply it to many different cultures and timelines. They also use to account for the communicative processes, created by a group, used to foster the creation and sustenance of the group’s so-called “consciousness.”

Strengths

Below are a few points of how and why SCT can be useful in everyday situations. Determining communication malfunctions. A question that happens a lot within SCT is, “Why do some fantasy themes spark a chain of sharing while others fail?”

Groups fate as a part of a group has common experiences that predispose them to share fantasies that relate to their concerns. Therefore, these groups will have successful fantasy chains because they have more in common and are able to share more. Group members often find the direct confrontation of such issues to be unsettling when issues of power, sexism, role conflict, social rejection, and other touchy topics come into play. These fantasy chains may begin, but often do not last very long. Assessing communication efforts and persuasive campaigns. This theory can provide insight within small groups, meetings, lectures, and speeches. However, it provides greater use of assessing effects within the media.

In the 1976 campaign, the investigators included the relationship between the media messages and the audience’s effects in their study. These studies analyzed the extent to which actual voting behaviour can be anticipated by participation. By being able to predict the voting behaviours, political representatives could carefully craft their messages for different groups of people before giving their speeches and lectures to best benefit themselves. The role of consciousness. Within fantasy chains, there are three phases that keep the chains going. They are consciousness creating, consciousness-raising, and consciousness sustaining. In the first phase, people come to create a commonality among their group. If the groups share this common fantasy, consciousness-raising will often fall in line next. And lastly, the two first points combined will create a sustaining fantasy chain that will last.

 Weaknesses of the Symbolic Convergence Theory

The dangerous phenomenon is an important element of symbolic convergence theory. It is the propensity of the phenomenon that people use against the public goodwill. Whether unintentionally or intentionally, SCT can be seen at work in revisionist history. The intentional malevolent use of SCT principles against the public good. People can use it in the rash of “Fake News” campaigns. Therefore, false perceptions are feed to society in order to create a false, but widely believed, consensus (convergence) of belief. This is tantamount to intentionally creating false representation on the walls of Plato’s cave.