Evolution of Human Resource Management, Human resources management history.
Human Resource Management (HRM)
Human Resource Management is a process of managing people in the right way in an organization or company. It is more likely to put the right person in the right place and develop the employees’ skills and abilities for company benefits. In one sentence, HRM manages and efficiently uses all the people of the company to achieve its goals and objectives.
For example, a person who has computer knowledge and skills appoints him as a computer operator and training him with new tools and features. So, training will eventually make him more fast and efficient in his work? It ultimately benefits the organization.
Human Resource Management History
The efforts of Robert Owen first recognized HRM. He is called the founder of Human Resource Management (HRM). In 1813, his book, A New View of Society, first supported the idea of labor welfare, wage incentives, profit sharing, etc. After that, in the time between 1900-1920, Frederick Winslow Taylor took forward this thought and termed it “Scientific Management”. But after some time, workers introduced Industrial Psychology which developed interviewing, training of the workers, psychological testing, and so on. It also helped HRM to take professional forms.
Then, moving forward, Professor Elton Mayo and some of his companions conducted Hawthorn Experiment, which recognized that human resources have a bigger effect on production. In the decade of 1940-1950, new techniques for training, selection were developed.
In modern times HRM is widely known as an independent discipline, also accepted as an important profession dealing with human resource management.
Evolution of Human Resource Management
HRM evolution started a long time back, and it has many phases. Those are:
- Trade Union Era.
- Industrial Revolution Era.
- Social Responsibility Era.
- Scientific Management Era.
- Human Relations Era.
- Behavioral Science Era.
- Also, Systems Contingency Approach Era and HRM Era.
HRM Factors to Organizational Excellence
There are 10 factors of human resource management that lead an organization towards achieving its goals.
1. Visionary Leadership
A visionary leader is a person who holds a clear image of the future of the organization. He set up policies to reach that place. Motivates and inspires the employees to follow his directions. Moreover, he is capable of committing, and can seek out talented individuals, motivates them, makes proper use of their talent and expertise to achieve success.
For example, Henry Ford is one of the most famous visionary leaders. He started his Ford Motor Company with literally no money. In the beginning, the suppliers allow him to take parts on credit; also, he reinvested his profits back into his business. And now, it is one of the successful automobile companies.
The most common characteristics of a visionary leader are decision-making, effective communication, motivation, determination, and also strong personality.
Firstly, decision Making seems a prime characteristic of a visionary leader. A good leader makes new decisions spontaneously through using the information and analyzes the condition situation. He will visualize the whole scenario with his experiences and finally come up with better plans or policies to proceed on.
Secondly, effective communication can accelerate the pace of recovering the situation. An effective leader will communicate with employees, co-workers, and others to develop and redesigning plans. He connects all the people together to work as a team which makes it more efficient to come up with any plan.
In addition, Inspiration and Motivation is another important skill for efficient leadership. The leader will inspire and motivate others to work together effectively. A leader can make new leaders with this admirable quality. He shares his experience, thoughts which encourage others to work for him or work like him. Eventually, it will accelerate the process of planning and its implementation.
Furthermore, Integration and determination skill should have possessed by every effective leader. He can overcome any situation with his integrity, honesty, and a good level of confidence. In the post-pandemic situation, there is too much uncertainty. If there is a lack of confidence and integrity no plans can work. Therefore a leader with these qualities can help to overcome devastating situations and to achieve success.
Finally, Effective leaders should come up with versatile and strong personality skills. An effective leader will be versatile in terms of decision and policymaking. And, a strong personality includes public speaking, being a good listener, a learner, in-depth knowledge, and so on. These characteristics of a leader influence the people of a nation or organization to follow him. According to the opinion, these are very good contributions that leaders should possess.
Figure 1: Human Resource Management (HRM) Factors to Organizational Excellence
2. Customer Focus Orientation
Customer Focus Orientation is all about acknowledging the needs and wishes of the customer and works accordingly. Consumer needs and wants to keep changing day by day. Keeping up with the pace and anticipating to fulfill its requirements is very important for the organization’s success or the company will face great loss.
For example, people used to have desktops in the ’90s, but now it has been displaced by laptops, tabs, smartphones. Now people have become more technology-focused. They are always looking forward to new technology.
3. Effective Communication
Effective communication can gain customer satisfaction, as well as customer satisfaction can bring profit to the company. The practice of sharing information and imparting knowledge inside the organization yields defect-free products and services to customers. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure employees’ clear understanding of the TQM program. Effective communication among employees is also a useful technique to overcome barriers to changes leading to quality improvement.
4. Congruent Objectives
Congruent objective means the common goal of the organizational members to increase productivity with effectiveness and maximize the utilization of the resources. All employees in the organization will work together to achieve the interdependent goal of the company. Hence, the company has to ensure that they are providing enough training and education to the employees to understand the entire process of the organization. Finally, the industry has to ensure customer gratifications.
5. Staff selection and deployment
Staff selection and employee deployment is an essential process of the organization to regulate the company smoothly. Screening for the ‘rightsizing’ and ‘ability-to-fit’ techniques involves analyzing a unit’s or department’s personnel needs to be based on its long-term quality objectives and the overall company needs.
6. Competent staff
It is proven by science that a skilled employee can afford more than ordinary employees in the organization. It isn’t easy to perform well in a specific sector without having good knowledge. The company has to increase the knowledge and experience of the employee through training. Employees need to have the knowledge, skills, and capabilities relevant to the tasks specified, critical to providing quality services.
7. Teamwork spirit
A team in the organization always can yield better output than a single employee. Additionally, A team can contribute more because of having a multi-skilled person in a team. A team can apply different knowledge and strategies to improve service quality. So teamwork assists in satisfying customers efficiently.
8. Reward and motivation
Reward and motivation is a stimulus way of influencing employee to get a high level of services. The company also encourages employees psychologically by using this policy.
9. Training and education
Training and education is the key element to develop potentiality of the human resource in the organization. Therefore, the organization should provide enough training and knowledge to the employee for getting the excellent performance.
10. Innovation and creativity
It makes a meaningful change to improve programs, services, and processes as well as creates new value for students and stakeholders.