Human Resource Management (HRM): History, Evolution, & HRM Factors. Evolution and History of Human Resource Management HRM. HRM Factors to Organizational Excellence: Visionary Leadership, Customer Focus Orientation, Effective Communication, Congruent Objectives, staff selection and deployment, Competent staff, Reward, and motivation, Training, and education.
Human Resource Management (HRM):
Human Resource Management is a process of managing people in the right way in an organization or company. It is more likely to put the right person in a right place and developing the skills and abilities of the employees for company benefits. In one sentence, HRM is managing and efficiently using all the people of the company to achieve its goals and objectives.
For example, a person who has computer knowledge and skills, appointing him as a computer operator and also training him with new tools and features. So, training will eventually make him more fast and efficient in his work? It ultimately benefits the organization.
History of Human Resource Management (HRM):
HRM was first recognized by the efforts of Robert Owen. He is called the founder of Human Resource Management (HRM). In 1813, his book, A New View of Society, first supported the idea of labor welfare, wage incentives, profit sharing, etc. After that, in the time between 1900-1920, Frederick Winslow Taylor took forward this thought and termed it “Scientific Management”. But after some time, workers introduced Industrial Psychology which developed interviewing, training of the workers, psychological testing, and so on. It also helped HRM to take professional forms.
Then, moving forward, Professor Elton Mayo and some of his companions conducted Hawthorn Experiment, it recognized that human resources have a bigger effect on production. In the decade of 1940-1950, new techniques for training, selection were developed.
Now, in modern times HRM is widely known as an independent discipline, also accepted as an important profession dealing with human resource management.
Evolution of Human Resource Management (HRM):
HRM evolution started a long time back and it has many phases. Those are:
- Trade Union Era.
- Industrial Revolution Era.
- Social Responsibility Era.
- Scientific Management Era.
- Human Relations Era.
- Behavioral Science Era.
- Systems Contingency Approach Era.
- HRM Era.
Human Resource Management (HRM) Factors to Organizational Excellence:
There are some factors of human resource management that leads an organization towards achieving its goals. Those factors are :
A visionary leader is a person who holds a clear image of the future of the organization. He set up policies to reach that place. Motivates and inspires the employees to follow his directions. Moreover, he is capable of making a commitment, and can seek out talented individuals, motivates them, makes proper use of their talent and expertise to achieve success.
For example, Henry Ford is one of the most famous visionary leaders. He started his Ford Motor Company with literally no money. In the beginning, the suppliers allow him to take parts on credit, also he reinvested his profits back to his business. And now, it is one of the successful automobile company.
Figure 1: Human Resource Management (HRM) Factors to Organizational Excellence
Customer Focus Orientation
Customer Focus Orientation is all about the acknowledgment of the needs and wishes of the customer and works accordingly. Customer needs and wants to keep changing day by day. Keeping up with the pace and anticipating to fulfill its requirements is very important for the organization’s success or the company will face great loss.
For example, people used to have desktops in the ’90s, but now it has been displaced by laptops, tabs, smart-phones. Now people have become more technology-focused, they are always looking forward to new technology.
Effective communication can gain customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction can bring profit to the company. The practice of sharing information and imparting knowledge inside the organization yields defect-free products and services towards customers. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure employees’ clear understanding of the TQM program and is also useful to overcome barriers to changes leading to quality improvement.
Congruent objective means the common goal of the organizational members to increase productivity with effectiveness and maximize the utilization of the resources. All employees in the organization will work together to achieve the interdependent goal of the company. In this perspective, the company has to ensure that they are providing enough training and education to the employees to understand the entire process of the organization. At the same, the industry has to ensure customer gratifications.
Staff selection and deployment
Staff selection and employee deployment is a very important process of the organization to regulate the company smoothly. Screening for ‘rightsizing’ and ‘ability-job-fit’ technique involves analyzing a unit’s or department’s personnel needs to be based on its long-term quality objectives and the overall company needs.
It is proven by science that a skilled employee can afford more than ordinary employees in the organization. It is very difficult to perform well in a specific sector without having good knowledge. The company has to increase the knowledge and experience of the employee through training. Employees need to have the knowledge; skills and capabilities relevant to the tasks specified which are critical to providing quality services.
A team in the organization always can yield better output than a single employee. A team can contribute more because of having a multi-skilled person in a team. A team can apply different knowledge and strategies to improve service quality. So teamwork assists to satisfy customers efficiently.
Reward and motivation
Reward and motivation is a stimulus way of influencing employee to get a high level of services. The company encourages employees psychologically by using this policy.
Training and education
Training and education is the key element to develop potentiality of the human resource in the organization. Therefore, the organization should provide enough training and knowledge to the employee for getting the excellent performance.
Innovation and creativity
It makes a meaningful change to improve programs, services, and processes and creates new value for students and stakeholders.