Research Proposal Example or Sample: How to Write a Research Proposal
Research Proposal Example
How to Write a Research Proposal
The research proposal is a key part of any postgraduate application therefore every student needs to know how to write a research proposal properly. A perfect research proposal must have eight sections including title, introduction, problem statement, research objective, the significance of the study, literature review, research methodology, and reference with the latest edition.
The title is the main part of any research proposal, so the author should make sure that it includes the keywords and relate to the field of study. It should not be too long and too short. A good research title always indicates the approach of the author what is he or she intended to do. Finally, the title should indicate the research objectives and questions.
The Introduction for a dissertation usually presents the significance of the topic understudied (in this case the role of Facebook for business marketing and customer relationship building). A good Introduction is that can walk the readers through the situation.
The Introduction can be started with the premise, meaning that introducing the background of information that is simply a reminder of what readers already know and therefore establishes a common ground of understanding between the writer and the readers.
3. Problem Statement
Apart from describing the basic information which people already know about, the next part that the researcher can include in this chapter is delineating the problem that exists in the field.
A researcher starts a research project because he or she deems that there is a problem or there are problems that need to be addressed by conducting research using an appropriate research design or method.
A problem statement, by its definition, is a concise description of an issue currently existing which needs to be addressed. In Problem Statement, a researcher will address the gap of knowledge based on an extensive literature search.
The researcher will identify if the topic has not been covered by previous research. Moreover, Problem Statement should include a discussion of how the researcher came to identify this (a phenomenon, an issue, or a subject topic) as significant and the context in which this problem emerged (for example, from past studies).
4. Research Objective
Research objectives should always fulfill SMART model principles, meaning Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, and Timed.
It always starts with verb-to-be such as “To examine…, To explore…,”, etc.
Importantly, each RO must indicate what the researcher wants to find out about IV(s) and DV.
For example: To determine the level of digital skill competencies including specific technological competency, cognitive competency, and personal competency. = Measuring IVs.
For example: To determine whether religiosity affects the public’s recognition of smoking as a problem and their level of perceived personal involvement in the smoking issue. = Measuring IV and DVs.
Convert RO to question form then it becomes Research Question
5. Significance of the Study
This section explains how the proposed study is significant to Theory, Method, and Practical.
6. Literature Review
We believe you have learned Literature Review in the previous class
- So, this section should cover the conceptualization, operationalization, and theoretical framework of a study.
- You should review past studies’ findings, methods, and discussions.
- While you are explaining the theory, make sure you delineate the variables underlying the theory.
- For example: if you are examining User and Gratification Theory (U&G) (Katz, 1974), make sure you first describe its history: who founded the theory. You should also describe what is the theoretical hypotheses. What are the variables are in the theory? Any model (diagram) to present?
7. Research Methodology
This section should cover the following:
- Firstly, the Sampling method (probability or non-probability), sample selection technique (using a formula?), what is the sample size?
- Additionally, the research instrument (adopt and adapt), refer to previous research and modify the items to the need of the study
- Measurement (are you using a 5-point scale, 7-point, or 10-point?)
- Data analysis (how are you going to analyze the data? Descriptively? Inferentially? Using SPSS?)
Follow APA (7th) edition