Deming Cycle or PDSA Method: Revolution & The Four Stages of the PDSA.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Method: Revolution & The Four Stages of the PDSA. Deming Cycle or PDSA or circle or wheel, Shewhart cycle, control cycle, or circle. Revolution &The Four Stages (Plan–Do–Study–Adjust) of the PDSA. The Pros and Cons of Deming Cycle or PDSA / PDCA. The Evolution of the Deming Cycle or PDSA. When to Apply PDSA. Deming Cycle or PDSA Quality Improvement.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Method

Description of the PDCA:

Mukhopadhyay (2020) stated that PDCA  refers to a repeated four-step management model that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. He also said that in the 1950s, a famous management scholar Dr. William Edwards Deming introduced the PDCA method; therefore, it is also known as the Deming cycle or Deming Wheel. It is a very famous method to solve problems to yield the highest quality result. The full meaning of PDCA is the Plan–Do–Check–Act that is a four-step action method. In addition, it has many names such as the PDSA abbreviation of the Plan–Do–Check–Adjust, the Deming cycle or circle or wheel, the Shewhart cycle, and the control cycle or circle.

The Four Stages of the Deming Cycle or PDSA or PDCA method

The primary four steps of the PDSA or PDCA are Plan, Do, Study or Check, and Act these are the inevitable elements of the Deming cycle.


According to Moen (2009), the PLAN is the initial step of the four steps method that identifies the problem and opportunities to suggest recommendations. In addition, it analyzes and describes the overall current situation of the project. A team will be recruited to understand the full process of the project in this stage; they will identify the problems that need to be changed, and find out solutions to fix the problems. You have to find out the answers to some basic questions regarding the project. The questions are as follows;

  • Firstly, what is the main problem that must need to be solved?
  • Secondly, what kind of resources do you have now?
  • In addition, what resources do you just have to have?
  • Moreover, what is the solution that you have taken with resources?
  • Finally, how long it will take to analyze the problems and implement the planning?

The DO phase is the second stage of the Deming cycle where the testing of the solution starts to execute to identify the results (Moen & Norman, 2006). After completing the planing step, you have to take action for solving the problems. You will apply your all plans that you have taken in the first stage. Some unwanted problems can emerge in this stage, so you have to be aware to confront them. For increasing your confidence level, you can apply your actions to a small arena in the project. It is a subtle way to control the situation properly as well as avoiding an unpredicted big mistake. All team members stay alert at this stage to play their roles and responsibility. In addition, you with your team members will take some initiatives mentioned below:

  • Keep a record of what happened and what is happened?
  • When you apply the planning?
  • Collect data from the planning stage.
  • Try to use a check sheet, swim lane map, and flowchart to capture data.
Study or Check

Moen and Norman (2006) argued that the study or check is probably the most important step of the PDSA cycle. You must have to pay attention to the CHECK stage if you want to scrutinize the output that yielded from the earlier stage. It will help you to avoid repeating mistakes and clarify the success of your planning and applying steps. This stage will give you the opportunity to audit your plan’s performance; you will be confirmed whether the plan is worked perfectly or not.  Additionally, your team will identify the problematic portion of the project to eliminate them in the future. You will be able to discover the root cause of the problem if something went wrong. In short, this stage will assess the effectiveness of the system and help you to make the decision whether the theory is helpful or not.

Example: Appraisals or  Gap analysis.

  • In this stage, you have to answer some questions mentioned below.
  • The system is effective or not?
  • Do you want to continue this system or need to change?
  • Have you made an outline of a list including the unexpected results, failures, successes, and outcomes?

ACT is the final stage of the system that finalize the perfect solution to implement it (Crowfoot & Prasad, 2017). In this stage, your organization should follow adapt, adopt, and abandon factors. Adapt refers to changing and modifying the PDSA circle for the next test. Adopt indicates considering expanding the system to all departments in the organization. Abandon means modify your full approach and repeat the PDCA circle again.  In sum, it is the step of standardization that is considered standardized when goals are exceeded.

The Pros and Cons of Deming Cycle or PDSA / PDCA

Firstly, PDSA is a simple and effective process to resolve a new and recurring problem in the industry (Boaden, 2009). In addition, it is a repeated approach that will allow you to measure results without a waste of time. Moreover, it is a risk-free cycle to apply a small scale in the project; therefore, no need to change the full process if it doesn’t work.

In contrast, the full process of the PDSA is slow when applying the four steps in the industry to yield the final result. It is not a straightforward execution process that can apply in urgent problem-solving issues. Additionally, you need to use some resources including effective team members to ensure that each step of the circle is directed perfectly.

The Evolution of the Deming Cycle or PDSA

The PDSA cycle has been evolved from time to time to make it an effective process. It can be applied to almost every industry. I am going to discuss how the PDSA cycle came to be and how it has been evolved from time to time.

Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Deming was an American management consultant who graduated as an electrical engineer, later concentrating on mathematical physics (Moen & Norman, 2006). He has become a famous person in the Japanese industry for his work as well as initiatives after WWII. In addition, Dr. W. Edwards Deming got recognition as one of the most influential people in the Japanese manufacturing industry who is not Japanese but American. He championed the work of Walter Shewhart including total quality management, statistic process control, and renamed the Shewhart Cycle. Afterall, He had a great contribution to the rise of the post-war economic growth in Japan.

The Shewhart Cycle

Deming had been inspired by an American engineer Walter Andrew Shewhart who was also a physicist and statistician. In 1939, Shewhart published a book on the Viewpoint of Quality Control (Moen & Norman, 2006). It was the first book that articulated a three-stage systematic process of specification, production, and inspection. These three stages were developed to test the hypothesis that carries out an experiment. Finally, he mentioned that these stages should not go as a straight line but it should go in a cycle. Thus, the Shewhart Cycle came up with the process of a circle.

The Deming Wheel

In 1950, Deming analyzed Shewhart’s Cycle to modify it. He introduced a new version of Shewhart’s Cycle that is a four-step of the design, production, sales, and research (Moen & Norman, 2006). This cycle has been known as the Deming’s Circle or Deming Wheel.


Most probably some Japanese executives modify the Deming cycle or Deming wheel into Plan, Do Check, Act (PDCA) although the exact reason for changing the term-name is unclear (Moen & Norman, 2006). This four-step cycle introduced to identify the problems in the industry and solve them by applying four steps together. The prime objective of this cycle is to standardize if the results are satisfying.

Deming Cycle or PDCA
Deming was not satisfied with the name of PDCA; therefore, he amended it in 1986 (Moen & Norman, 2006). He emphasized the core meaning of the checking, and he mentioned that checking is not to incorporate the cycle. Hence, the PDSA emerged with the recommendation of Deming.
When to Apply PDSA

The PDSA or PDCA framework is capable to develop any process or product by splitting into a shorter step (Smartsheet, n.d.). This cycle can be used in every kind of organization in many aspects such as changing management, new service or product deployment, product lifecycle, and so on. This framework is especially useful for assisting the improvement of the six sigma and total quality management process. It is the best option to dig out problems and effective solutions.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Quality Improvement

The PDSA cycle is one of the most important parts of the quality improvement process in the big industry. Apart from that, organizations apply other quality improvements program that is much complex QI processes.

These more complex quality improvement programs include the following:

  • Continuous Quality Improvement: It is also known as the CQI process that organizations apply to reduce waste, increase efficiency as well as increase internal and external satisfaction. It is a management philosophy that assesses how the industry works to develop its process.
  • Lean: The lean process is a manufacturing program that makes a business effective by improving efficiency and reducing wasteful practices. This program focuses more on improving services and products based on customer’s demands.
  • Six Sigma: The six sigma process is the set of tools and techniques that develop the quality of a process by eliminating defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing.
  • Total Quality Management: It is a process of a management system based on practicing a principle that instills good business culture where every employee maintains a high standard of work. It influences the organization to maintain a high quality of service in every aspect of the company.
  • Quality Improvement Collaboratives: It is a process that usually applies to the healthcare center in which many organizations work together to develop services for patients.

PDSA  refers to a repeated four-step (PLAN, DO, STUDY, ACT) that that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. Today, many organizations all over the world use this method to improve the product and service by solving problems.


Boaden, R. (2009). Quality improvement: theory and practice. British Journal of Healthcare Management15(1), 12-16.

Crowfoot, D., & Prasad, V. (2017). Using the plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle to make change in general practice. InnovAiT10(7), 425-430.

Smartsheet. (n.d.). How to Implement PDSA in Your Organization.

Moen, R. (2009, September). Foundation and History of the PDSA Cycle. In Asian network for quality conference. Tokyo. https://www. deming. org/sites/default/files/pdf/2015/PDSA_History_Ron_Moen. Pdf.

Moen, R., & Norman, C. (2006). Evolution of the PDCA cycle.

Mukhopadhyay, M. (2020). Total quality management in education. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited.

Please follow and like us:

Campaign Report: A Climate Change Campaign Report Writing Sample

Campaign Report: A Climate Change Campaign Report Writing Sample. A Garbage-free Public Action Persuasive Campaign to Stop Throwing Empty Plastic Bottles Such as Drinking Water Bottle.

This is an academic assignment that asked students to do it according to the (KOH3366-1: PERSUASIVE CAMPAIGNS) lecturer’s instruction of University Putra Malaysia. It is an academic report writing based on students’ activities.

Table of Contents:

  1. Campaign Report.
  2. Instruction of Report Writing.
  3. Sample of Persuasive Campaign to Stop Throwing Empty Plastic Bottles.
  1. What is the Campaign Report:

Campaign report means an executive summary of campaign operations including campaign techniques, the objective of the campaign, executing the process, and target audiences.

  1. Instruction of the Campaign Report Writing.

Assignment (15%) Peer assessment (5%)

Create a public action persuasive campaign and upload it onto YouTube. The campaign must be related to the topic of “Climate Change”.

You must also write a report on your campaign. In your report, explain the following:

  • Firstly, Persuasive techniques used (e.g., bandwagon, etc.)
  • Secondly, Explain the objective of your campaign
  • Thirdly, Explain the implementation of the campaign(e.g., what is the message, who is the source, what is the channel used, and who is the receiver)
  • Fourthly, Explain the segmentation & targeting of the campaign (e.g., geographic, demographic, & psychographic)
  • Finally, Explain who the target audience is (active/passive) and why
Grading scheme:
  • The full score for each of these identifications is 2%. Therefore, responding well to these 5 items will earn you a total score of 10% (2% X 5 items)
  • The full score of the presentation of your assignment is 10% (not included in the total score of 15% (it’s a separate score).
  • Submit your assignment as a Microsoft Word document via e-mail to the class representative, Mary-am on 18 December 2019 (Wednesday) 23:59 am. Late submissions will not be entertained.
  • Your peer evaluation is anonymous. Please submit them directly to me in hard copy at the end of class on the 18th of December 2019. Late submissions will not be entertained.
  • Please include your YouTube video link for this assignment as an attachment to the email which you will submit for evaluation. The full score for the YouTube video is 5%.
  • Your assignment report should be typed in font 12, Times New Roman, 1.5 spacing. The length of the assignment should be around 5 pages.
  • the assignment must be in English as you will have at least 1 international group member.
  • Provide the metric number, name, and e-mail of each group member.

Grading scheme

Persuasive techniques 2%
Objective of advertisement 2%
implementation of advertisement 2%
segmentation & targeting 2%
Active/passive audience 2%
YouTube video 5%
Peer Evaluation 5%
Total 20%

3. Sample of Persuasive Campaign Report to Stop Throwing Empty Plastic Bottles:

Table of contents:

  1. Persuasive techniques
  2. Objective of advertisement
  3. Implementation of advertisement
  4. Segmentation and Targeting audience of the campaign
  5. Active/passive audience:
  6. YouTube video link:

Contents at a glance:

Slogan Put 2 empty bottles to get 1 free water
Persuasive techniques Save money to be wealthy and bandwagon
  • To change and maintain the student’s behavior.
  • Creating awareness and arouse hatred to spread trash plastic bottles.
  • Stimulating students to pick up trash plastic bottles automatically for recycling.
  • Educating the public to improve cleanliness and ensuring the surrounding area is free of any waste.
Target audiences University’s students and staff
Types of audiences Both active and passive


  1. Persuasive techniques:

The persuasive technique of our garbage-free campaign is to save money to be wealthy and bandwagon. According to the geographic factor, most of the target audiences of our persuasive campaign are students. Students are struggler or survivors according to V.A.L.S (Values and Lifestyles) Typology Model. This model segments eight categories of people based on their lifestyles, psychological characteristics, and consumption patterns. Survivors or strugglers are financially needy person literally they are poor, low-skilled, ill-educated, without strong social bonds, elderly and passive in contrast to innovators. They avoid risk because of feeling powerless. It seems like their prime motive to meet safety and security demands. So, students are intended to save money and they are agreed to work for saving money.

The objective of stopping throwing the empty water bottle campaign is to make our campus garbage free. Students will work spontaneously to keep clean the campus if they get benefitted from their social work. It is called the reciprocity advertising policy. Reciprocity is the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit.

  1. Objective of the advertisement:

  • To change and maintain the student’s behavior.
  • Creating awareness and arouse hatred to spread trash plastic bottles.
  • Stimulating students to pick up trash plastic bottles automatically for recycling.
  • Educating the public to improve cleanliness and ensuring the surrounding area is free of any waste.

Firstly, the garbage-free campaign is about to change the student’s behaviors to stop spreading trash plastic bottles. The purpose of this campaign is not only changing behaviors but maintain it also. It will stimulate students to pick up the empty bottles automatically and throw them into the dustbin to get 1 bottle of free water. It is part of positive reciprocity adverting because they will pick up empty bottles to get free water. So, they are changing their behaviors for getting something free. Reciprocity is a social norm of responding to a positive action with another positive action, rewarding kind actions.

In addition, this campaign is for educating the students to improve hygiene and ensuring the university area is free of any waste bottles or garbage. Any piece of empty plastic bottle can hold rainwater and this rainwater is a potential site for mosquitoes breeding.  The more breeding sites are the higher the risk of disease transmission. Further, the students can raise awareness and cultivate the community to practices cleanliness.

Besides that, this campaign also teaches the students to keep practicing to pick up the bottle not even at the university but anywhere they go. So, the public can learn from the students by observing the good things they are doing. Doing little things can make a big difference. It is estimated that More than 8 million tons of plastic are dumped into our oceans every year. This campaign can reduce a million of plastics dumped in the ocean and save the world.

Garbage-free campaign. Unchanged-plastic-bottle-for-houndred-years.jpeg

3. Implementation of advertisement:

This campaign has been implemented through three important steps such as making a creative idea, involving the entire team to work together, and executing the plan practically. First and foremost, we have made a creative idea on how to stop throwing plastic trash bottles based on the targeted audiences. As our target audiences are university students therefore we have tried to make them benefitted to change their behaviors.

We offered them to get one bottle of free water instead of putting two empty plastic bottles inside the bin. That means students need not pay money for buying water. They can take one bottle of water free if they put two empty water bottles inside the fixed bin.

Secondly, we got ready for our team to work together spontaneously. We installed some special trash bins near the water shelf in different places in our university. We had selected these places because every day most of the students have to follow these spots. Finally, our team started to collect empty water bottles from campus. And, we put them inside the bin. Meantime, students started to follow us and they are collecting trash water bottles on the university campus. Also, they are getting free water. It is estimated that it takes an average of 21 to 66 days to form a new habit.

4.Segmentation and Targeting audience of the campaign:

Audience segmentation is a process of separating people into subgroups based on different elements such as demographic, geographic, and psychographic. It is very useful in many fields because it can help the source to convey messages more efficiently and effectively to the target group in receiving messages. In the social campaigns, audiences are break down into subgroups and they are assumed to have similar interests, needs, and behavioral patterns and this assumption allows sources to design relevant messages that affect the people to adopt recommended behaviors. For instance, a social campaign about recycling in university is targeted to students and lecturers who are in the university.

By segmenting social campaigns, it can reduce time and costs by only targeting related audiences instead of wasting money and time to everyone but only some of them will be interested in it. Audience segmentation can reduce the risk of an unsuccessful or ineffective social campaign. This is because there is a higher chance of success than if sources create a generic campaign and try to implement it across all segments.

Types of Target Audience and Segmentation Factors:

  1. Geographic Target Audience Segmentation
  2. Demographic Target Audience Segmentation
  3. Psychographic Target Audience Segmentation

Firstly, In the geographical segment, our target audiences are students who are currently studying in Faculty Bahasa Moden dan Komunikasi, University Putra Malaysia. University Putra Malaysia is located at Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, which is an urban area because it is near to the Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and also the largest city in the country with a population of 1.808 million. Although this university is located in an urban area, but the students are from both urban and rural areas. Apart from students, the staff of the university are hailing from different places in Malaysia. But, we focused only on students for our advertising.

Secondly, the demographic element, the students are currently studying in UPM which is among 20-50 years old no matter they are diploma students, degree students, master students, or Ph.D. students. They can be both sex, either male or female from Malaysian or international students.

Psychographic Target Audience Segmentation

Finally, According to the V.A.L.S typology model, students belong to strivers or struggler segments. So, they tend to save money even though they have to do hard work. The psychographic element, some of them maybe have their own reasons why are they chosen to buy mineral water instead of bringing their own bottle. The mineral water which only costs RM1 for 500ml is very convenient since we can see a lot of places that selling mineral water around FBMK. Also, it is cheap and you can get it anywhere around FBMK. Besides, there is also reason for not enough dustbins that can recycle the bottle in FBMK, so they decided to throw it in the dustbin or just throw it anywhere after finished.

5.Active/passive audience:

Active audiences: Active audiences are those people who receive information actively as well as make sense of the messages from the perspective of their social and personal contexts. These audiences perform it unintentionally. For example, Active audiences are complicated people and Critical thinkers who have good schemata.

 Passive Audience: Passive Audiences are those people who watch and observe the program simply without making sense. Passive audiences are recognized as inactive receivers. For example, Passive audiences are merely an observer and cognitive misers who are lazy to think.

According to the effective implementation process of the garbage-free campaign, the active and passive audiences will be affected through our campaign. We have added some colorful and meaningful photos to attract passive audiences.

  1. YouTube video link-  Click here To get Youtube Link

Please follow and like us:

Marketing Plan Sample: How To Write Five Years Marketing Plan for Company

Marketing Plan Sample: How To Write Five Years Marketing Plan for Company. Also, the Elements, Components, and Factors of a Company’s Five Years Marketing Plan. Finally, a Sample and Example of an Effective Marketing Plan.

Table of Contents:

  1. Marketing Plan
  2. Elements of the marketing plan
  3. Sample of Five Years marketing plan

1. Marketing Plan

A marketing plan refers to a comprehensive document of the company that defines the outline of offline and online adverting attempts for promoting or banding products, services, and company names.

2. Elements and Factors of the marketing plan

  1. Market research
  2. Target market
  3. Target audiences
  4. Market strategies
  5. Mission statement
  6. Products and Services
  7. Pricing, Positioning, and Branding
  8. Competitive analysis
  9. Market goal
  10. Budget
  11. Monitoring results

3. Sample of Five Years marketing plan

An annotative sample of the Global Assistant company also a consulting firm works for student admission counseling.

Global Assistant

Five-year Marketing Plan.


This five-year marketing plan for the Global Assistant consulting firm has been created by its founder to increase popularity among people and attract more customers. Although the Global assistant has been launched in 2019, the employees have huge experience to operate this firm properly. This consulting firm launched officially in 2019 but it is proving service unofficially for a long time ago. The agricultural and industrial era has gone and now we are living in the communication era in the global village.

The Global Assistant wants to provide authentic information by sharing knowledge to produce the best decision for your life. Firstly, they are trying to motivate students to continue their studies to build a better future. So, The Global Assistant is working for both financial benefits and spreading social awareness. They also suggest and assist students to get admission in the best university that can build their career. In addition, The Global Assistant consulting firm helps people from the perspective of migration issues such as getting a second home, professional visa, working visa, tourism sector, and so on.

Finally, we must work towards meeting the demands of customers and achieving a common goal. Over the next five-year, The Global Assistant will assist the student to choose the best university for pursuing a bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. degree. It also helps universities to improve their reputation by proving intellectual students.



The Global Assistant consulting firm was founded in 2019 by entrepreneur Kobiruzzaman who has an undergraduate degree in communication and worked for several years in the public relations industry. Although Kobir started to operate the consulting business officially since 2019 he had experienced a long time ago. However, the prime motive of this firm is to show the right way to choose perfect institutions for studying.


The Global Assistant’s mission is to be the leading information provider and acquire the belief of mass people during making decisions regarding studious issues.  It wants to inspire people to get outdoors more often and enjoy family and friends while doing so.  In addition, Global Assistant strives to design a better future for students and academicians.

During the next five years, The Global Assistant seeks to achieve the following financial and non-financial goals:

  • Firstly, It is looking forward to opening up more branches in Dhaka and Malaysia, and other countries to provide authentic information. I’d like to personally invite you to visit the Global Assistant office.
  • Increase the salary for the employees and revenues by at least 50 percent each year.
  • Donate at least $2,000 a year to conservation organizations and social campaigns.
  • Introduce two new service lines, for instance, opening one more international branch and increase social media marketing.
  • Develop a successful Internet site, while maintaining strong relationships with clients.
  • Global Assistant is also committed to giving back to the community by contributing to local conservation programs. Ultimately, the company would like to develop and fund its own environmental programs.

Firstly, the Global Assistant seeks to use its core competencies to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, in which competitors cannot provide the same value to consumers that Global Assistant does.  Already, Global Assistant has developed core competencies in (1) offering high-quality information; (2) creating a sense of community among consumers who come here; and (3) developing a reputation among customers. However, the Global Assistant believes in building strong relationships with students, guardians, and customers of information and motivation and services.


The marketing environment for Global Assistant represents overwhelming opportunities.  It also contains some challenges that the firm believes it can meet successfully. The Global Assistant is governed by the SWOT analysis a strategic planning technique used to help a person or organization identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats related to business competition or project planning.


The target market for the Global Assistant consulting firm is active clients between the ages of 25 and 45 people who want to study for a better future. In addition, these active clients represent a demographic group of well-educated and successful individuals; they are single or married and raising families. However, they are somewhat education-oriented and highly ambitious people who are seeking for migration to better countries.


Marketing means creating awareness or public visibility of any company, product, and service, and so on. It also implies the movement of information from sources to mass people. The process of information dissemination could happen face to face or via media.

On behalf of the Global Assistant consulting firm, we had chosen both online marketing and offline marketing and executed properly.

  1. Firstly, Social Media Marketing
  2. Secondly, Online Marketing
  3. Thirdly, Offline Marketing
  4. Relationship marketing
  5. Word of mouth marketing
  6. Mass marketing
  7. Diversity Marketing
  8. Seasonal Marketing
  9. Email Marketing
  10. Outbound Marketing
  11. Inbound Marketing
  12. Event Marketing
  13. Direct Marketing
  14. Content Marketing
  15. Community Marketing
  16. B2B Marketing
  17. B2C Marketing
  18. Acquisition Marketing.
  19. Affiliate Marketing.
  20. Brand Marketing.
  21. Buzz Marketing.
  22. Campus Marketing.
  23. Cause Marketing.
  24. Content Marketing.
  25. Vertical Marketing.
  26. Video marketing
  27. viral marketing.
  28. Youth marketing.
  29. Street marketing.

Marketing plan sample -Five years marketing plan timeline for new comapany

Please follow and like us: