Social Media Revolution: Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Social Media Revolution: Impact of Social Media on Society and Business. The Definition of Social media, A list of the 13 Social media with Foundation date, Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company, Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

The Definition of Social media

Social media are mainly Internet-based technologies and tools that people use for communicating, entertaining, and sharing information and knowledge with each other. It has become one of the best blessings of technology in the digital era that facilitates the way of human communication through imparting knowledge and sharing information.

The Growth and Impact of Social Media on Society and Business: 

Social Media Revolution

Controversially, Friendster emerged as the first social media in 2002. It was launched as a social networking website to connect users by friends of friends. Although people used it to make new friends for dating; it has become a gaming site in Malaysia since 2015. In 2003, LinkedIn has introduced itself as for professional networking site. It brought a great opportunity for job seekers to post their CVs as well as employers. However, it is estimated that around 300 million people are using this platform regularly.  After that, Flickr came up with an image and video sharing service in 2004. The professional photographers and amateurs use this platform for uploading photo and video with high resolution.

Undoubtedly Facebook has become the leader amid all Social Media revolution because of a huge number of users; it began its journey in 2004. Mark Zuckerberg also a student at Harvard University created this social networking medium and opened it publicly in 2006. Another famous social media platform name is YouTube that was created in 2005 and Google purchased it in 2006. It is one of the popular social media to share video personally and commercially.  Twitter is an American news sharing and social networking service company that was founded in 2006. Users can post information and photos and communicate with messages also known as “tweets”. It is a very popular site for politicians and celebrities.

Social Media Revolution, History, and Growth

Figure 1.1: The Official Logo of Social Media

Social Media Revolution Chart

A list of the 13 Social media with a Foundation date

  Name Foundation Specialty
1 Friendster 2002 Find friends
2 LinkedIn 2003 Professional network
3 Flickr 2004 Photo & Video Share
4 Facebook 2004 & 2006 Social network
5 YouTube 2005 Video sharing
6 Twitter 2006 Celebrity & Politician
7 Tumblr 2007 Private Blog
8 Pinterest 2009 Image sharing
9 Instagram 2010 Social network
10 Snapchat 2011 Messaging app
11 Nextdoor 2011 Journalism & Blog
12 Tinder 2012 Online dating
13 TikTok 2016 Video Sharing
The Importance of Social Media

Social media are also known as the new media these have become an indispensable part of modern lifestyle. According to Statista (2019), there are around 800 social media that are being used by their respective users such as Facebook, TikTok, WhatsApp, Viber, Instagram, WeChat, Google+, Pinterest, LinkedIn, VK, and so on. They also mentioned that the total users of social media are around 3.0 billion all over the world, and Facebook become one of the most famous social media that has managed to gain 2.30 billion monthly active users. Nobody can deny the blessing of social media to make our civil life easier from the perspective of communication with each other beyond the country’s boundary. Social media joint with technology has improved the communication process broadly although there are both advantages and disadvantages of Social Media on individuals and companies.

Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Nowadays more than 90 percent of teenagers are using smartphones and in the meantime, 45 percent of them surfing the internet every day. People are being benefited individually from several viewpoints when using social media such as education, communication, workplace, marketing, entertainment, and so on. Everybody has to acknowledge that Google has become the lecturer for every student who is seeking knowledge from the internet by using the Google search engine. Apart from that, Social media have become the best option for imparting and sharing knowledge. We can easily perceive how difficult education educational life would be without using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and so on. Learning and teaching system have been integrated with social media closely. Social media are the best grace of technologies from the perspective of education and communication.

Additionally, social media have a great positive impact on the company or organization from the perspective of business and marketing policy. Social media help us not only for communicating with each other, but it is also beneficial for the company such as corporate branding, product branding, social media marketing, paid marketing, enhancing the website traffic, promote content, and so on. Selling products and services online has been easier for the blessing of social media.

Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Firstly, a big number of teenagers who are linked with social media applications have been indulged in many crimes related to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying. Hacking is one more negative impact of social media on society. Personal information can be published by hacking individuals’ social media account for example Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so on. The most alarming negative impact of social media on society is an addiction that has deteriorated among youth. A statistic revealed that around 220 million people are now addicted to social media directly or indirectly. Many organizations are suffering from social media such as traditional media that facing challenges. Nowadays Netizens are extremely keen on social media, and they are spending most of the time here instead of traditional media.

Apart from personal issues, social media can destroy the business in many ways such as the harmful negative review of customers, brand image depends on employees, high customer expectations, and reduction of employee productivity, company reputation depends on social media, and so on. Some organizations are experiencing several disadvantages for social media revolutions.

Conclusions

In short, Social media have both positive and negative impacts on Individual and Company. People are getting benefits when using social media in the aspect of education, communication, workplace, marketing, and so on. In contrast, some crimes are happening due to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying, hacking, and so on. Many companies expanded their business through the positive impact of social media where some organizations have confronted obstacles because of them. However, social media can a blessing for both individuals and companies if we use them properly.

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example. Examples of Symbolic such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Table of contents:

  1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory.
  4. History, and Example 

1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?

According to Symbolic Convergence Theory,  People share common fantasies and visions and these collections of individuals are merged into a cohesive group. SCT presents an explanation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Symbolic Convergence Theory consists of three words such as symbolic, convergence, and theory. Group members cooperatively create and sustain a shared consciousness including shared meaning through interaction.

1.1 What is Symbolic?

Symbolic is serving as a symbol that represents or expresses something else such as an idea, an action, quality without using words such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Example of Symbolic:

Code Words: What does FF: AC stands for?

FF: AC stands for “Final Fantasy: Advent Children”. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy action drama film.

For example,  K.L = Kuala Lumpur, K.G= Kilogram, A.C= Air Conditioner

Phrases: Friday becomes a cool, wet afternoon.

Slogans: Think different is an advertising slogan used from 1997 to 2002 by Apple Computer, Inc.

Gestures: The common thumb up sign represents something approved and accepted.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT)- Code Words Phrases Slogans Gestures

1.2 What is Convergence?

Convergence means forming a new unified whole or evolving into one through coming together two or more things. Convergence comes from the prefix con- and verb verge. Here, prefix con means together, and the verb verge, that means to turn toward. We can use convergence to explain things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together. For example, a crowd of mass people all move together into a group.

1.3 What is Theory?

Theory is a set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. It is a formal concept or set of ideas that is aimed to explain something. For example, the Tw0-step flow of communication theory, Groupthink Muted Group Theory, SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY,  Tubb’s Theory- Small Group Communication, and so on.

Symbolic convergence: When 2 or more private symbol worlds incline toward each other, come closer, or overlap, it is called a symbolic convergence. 

2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?

Ernest Bormann established Symbolic Convergence Theory in 1972. SCT was first proposed by Ernest Bormann in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in 1972. Bormann and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota introduced SCT as a framework for discovering, describing, and explaining the dynamic process by which humans come to share symbolic reality.

SCT is a communication-related theory introduced by Ernest Bormann who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota in the United States. American communication theorist best known as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness.  He argued that group consciousness can occur at any level of communication, from within small groups to mass media. Thus, he identified symbolic convergence as a general theory of communication.

3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic Convergence Theory offers an elucidation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Through SCT, members of the group can build a community or a group consciousness which grows stronger if they share a cluster of fantasy themes. Although this theory allows theorists and practitioners to anticipate or predict what did happen and what will happen but it does not allow for control of human communication.

It attempts to explain how communication can create and sustain group consciousness through the sharing of narratives or fantasies. To foster this cohesiveness, dramatizing or using fantasy stories are significant types of communication involved in SCT. SCT explains that meanings, emotions, values, and motives for action are in the communication contexts by people trying to make sense out of a common experience. It is a process through which collectives create and share a consciousness and develop a common symbolic reality.

Continue reading “Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example”

Tuckman’s Model Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory

Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory. Tuckman’s Theory: Five Stages of Group and Team Development theory- Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model. Theory of Tuckman: Team and Group Development Stages. Bruce Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development. Tuckman’s Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Teamwork Model: 5 Stages of Team and Group Development.

Table of Content:

  1. Tuckman’s Model Five Stages.
  2. Tuckman’s Group Development Stages.
  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model.

1. Tuckman’s Model

Bruce Tuckman introduced his group and team development model in 1965. In the 1970s, he added the fifth stage adjourning to his model. According to Tuckman’s model, the five stages are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. A perfect theory to describe how to group and team members adjust and adapt in a group.

Tuckman’s Model
 Tuckman’s Model of the five stages of group development
2. Group Development Stages of Tuckman’s Model

Although, in 1965 Tuckman proposed four-stage of group development model but later he added the fifth stage called adjourning. This model implies not only group and team development theory but also group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group and team development model consists of five important stages that facilitate group formation and development, for example, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

1. Tuckman’s Model-Forming Stage:(Orientation)
  • Members carefully explore both personal and group goals.
  • Tentatively feel uncomfortable about working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues try to understand and test personal relationships.
  • Orient itself to itself.
Primary Tension of the forming stage
  • Social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting-acquainted stage in a new group
  • To be overly polite with one another
  • Members don’t interrupt one another
  • Often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions
  • Talk less and provide little in the way of content

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Firstly, Be positive and energetic.
  • In addition, Smile and Laugh
  • Further, Nod in agreement and Exhibit enthusiasm
  • Furthermore, Be patient and open-minded knowing that certainly, the primary tension will decrease with time.
  • Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting so you can help the group focus on its task.
2. Tuckman’s Model-Storming Stage: (Power Struggle)
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
  • Group members become argumentative also emotional.
  • The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership.
  • Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition and conflict
  • Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing with one another.
Secondary Tension
  • Frustrations and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group.
  • Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence.
  • High level of energy and agitation
  • The group is noisier, more dynamic, and physically active
  • Members speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking at the same time.
  • Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats
  • Everyone is alert and listening intently.
How to Solve the Tension?
  • Making jokes.
  • Work outside the group setting to discuss the personal difficulties and anxieties of group members.
3. Tuckman’s Model-Norming Stage: (Cooperation and Integration)
  • Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and task-oriented.
  • Start developing “rules of engagement”.
  • Feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open.
  • Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge.
4. Tuckman’s Model-Performing Stage: (Synergy)
  • Members are fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
  • Adjust and adapt, Members start solving critical problems.
  • Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high.
  • Disagreements do occur, but members usually resolved intelligently and amicably.
  • “Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; rather, the members are jovial, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.
5. Tuckman’s Model-Adjourning Stage: (Closure)
  • Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband.
  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
  • They are happy for what they have achieved but feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves.
Advantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model
  • Firstly, this model clarifies the specific stages of any group and team for instance forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  • In addition to that, learning more about primary tension and secondary tension also how to solve it.
  • Finally, Tuckman’s group developing model shows the perfect way of solving group uncertainty issues.
Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model

 

  • Tuckman’s Theory consists of five important stages that really difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions at every stage to maintain effective communication and good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no specific solution that can solve all conflicts in group communication although suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts.