Social Media Revolution: Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Social Media Revolution: Impact of Social Media on Society and Business. The Definition of Social media, A list of the 13 Social media with Foundation date, Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company, Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

The Definition of Social media

Social media are mainly Internet-based technologies and tools that people use for communicating, entertaining, and sharing information and knowledge with each other. It has become one of the best blessings of technology in the digital era that facilitates the way of human communication through imparting knowledge and sharing information.

The Growth and Impact of Social Media on Society and Business: 

Social Media Revolution

Controversially, Friendster emerged as the first social media in 2002. It was launched as a social networking website to connect users by friends of friends. Although people used it to make new friends for dating; it has become a gaming site in Malaysia since 2015. In 2003, LinkedIn has introduced itself as for professional networking site. It brought a great opportunity for job seekers to post their CVs as well as employers. However, it is estimated that around 300 million people are using this platform regularly.  After that, Flickr came up with an image and video sharing service in 2004. The professional photographers and amateurs use this platform for uploading photo and video with high resolution.

Undoubtedly Facebook has become the leader amid all Social Media revolution because of a huge number of users; it began its journey in 2004. Mark Zuckerberg also a student at Harvard University created this social networking medium and opened it publicly in 2006. Another famous social media platform name is YouTube that was created in 2005 and Google purchased it in 2006. It is one of the popular social media to share video personally and commercially.  Twitter is an American news sharing and social networking service company that was founded in 2006. Users can post information and photos and communicate with messages also known as “tweets”. It is a very popular site for politicians and celebrities.

Social Media Revolution, History, and Growth

Figure 1.1: The Official Logo of Social Media

Social Media Revolution Chart

A list of the 13 Social media with a Foundation date

  Name Foundation Specialty
1 Friendster 2002 Find friends
2 LinkedIn 2003 Professional network
3 Flickr 2004 Photo & Video Share
4 Facebook 2004 & 2006 Social network
5 YouTube 2005 Video sharing
6 Twitter 2006 Celebrity & Politician
7 Tumblr 2007 Private Blog
8 Pinterest 2009 Image sharing
9 Instagram 2010 Social network
10 Snapchat 2011 Messaging app
11 Nextdoor 2011 Journalism & Blog
12 Tinder 2012 Online dating
13 TikTok 2016 Video Sharing
The Importance of Social Media

Social media are also known as the new media these have become an indispensable part of modern lifestyle. According to Statista (2019), there are around 800 social media that are being used by their respective users such as Facebook, TikTok, WhatsApp, Viber, Instagram, WeChat, Google+, Pinterest, LinkedIn, VK, and so on. They also mentioned that the total users of social media are around 3.0 billion all over the world, and Facebook become one of the most famous social media that has managed to gain 2.30 billion monthly active users. Nobody can deny the blessing of social media to make our civil life easier from the perspective of communication with each other beyond the country’s boundary. Social media joint with technology has improved the communication process broadly although there are both advantages and disadvantages of Social Media on individuals and companies.

Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Nowadays more than 90 percent of teenagers are using smartphones and in the meantime, 45 percent of them surfing the internet every day. People are being benefited individually from several viewpoints when using social media such as education, communication, workplace, marketing, entertainment, and so on. Everybody has to acknowledge that Google has become the lecturer for every student who is seeking knowledge from the internet by using the Google search engine. Apart from that, Social media have become the best option for imparting and sharing knowledge. We can easily perceive how difficult education educational life would be without using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and so on. Learning and teaching system have been integrated with social media closely. Social media are the best grace of technologies from the perspective of education and communication.

Additionally, social media have a great positive impact on the company or organization from the perspective of business and marketing policy. Social media help us not only for communicating with each other, but it is also beneficial for the company such as corporate branding, product branding, social media marketing, paid marketing, enhancing the website traffic, promote content, and so on. Selling products and services online has been easier for the blessing of social media.

Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Firstly, a big number of teenagers who are linked with social media applications have been indulged in many crimes related to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying. Hacking is one more negative impact of social media on society. Personal information can be published by hacking individuals’ social media account for example Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so on. The most alarming negative impact of social media on society is an addiction that has deteriorated among youth. A statistic revealed that around 220 million people are now addicted to social media directly or indirectly. Many organizations are suffering from social media such as traditional media that facing challenges. Nowadays Netizens are extremely keen on social media, and they are spending most of the time here instead of traditional media.

Apart from personal issues, social media can destroy the business in many ways such as the harmful negative review of customers, brand image depends on employees, high customer expectations, and reduction of employee productivity, company reputation depends on social media, and so on. Some organizations are experiencing several disadvantages for social media revolutions.

Conclusions

In short, Social media have both positive and negative impacts on Individual and Company. People are getting benefits when using social media in the aspect of education, communication, workplace, marketing, and so on. In contrast, some crimes are happening due to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying, hacking, and so on. Many companies expanded their business through the positive impact of social media where some organizations have confronted obstacles because of them. However, social media can a blessing for both individuals and companies if we use them properly.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Method: Revolution & The Four Stages of the PDSA.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Method: Revolution & The Four Stages of the PDSA. Deming Cycle or PDSA or circle or wheel, Shewhart cycle, control cycle, or circle. Revolution &The Four Stages (Plan–Do–Study–Adjust) of the PDSA. The Pros and Cons of Deming Cycle or PDSA / PDCA. The Evolution of the Deming Cycle or PDSA. When to Apply PDSA. Deming Cycle or PDSA Quality Improvement.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Method

Description of the PDCA:

Mukhopadhyay (2020) stated that PDCA  refers to a repeated four-step management model that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. He also said that in the 1950s, a famous management scholar Dr. William Edwards Deming introduced the PDCA method; therefore, it is also known as the Deming cycle or Deming Wheel. It is a very famous method to solve problems to yield the highest quality result. The full meaning of PDCA is the Plan–Do–Check–Act that is a four-step action method. In addition, it has many names such as the PDSA abbreviation of the Plan–Do–Check–Adjust, the Deming cycle or circle or wheel, the Shewhart cycle, and the control cycle or circle.

The Four Stages of the Deming Cycle or PDSA or PDCA method

The primary four steps of the PDSA or PDCA are Plan, Do, Study or Check, and Act these are the inevitable elements of the Deming cycle.

Plan

According to Moen (2009), the PLAN is the initial step of the four steps method that identifies the problem and opportunities to suggest recommendations. In addition, it analyzes and describes the overall current situation of the project. A team will be recruited to understand the full process of the project in this stage; they will identify the problems that need to be changed, and find out solutions to fix the problems. You have to find out the answers to some basic questions regarding the project. The questions are as follows;

  • Firstly, what is the main problem that must need to be solved?
  • Secondly, what kind of resources do you have now?
  • In addition, what resources do you just have to have?
  • Moreover, what is the solution that you have taken with resources?
  • Finally, how long it will take to analyze the problems and implement the planning?
Do

The DO phase is the second stage of the Deming cycle where the testing of the solution starts to execute to identify the results (Moen & Norman, 2006). After completing the planing step, you have to take action for solving the problems. You will apply your all plans that you have taken in the first stage. Some unwanted problems can emerge in this stage, so you have to be aware to confront them. For increasing your confidence level, you can apply your actions to a small arena in the project. It is a subtle way to control the situation properly as well as avoiding an unpredicted big mistake. All team members stay alert at this stage to play their roles and responsibility. In addition, you with your team members will take some initiatives mentioned below:

  • Keep a record of what happened and what is happened?
  • When you apply the planning?
  • Collect data from the planning stage.
  • Try to use a check sheet, swim lane map, and flowchart to capture data.
Study or Check

Moen and Norman (2006) argued that the study or check is probably the most important step of the PDSA cycle. You must have to pay attention to the CHECK stage if you want to scrutinize the output that yielded from the earlier stage. It will help you to avoid repeating mistakes and clarify the success of your planning and applying steps. This stage will give you the opportunity to audit your plan’s performance; you will be confirmed whether the plan is worked perfectly or not.  Additionally, your team will identify the problematic portion of the project to eliminate them in the future. You will be able to discover the root cause of the problem if something went wrong. In short, this stage will assess the effectiveness of the system and help you to make the decision whether the theory is helpful or not.

Example: Appraisals or  Gap analysis.

  • In this stage, you have to answer some questions mentioned below.
  • The system is effective or not?
  • Do you want to continue this system or need to change?
  • Have you made an outline of a list including the unexpected results, failures, successes, and outcomes?
Act

ACT is the final stage of the system that finalize the perfect solution to implement it (Crowfoot & Prasad, 2017). In this stage, your organization should follow adapt, adopt, and abandon factors. Adapt refers to changing and modifying the PDSA circle for the next test. Adopt indicates considering expanding the system to all departments in the organization. Abandon means modify your full approach and repeat the PDCA circle again.  In sum, it is the step of standardization that is considered standardized when goals are exceeded.

The Pros and Cons of Deming Cycle or PDSA / PDCA

Firstly, PDSA is a simple and effective process to resolve a new and recurring problem in the industry (Boaden, 2009). In addition, it is a repeated approach that will allow you to measure results without a waste of time. Moreover, it is a risk-free cycle to apply a small scale in the project; therefore, no need to change the full process if it doesn’t work.

In contrast, the full process of the PDSA is slow when applying the four steps in the industry to yield the final result. It is not a straightforward execution process that can apply in urgent problem-solving issues. Additionally, you need to use some resources including effective team members to ensure that each step of the circle is directed perfectly.

The Evolution of the Deming Cycle or PDSA

The PDSA cycle has been evolved from time to time to make it an effective process. It can be applied to almost every industry. I am going to discuss how the PDSA cycle came to be and how it has been evolved from time to time.

Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Deming was an American management consultant who graduated as an electrical engineer, later concentrating on mathematical physics (Moen & Norman, 2006). He has become a famous person in the Japanese industry for his work as well as initiatives after WWII. In addition, Dr. W. Edwards Deming got recognition as one of the most influential people in the Japanese manufacturing industry who is not Japanese but American. He championed the work of Walter Shewhart including total quality management, statistic process control, and renamed the Shewhart Cycle. Afterall, He had a great contribution to the rise of the post-war economic growth in Japan.

The Shewhart Cycle

Deming had been inspired by an American engineer Walter Andrew Shewhart who was also a physicist and statistician. In 1939, Shewhart published a book on the Viewpoint of Quality Control (Moen & Norman, 2006). It was the first book that articulated a three-stage systematic process of specification, production, and inspection. These three stages were developed to test the hypothesis that carries out an experiment. Finally, he mentioned that these stages should not go as a straight line but it should go in a cycle. Thus, the Shewhart Cycle came up with the process of a circle.

The Deming Wheel

In 1950, Deming analyzed Shewhart’s Cycle to modify it. He introduced a new version of Shewhart’s Cycle that is a four-step of the design, production, sales, and research (Moen & Norman, 2006). This cycle has been known as the Deming’s Circle or Deming Wheel.

PDCA

Most probably some Japanese executives modify the Deming cycle or Deming wheel into Plan, Do Check, Act (PDCA) although the exact reason for changing the term-name is unclear (Moen & Norman, 2006). This four-step cycle introduced to identify the problems in the industry and solve them by applying four steps together. The prime objective of this cycle is to standardize if the results are satisfying.

Deming Cycle or PDCA
PDCA
PDSA
Deming was not satisfied with the name of PDCA; therefore, he amended it in 1986 (Moen & Norman, 2006). He emphasized the core meaning of the checking, and he mentioned that checking is not to incorporate the cycle. Hence, the PDSA emerged with the recommendation of Deming.
When to Apply PDSA

The PDSA or PDCA framework is capable to develop any process or product by splitting into a shorter step (Smartsheet, n.d.). This cycle can be used in every kind of organization in many aspects such as changing management, new service or product deployment, product lifecycle, and so on. This framework is especially useful for assisting the improvement of the six sigma and total quality management process. It is the best option to dig out problems and effective solutions.

Deming Cycle or PDSA Quality Improvement

The PDSA cycle is one of the most important parts of the quality improvement process in the big industry. Apart from that, organizations apply other quality improvements program that is much complex QI processes.

These more complex quality improvement programs include the following:

  • Continuous Quality Improvement: It is also known as the CQI process that organizations apply to reduce waste, increase efficiency as well as increase internal and external satisfaction. It is a management philosophy that assesses how the industry works to develop its process.
  • Lean: The lean process is a manufacturing program that makes a business effective by improving efficiency and reducing wasteful practices. This program focuses more on improving services and products based on customer’s demands.
  • Six Sigma: The six sigma process is the set of tools and techniques that develop the quality of a process by eliminating defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing.
  • Total Quality Management: It is a process of a management system based on practicing a principle that instills good business culture where every employee maintains a high standard of work. It influences the organization to maintain a high quality of service in every aspect of the company.
  • Quality Improvement Collaboratives: It is a process that usually applies to the healthcare center in which many organizations work together to develop services for patients.
Conclusion

PDSA  refers to a repeated four-step (PLAN, DO, STUDY, ACT) that that ensures the continuous improvement of products and services in the industry. Today, many organizations all over the world use this method to improve the product and service by solving problems.

References:

Boaden, R. (2009). Quality improvement: theory and practice. British Journal of Healthcare Management15(1), 12-16.

Crowfoot, D., & Prasad, V. (2017). Using the plan–do–study–act (PDSA) cycle to make change in general practice. InnovAiT10(7), 425-430.

Smartsheet. (n.d.). How to Implement PDSA in Your Organization. https://www.smartsheet.com/content/plan-do-study-act-guide

Moen, R. (2009, September). Foundation and History of the PDSA Cycle. In Asian network for quality conference. Tokyo. https://www. deming. org/sites/default/files/pdf/2015/PDSA_History_Ron_Moen. Pdf.

Moen, R., & Norman, C. (2006). Evolution of the PDCA cycle.

Mukhopadhyay, M. (2020). Total quality management in education. SAGE Publications Pvt. Limited.

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example. Examples of Symbolic such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Table of contents:

  1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory.
  4. History, and Example 

1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?

According to Symbolic Convergence Theory,  People share common fantasies and visions and these collections of individuals are merged into a cohesive group. SCT presents an explanation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Symbolic Convergence Theory consists of three words such as symbolic, convergence, and theory. Group members cooperatively create and sustain a shared consciousness including shared meaning through interaction.

1.1 What is Symbolic?

Symbolic is serving as a symbol that represents or expresses something else such as an idea, an action, quality without using words such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Example of Symbolic:

Code Words: What does FF: AC stands for?

FF: AC stands for “Final Fantasy: Advent Children”. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy action drama film.

For example,  K.L = Kuala Lumpur, K.G= Kilogram, A.C= Air Conditioner

Phrases: Friday becomes a cool, wet afternoon.

Slogans: Think different is an advertising slogan used from 1997 to 2002 by Apple Computer, Inc.

Gestures: The common thumb up sign represents something approved and accepted.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT)- Code Words Phrases Slogans Gestures

1.2 What is Convergence?

Convergence means forming a new unified whole or evolving into one through coming together two or more things. Convergence comes from the prefix con- and verb verge. Here, prefix con means together, and the verb verge, that means to turn toward. We can use convergence to explain things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together. For example, a crowd of mass people all move together into a group.

1.3 What is Theory?

Theory is a set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. It is a formal concept or set of ideas that is aimed to explain something. For example, the Tw0-step flow of communication theory, Groupthink Muted Group Theory, SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY,  Tubb’s Theory- Small Group Communication, and so on.

Symbolic convergence: When 2 or more private symbol worlds incline toward each other, come closer, or overlap, it is called a symbolic convergence. 

2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?

Ernest Bormann established Symbolic Convergence Theory in 1972. SCT was first proposed by Ernest Bormann in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in 1972. Bormann and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota introduced SCT as a framework for discovering, describing, and explaining the dynamic process by which humans come to share symbolic reality.

SCT is a communication-related theory introduced by Ernest Bormann who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota in the United States. American communication theorist best known as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness.  He argued that group consciousness can occur at any level of communication, from within small groups to mass media. Thus, he identified symbolic convergence as a general theory of communication.

3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic Convergence Theory offers an elucidation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Through SCT, members of the group can build a community or a group consciousness which grows stronger if they share a cluster of fantasy themes. Although this theory allows theorists and practitioners to anticipate or predict what did happen and what will happen but it does not allow for control of human communication.

It attempts to explain how communication can create and sustain group consciousness through the sharing of narratives or fantasies. To foster this cohesiveness, dramatizing or using fantasy stories are significant types of communication involved in SCT. SCT explains that meanings, emotions, values, and motives for action are in the communication contexts by people trying to make sense out of a common experience. It is a process through which collectives create and share a consciousness and develop a common symbolic reality.

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