COVID-19 Pandemic Impact, History, also Background of Coronavirus. COVID -19 Pandemic Impact on the economy, education also society. The suggestion to revive in normal life (Introduction, Background /History).
COVID-19 Pandemic Impact
Ashraf (2020) stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has a great adverse impact on the economy of the country and society due to the imposed countrywide lockdown. It has changed the world economy dramatically as well as the way people live in society. The world health organization (WHO) urged to imposed a lockdown on all affected countries to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, the Chinese government imposed a lockdown for Wuhan city in China on 13 January 2020 where around 9 million people live together (Yuan, Xiao, Dai, Huang, Zhang, & Chen, 2020).
According to Cheng (2021, January 8), it is estimated that around 88 million people globally affected by the coronavirus and around 1.89 million people have died due to COVID-19. According to the DGHS Press Release on 03 January 2021, it is estimated that around 516,019 people in Bangladesh have been tested positive where 7,626 people were died due to the COVID-19 (Corona.Gov.Bd., 2021). They also mentioned that Bangladesh ranked 27th country globally and it is considered that only 0.62% of people are affected by the COVID-19 disease. According to Jahid (2020), the Bangladesh government announced to impose a complete lockdown officially from 26 March 2020.
In order to protect people from COVID-19, it was the initial step to stop spreading coronavirus across the country as well as prevent affecting people. Bangladesh authorities announced a prohibition on traveling via rail, water, domestic air, and road (Jahid, 2020). Therefore, many small and big companies have stopped their operations due to the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, all types of organizations including governments and non-government encountered huge losses due to maintaining the lockdown imposed by the government in 2020.
People are using social media platforms excessively during the pandemic for interacting effectively. Jha (2020) describes that The World Health Organisation (WHO) has collaborated with social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, and TikTok to create social awareness regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Incorporate with fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, celebrities, researchers, physicians, and political leaders are working together to create social awareness through social media platforms.
Rashid (2020) discovers that fake and misleading information is spreading like wildfire around the planet during the COVID -19 pandemic. Many people have spread fake news on social media including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube that homeopathic medicine can cure coronaviruses. In the Covid-19 pandemic, not only general people but also many celebrities are indulged in spreading rumors on social media. Rashid (2020) mentions that many celebrities including Bollywood superstar Amitabh Bachchan, Indian singer Sonu Nigam, Malayalam TV actress Sadhika Venugopal, and Famous South Indian Superstar, Rajinikanth spread fake news on social media. So, apart from the positive impact of social media on disaster management, there are few adverse consequences of social media in emergency situations
Despite some positive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in society, it has a great negative impact on the economy including increasing unemployment, rising government debt, closure of the small company, and so on. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has played an adverse role in society such as increasing child marriage, weakening the bond of family relationships, raising anarchy in society, etc.
Background of COVID-19
Ghinai, McPherson, Hunter, Kirking, Christiansen, Joshi, and Team (2020) articulated that the first people of the COVID-19 case was identified and reported officially in Wuhan City in China in December 2019. COVID-19 is a dangerous disease caused by the novel coronavirus also known as SARS-CoV-2. Researchers believe that this disease has a connection to the wholesale food shop in Wuhan. Chinese authorities have found many of the patients were Wuhan market employees, shop owners, and regular visitors. In December 2019, researchers collected environmental samples from the market in Wuhan City in China.
The environmental sample had been tested positive for the novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2. Ghinai et al. (2020) proposed that the food wholesale market in Wuhan city in China is the source of the COVID-19 outbreak. The Chinese government had closed the market on 1 January 2020. The genetic sequences of the COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 represent that this virus has a natural element or origin in bat populations. All evidence suggested that this virus is not a constructed or manipulated virus rather it has an ecological animal origin.
At the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, many scholars were confused about whether it is a manmade virus or a natural virus. Therefore, they tested this virus many times to identify the origin of the virus. Finally, many researchers from all over the world declared that SARS-CoV-2 is not a laboratory-constructed virus. Another coronavirus named SARS-CoV-1 was identified in 2003 as the cause of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).
Van Doremalen, Bushmaker, Morris, Holbrook, Gamble, Williamson, and Munster (2020) declared that both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 have an ecological element in bat Populations. These coronaviruses are able to infect animals; for example, SARS-CoV-1 infected cats and camels. In 2012, it infected humans that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (Van Doremalen et al., 2020). Another evidence for COVID-19 proved that SARS-CoV-2 has a zoonosis source. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a worldwide pandemic also known as a Public health emergency situation. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020.
According to Cheng (2021, January 8), around 88 million people have been tested positive and around 1.89 million people died due to COVID-19. The symptoms of the COVID-19 are very complex and highly variable that causes none to several diseases. The coronavirus can be spread in many ways and the air is the prime medium to spread this virus rapidly. It spreads from man to man through cough, sneeze, breathe, and speak when they come to close each other. The most important human organs are the nose, eye, and mouth that assist to spread this virus. Most of the countries all over the world including Bangladesh decided to impose a lockdown to stop spreading the COVID-19 outbreak.
Ashraf, B. N. (2020). Economic impact of government interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: International evidence from financial markets. Journal of behavioral and experimental finance, 27, 100371.
Corona.Gov.Bd. (2021, January 3). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Information Bangladesh | corona.gov.bd. DGHS. https://corona.gov.bd/press-release
Cheng, E. (2021, January 8). Chinese city near Beijing stops people from leaving as coronavirus cases spike — like Wuhan did last year. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/07/china-locks-down-part-of-province-outside-beijing-as-coronavirus-cases-spike.html
Ducharme, J. (2020, March 11). World Health Organization Declares COVID-19 a “Pandemic.” Here’s What That Means. Time. https://time.com/5791661/who-coronavirus-pandemic-declaration/
Ghinai, I., McPherson, T. D., Hunter, J. C., Kirking, H. L., Christiansen, D., Joshi, K., & Team, I. (2020). First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. The Lancet.
Jahid, A. M. (2020, April 26). Coronavirus pandemic: 45 districts now under complete lockdown. The Daily Star. https://www.thedailystar.net/online/news/coronavirus-pandemic-45-districts-now-under-compete-lockdown-1896967
Jha, L. (2020, March 19). Coronavirus: WHO, others tap social media, celebs to raise awareness. Mint. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/coronavirus-who-others-tap-social-media-celebs-to-raise-awareness-11584611973037.html
Rashid, A. (2020, March 30). Coronavirus: Celebrities Are Helping COVID-19 Misinformation Go Dangerously Viral Online. NDTV Gadgets 360. https://gadgets.ndtv.com/social-networking/features/coronavirus-covid-19-celebrities-spreading-misinformation-social-media-twitter-facebook-whatsapp-2202851
Van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., … & Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine, 382(16), 1564-1567.
Yuan, Z., Xiao, Y., Dai, Z., Huang, J., Zhang, Z., & Chen, Y. (2020). Modelling the effects of Wuhan’s lockdown during COVID-19, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 98(7), 484.