COVID-19 Pandemic Impact- History Background of Coronavirus

COVID-19 Pandemic Impact, History, also Background of Coronavirus. COVID -19 Pandemic Impact on the economy, education also society.  The suggestion to revive in normal life (Introduction, Background /History).

COVID-19 Pandemic Impact

COVID-19 Pandemic

Ashraf (2020) stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has a great adverse impact on the economy of the country and society due to the imposed countrywide lockdown. It has changed the world economy dramatically as well as the way people live in society. The world health organization (WHO) urged to imposed a lockdown on all affected countries to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Hence, the Chinese government imposed a lockdown for Wuhan city in China on 13 January 2020 where around 9 million people live together (Yuan, Xiao, Dai, Huang, Zhang, & Chen, 2020).

According to Cheng (2021, January 8), it is estimated that around 88 million people globally affected by the coronavirus and around 1.89 million people have died due to COVID-19. According to the DGHS Press Release on 03 January 2021, it is estimated that around 516,019 people in Bangladesh have been tested positive where 7,626 people were died due to the COVID-19 (Corona.Gov.Bd., 2021). They also mentioned that Bangladesh ranked 27th country globally and it is considered that only 0.62% of people are affected by the COVID-19 disease. According to Jahid (2020), the Bangladesh government announced to impose a complete lockdown officially from 26 March 2020.

In order to protect people from COVID-19, it was the initial step to stop spreading coronavirus across the country as well as prevent affecting people.  Bangladesh authorities announced a prohibition on traveling via rail, water, domestic air, and road (Jahid, 2020). Therefore, many small and big companies have stopped their operations due to the Covid-19 pandemic. As a result, all types of organizations including governments and non-government encountered huge losses due to maintaining the lockdown imposed by the government in 2020.

People are using social media platforms excessively during the pandemic for interacting effectively. Jha (2020) describes that The World Health Organisation (WHO) has collaborated with social media platforms including Facebook, Twitter, and TikTok to create social awareness regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Incorporate with fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic, celebrities, researchers, physicians, and political leaders are working together to create social awareness through social media platforms.

Rashid (2020) discovers that fake and misleading information is spreading like wildfire around the planet during the COVID -19 pandemic. Many people have spread fake news on social media including Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube that homeopathic medicine can cure coronaviruses. In the Covid-19 pandemic, not only general people but also many celebrities are indulged in spreading rumors on social media. Rashid (2020) mentions that many celebrities including Bollywood superstar Amitabh Bachchan, Indian singer Sonu Nigam, Malayalam TV actress Sadhika Venugopal, and Famous South Indian Superstar, Rajinikanth spread fake news on social media. So, apart from the positive impact of social media on disaster management, there are few adverse consequences of social media in emergency situations

Despite some positive impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic in society, it has a great negative impact on the economy including increasing unemployment, rising government debt, closure of the small company, and so on. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has played an adverse role in society such as increasing child marriage, weakening the bond of family relationships, raising anarchy in society, etc.

 Background of COVID-19

Ghinai, McPherson, Hunter, Kirking, Christiansen, Joshi, and Team (2020) articulated that the first people of the COVID-19 case was identified and reported officially in Wuhan City in China in December 2019. COVID-19 is a dangerous disease caused by the novel coronavirus also known as SARS-CoV-2. Researchers believe that this disease has a connection to the wholesale food shop in Wuhan. Chinese authorities have found many of the patients were Wuhan market employees, shop owners, and regular visitors. In December 2019, researchers collected environmental samples from the market in Wuhan City in China.

The environmental sample had been tested positive for the novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV-2. Ghinai et al. (2020) proposed that the food wholesale market in Wuhan city in China is the source of the COVID-19 outbreak. The Chinese government had closed the market on 1 January 2020. The genetic sequences of the COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 represent that this virus has a natural element or origin in bat populations. All evidence suggested that this virus is not a constructed or manipulated virus rather it has an ecological animal origin.

At the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, many scholars were confused about whether it is a manmade virus or a natural virus. Therefore, they tested this virus many times to identify the origin of the virus. Finally, many researchers from all over the world declared that SARS-CoV-2 is not a laboratory-constructed virus. Another coronavirus named SARS-CoV-1 was identified in 2003 as the cause of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS).

Van Doremalen, Bushmaker, Morris, Holbrook, Gamble, Williamson, and Munster (2020) declared that both SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 have an ecological element in bat Populations. These coronaviruses are able to infect animals; for example, SARS-CoV-1 infected cats and camels. In 2012, it infected humans that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (Van Doremalen et al., 2020). Another evidence for COVID-19 proved that SARS-CoV-2 has a zoonosis source. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a worldwide pandemic also known as a Public health emergency situation. The World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January 2020 and a pandemic in March 2020.

According to Cheng (2021, January 8), around 88 million people have been tested positive and around 1.89 million people died due to COVID-19. The symptoms of the COVID-19 are very complex and highly variable that causes none to several diseases. The coronavirus can be spread in many ways and the air is the prime medium to spread this virus rapidly. It spreads from man to man through cough, sneeze, breathe, and speak when they come to close each other. The most important human organs are the nose, eye, and mouth that assist to spread this virus. Most of the countries all over the world including Bangladesh decided to impose a lockdown to stop spreading the COVID-19 outbreak.

References

Ashraf, B. N. (2020). Economic impact of government interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: International evidence from financial markets. Journal of behavioral and experimental finance27, 100371.

Corona.Gov.Bd. (2021, January 3). Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Information Bangladesh | corona.gov.bd. DGHS. https://corona.gov.bd/press-release

Cheng, E. (2021, January 8). Chinese city near Beijing stops people from leaving as coronavirus cases spike — like Wuhan did last year. CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2021/01/07/china-locks-down-part-of-province-outside-beijing-as-coronavirus-cases-spike.html

Ducharme, J. (2020, March 11). World Health Organization Declares COVID-19 a “Pandemic.” Here’s What That Means. Time. https://time.com/5791661/who-coronavirus-pandemic-declaration/

Ghinai, I., McPherson, T. D., Hunter, J. C., Kirking, H. L., Christiansen, D., Joshi, K.,  & Team, I. (2020). First known person-to-person transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the USA. The Lancet.

Jahid, A. M. (2020, April 26). Coronavirus pandemic: 45 districts now under complete lockdown. The Daily Star. https://www.thedailystar.net/online/news/coronavirus-pandemic-45-districts-now-under-compete-lockdown-1896967

Jha, L. (2020, March 19). Coronavirus: WHO, others tap social media, celebs to raise awareness. Mint. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/coronavirus-who-others-tap-social-media-celebs-to-raise-awareness-11584611973037.html

Rashid, A. (2020, March 30). Coronavirus: Celebrities Are Helping COVID-19 Misinformation Go Dangerously Viral Online. NDTV Gadgets 360. https://gadgets.ndtv.com/social-networking/features/coronavirus-covid-19-celebrities-spreading-misinformation-social-media-twitter-facebook-whatsapp-2202851

Van Doremalen, N., Bushmaker, T., Morris, D. H., Holbrook, M. G., Gamble, A., Williamson, B. N., … & Munster, V. J. (2020). Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. New England Journal of Medicine382(16), 1564-1567.

Yuan, Z., Xiao, Y., Dai, Z., Huang, J., Zhang, Z., & Chen, Y. (2020). Modelling the effects of Wuhan’s lockdown during COVID-19, China. Bulletin of the World Health Organization98(7), 484.

Social Media Revolution: Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Media

Social Media Revolution: Impact of Social Media on Society and Business. Additionally, the Definition of Social media, A list of the 13 Social media with Foundation date, Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company, Also, Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company.

 Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Media

The Definition of Social media

Social media are mainly Internet-based technologies and tools that people use for communicating, entertaining, as well as sharing information and knowledge with each other. After all, it has become one of the best blessings of technology in the digital era that facilitates the way of human communication through imparting knowledge and sharing information.

The Growth and Impact of Social Media on Society and Business 

Social Media Revolution

Controversially, Friendster emerged as the first social media in 2002. It was launched as a social networking website to connect users by friends of friends. Although people used it to make new friends for dating; it has become a gaming site in Malaysia since 2015. In 2003, LinkedIn has introduced itself as for professional networking site. It brought a great opportunity for job seekers to post their CVs as well as employers. However, it is estimated that around 300 million people are using this platform regularly.  After that, Flickr came up with an image and video sharing service in 2004. Professional photographers and amateurs use this platform for uploading photos and videos with high resolution.

Undoubtedly Facebook has become the leader amid all Social Media revolutions because of a huge number of users; it began its journey in 2004. Mark Zuckerberg also a student at Harvard University created this social networking medium and opened it publicly in 2006. Another famous social media platform name is YouTube that was created in 2005 and Google purchased it in 2006. It is one of the popular social media to share videos personally and commercially.  Twitter is an American news sharing and social networking service company that was founded in 2006. Users can post information and photos and communicate with messages also known as “tweets”. It is a very popular site for politicians and celebrities.

Social Media Revolution, History, and Growth

Figure 1.1: The Official Logo of Social Media

Social Media Revolution Chart

A list of the 13 Social media with a Foundation date

  Name Foundation Specialty
1 Friendster 2002 Find friends
2 LinkedIn 2003 Professional network
3 Flickr 2004 Photo & Video Share
4 Facebook 2004 & 2006 Social network
5 YouTube 2005 Video sharing
6 Twitter 2006 Celebrity & Politician
7 Tumblr 2007 Private Blog
8 Pinterest 2009 Image sharing
9 Instagram 2010 Social network
10 Snapchat 2011 Messaging app
11 Nextdoor 2011 Journalism & Blog
12 Tinder 2012 Online dating
13 TikTok 2016 Video Sharing
 Advantages & Disadvantages of Social Media
The Importance of Social Media

Social media are also known as the new media these have become an indispensable part of the modern lifestyle. According to Statista (2019), there are around 800 social media that are being used by their respective users such as Facebook, TikTok, WhatsApp, Viber, Instagram, WeChat, Google+, Pinterest, LinkedIn, VK, and so on. They also mentioned that the total number of users of social media is around 3.0 billion all over the world, and Facebook become one of the most famous social media that has managed to gain 2.30 billion monthly active users. Nobody can deny the blessing of social media to make our civil life easier from the perspective of communication with each other beyond the country’s boundary. Social media joint with technology has improved the communication process broadly although there are both advantages and disadvantages of Social Media on individuals and companies.

Advantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Nowadays more than 90 percent of teenagers are using smartphones and in the meantime, 45 percent of them surfing the internet every day. People are being benefited individually from several viewpoints when using social media such as education, communication, workplace, marketing, entertainment, and so on. Everybody has to acknowledge that Google has become the lecturer for every student who is seeking knowledge from the internet by using the Google search engine. Additionally, Social media have become the best option for imparting and sharing knowledge. We can easily perceive how difficult education educational life would be without using social media such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and so on. Learning and teaching system have been integrated with social media closely. Social media are the best grace of technologies from the perspective of education as well as communication.

Additionally, social media have a great positive impact on the company or organization from the perspective of business and marketing policy. Social media help us not only for communicating with each other, but it is also beneficial for the company such as corporate branding, product branding, social media marketing, paid marketing, enhancing the website traffic, promote content, and so on. Selling products and services online has been easier for the blessing of social media.

Disadvantages of Social Media on Individual and Company

Firstly, a big number of teenagers who are linked with social media applications have been indulged in many crimes related to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying. Hacking is one more negative impact of social media on society. Personal information can be published by hacking individuals’ social media account for example Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so on. The most alarming negative impact of social media on society is an addiction that has deteriorated among youth. A statistic revealed that around 220 million people are now addicted to social media directly or indirectly. Many organizations are suffering from social media such as traditional media that facing challenges. Nowadays Netizens are extremely keen on social media, and they are spending most of the time here instead of traditional media.

Apart from personal issues, social media can destroy the business in many ways such as the harmful negative review of customers, brand image depends on employees, high customer expectations, and reduction of employee productivity, company reputation depends on social media, and so on. Some organizations are experiencing several disadvantages for social media revolutions.

Conclusions

In short, Social media have both positive and negative impacts on individuals and companies. People are getting benefits when using social media in the aspect of education, communication, workplace, marketing, and so on. In contrast, some crimes are happening due to social media such as cybersecurity, cyberbullying, hacking, and so on. Many companies expanded their business through the positive impact of social media where some organizations have confronted obstacles because of them. However, social media can a blessing for both individuals and companies if we use them properly.