Research Design- Different Types of Research Design

Research Design- Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method

Research Design

Nobody can deny the importance of sophisticated research. Research is the process of discovering new knowledge and ideas. Recently, research has become more advanced by skilled and trained researchers. At the present time, researchers conduct the mixed method of research by applying both non-experimental and experimental designs. Usually, there are two types of research design such as experimental and nonexperimental research. Experimental research is divided into many designs including Descriptive, Historical, Correlation, Qualitative and et cetera. On the other hand, experimental research is divided into two methods for example True experimental and Quasi-experimental research methods.

Difference Between Nonexperimental and Experimental Research

Nonexperimental Research Experimental Research
Firstly, Nonexperimental research determines the natural relationship between variables. In contrast, experimental research investigates the cause-and-effect relationship between variables.
Additionally, the researcher does not control the setting of the study. On the other hand, researchers control the setting of the study.
In this research design, researchers do not introduce external variables. In this research design, researchers introduce external variables.
Researchers do not manipulate the independent variable. Nonetheless, the researcher manipulates the independent variable methodically.
For example,  Investigating the perception of the children in the  COVID-19 pandemic. For example, Testing the effect of the COVID-19 vaccine among children.
Usually, Nonexperimental research is both quantitative and qualitative.  Whereas, experimental research is quantitative.
Nonexperimental research is intended to explain the characteristics of the subject including the current situation, comparative position, and prediction. However, experimental research is used to solve the problems, create advanced innovation, and especially to progress in medical science.
Types of Research Design
Research Design Types of Research Design & Different Types of Research Method
Figure 1: Types of Research Design

1. Nonexperimental Research

Nonexperimental research explains the researcher’s observation describing the natural condition of the study phenomenon. The nonexperimental research determines the normal relationship between variables but not intended to identify the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. It only describes relationships between variables without testing causal relationships among them. This research is not involved in the manipulation of the independent variable. Therefore, it does not introduce any external variable, and variables are not manipulated. Researchers do not control the setting of the research.

For example, a researcher wants to investigate the relationship between the awareness of fake news sharing and Brand the trust of Facebook among youth. Here, the researcher wants to determine the relationship between awareness of fake news sharing and Brand trust of Facebook. Actually, it does not indicate the causal relationship between variables.

The nonexperimental research includes the following methods:

  1. Descriptive Research Design
  2. Survey Research
  3. Historical Research
  4. Correlational Research
  5. Qualitative Research
  6. Developmental Research
  7. Observational Research
  8. Secondary Data Analysis Research
  9. Epidemiology Research
  10. Ethnographies Research
Descriptive Research Design

The descriptive research method describes the characteristics and features of existing phenomena at the time of research. It also provides a broad picture of the phenomena to convey a better understanding through the study. The time frame of the study is present. Descriptive research is the foundation of all other types of researches. It does not involve control variables or treatments. However, the correlation between variables is characterized.  There are many types of descriptive research for example Survey research, Correlation research, Developmental research (Longitudinal approach, & Cross-section approach), Normative research, Naturalistic observational research, Comparative research, Data analysis research, Action research, etc. 

For example, a researcher wants to survey the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Based on the topic, the researcher should apply the descriptive research method to explain the feature of the practice of social media-based citizen journalism among students. Another example of the descriptive research design is ” the perception of Malaysia people on the use of social media to spread fake political news”.

Survey Research Design

Survey research examines the relationships and frequency between sociological and psychological variables. It assesses the psychological factors such as beliefs, values, attitudes, prejudices, discriminations, opinions, and preferences.

Examples of the survey research are evaluating the following:

  • Student’s attitudes toward the use of smartphones in the classroom.
  • Teacher’s opinion in conducting online classes
  • The perception of teenagers in the advantage of social media platforms
How to Conduct Survey Research

Any survey research begins with a general (flow) plan that shows the entire process of survey research.

  1. Clarify the purpose of the study
  2. Defining the sample plan
  3. Define a method also part of the interviewing session 

Defining method stage of survey research will determine the answer to the following questions

  • How will the questions be structured?
  • What types of questions will be asked?
  • How will the sample be defined?
  • How will the data be collected?

4. Finally, Coding and scoring

Tools of the Survey Research- Interview

The interview is the basic tool of the survey research design. However, a Face sheet is an essential element to conduct an interview session properly. Face sheet information represents neutral information about the respondent of the study such as age, gender, living place, educational level, income, etc.

Pros of  the Face sheet—Neutral background information
  • First, it helps establish rapport with the respondents or interviewees. For example, where did you study? How many siblings do you have?
  • Secondly, it establishes data frames or characteristics.
Two Types of Questions For Interviewees. 
  • Structured questions in which respondents can give explicit answers.
  • On the other hand, open-ended questions permit the interviewee to give elaborative answers.

Advantages of the Interview 

  • Flexibility in collecting data
  • The interviewer can set the tone and agenda

Disadvantages of the Interview

  • Expensive
  • Lack of anonymity, so responses might not be honest
  • Lack standardized questions
 Process of developing an Interview
  • Firstly, describe the goals of the project.
  • Secondly, select an appropriate sample.
  • thirdly, develop interview questions.
  • Fourthly, train interviewers.
  • Finally, Conduct interviews.
The Ten Essential Commandments of Interviewing 
  1. Do not begin the interview cold.
  2. Remember that you are there to get information.
  3. Be direct.
  4. Dress appropriately.
  5. Find a quiet place to conduct the interview.
  6. If your interviewee doesn’t give a satisfactory answer the first time, don’t give up.
  7. Use a tape recorder.
  8. Make the interviewee a part of the interview.
  9. To be a good interviewer practice more.
  10. Thank interviewees for their help, and ask for questions. 
Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research

Advantages of Survey Research design

  • Permits researcher to get a broad picture (good generalization)
  • Efficient data collection
  • Can yield very accurate results

Disadvantages of Survey Research design

  • Bias (Interviewer bias and Interviewee bias)
  • Non-response

Correlational Research Design

Correlation research design describes the relationship between two variables. It identifies the associated factors of the phenomenon that are co-related to one another. It also discovers how connected these factors to each other, and what is the strength of the relationship between variables. The strength of the relationship is measured by a numerical index called the correlation coefficient. The time frame of this research might be present or past and future. Actually, it shows the past or present relationship between variables and offers predictions for the future. It implies that variables share something in common.

For example, a researcher wants to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Based on the topic, the researcher should use a Correlation research design to identify the relationship between social media addiction among students and their results in the final exam. Another example of the correlation research design is “Influence of Teenager’s Awareness of Fake News Spreading and Perceived Message Trustworthiness towards The Brand Trust of Twitter”.

Correlation Coefficient

The correlation coefficient measures the degree of linear relatedness between two variables. There are two types of correlation for example positive correlation and negative correlation. The positive correlation is good, yet the negative correlation is not bad. basically, both positive and negative correlation indicates the direction of relationship nothing else.

The strength of the relationship is indicated by the absolute value of the coefficient. Variance increases when a stronger relationship between variables existed. Varies between –1.00 and +1.00.

Example of the Two Types of Correlation
If X… And Y… So, correlation is Example
Increases in value Increases in value Positive or direct For example, height gets (X), more one weighs (Y).
Decreases in value Decreases in value Positive or direct For example, the less time study makes (X), the lower result of the exam (Y).
Increases in value Decreases in value Negative or inverse For example, the more time on Facebook (X), the lower result of the exam (Y).
Decreases in value


Increases in value


Negative or inverse


For example, the less time one Facebook (X), the good result on the test (Y).
Historical Research

Historical research investigates the past event and establishes the present concept of the event. It also describes the past fact of the event that affects the current situation. The objective of the historical research method is to collect and evidence from the past event to develop a fact that defends or refutes the hypothesis. Historical research is another term of historiography.

For example, researchers desire to identify the historical progress of women’s education in Malaysia. So, the historical research design will be the option to conduct the research.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research design examines human behavior in the social, political, and cultural context in which it occurs. The qualitative research method is part of nonexperimental research therefore it never test the cause and effect relationship between variables. The researcher applies different paradigms and tools to conduct qualitative research. The most important tools of qualitative research are interviews, ethnography, case studies, and ethnography. It provides nonnumerical qualitative data that is also known as primary data. In qualitative research, the researchers focus on the content of informants rather than the frequency of particular content.  Here, the informant is the interviewees or people who been interviewed by the researcher. The time frame is present and past.

For example, a researcher desires to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children. So, he or she will implement the qualitative research method to identify the effectiveness of the government policy to educate all girl-children in the country.

Experimental Research
  • Tries to discover causal relationships
  • Two types:
  1. True experimental research
  2. Quasi-experimental research

True experimental Research

  • For example, Comparing two different techniques

Quasi-Experimental Research

  • For example, Participants are preassigned to groups
  • Useful when the researcher cannot manipulate variables.
When to use what research design

Research design cheat sheet

The research design cheat sheet attached below will

Research design
Figure 2: Research Design Cheat Sheet
Basis Research Design and Applied Research Design

Basic research has no instant execution to the world. Researchers apply this research design to expand the knowledge of certain phenomena. Pure research is another name of basic research. For example, a study looking at how the online class during the COVID-19 pandemic increases depression among students. Researchers are intended to expand knowledge by this study or research; it has no instant application to society.

Applied research has immediate execution or application to the world. Researchers use this research to solve the problem. Therefore, it has an immediate practical use to resolve the problem or answer the question. For example, the research to invent the COVID-19 vaccine is an instance of applied research; because it has immediate application to the world.


Organizational Change: Importance of Organizational Change Management

Organizational Change: Importance of Organizational Change Management. Factors of Organizational Development. An organization will face changes. Why Changes are Important in an Organization to Survive?

Organizational Change

Change is a very important factor for an organization to achieve competitive advantages. The organization or company will not be able to meet the ever-changing expectations of its customers unless changing the movement from one stage to another stage. Organizational change or change in the organization may occur based on many factors such as technology, strategy, policy, structure, and culture. Organizational change helps to replace old procedures with new strategies adjusting to the current situation for the betterment of the organization.

Changes are a vital approach in an organization to survive and to achieve a competitive advantage. Many factors associated with the organizational management change such as technology, globalization, market condition, evolving the customer’s need, and poor performance.  However, sophisticated technology and effective people need to add to the management system to adjust organizational change and development. The process of organizational change and development may be disrupted without proper implementation. Finally, the organization should practice a change communication strategy to get successful organizational management change.

Importance of Organizational Change Management
Organizational Change For Technology

Firstly, the revolution of technology enforces organizations to adapt to changes. Sometimes, the major and minor organizational changes happened due to the rapid growth of technology. Netflix is one of the most companies that had changed the business patterns and policy to adjust to the technological era. Netflix made two major changes since its launch. Firstly, it opened the subscription option in 1999 to store DVD rental. In 2007, Netflix made its second change by launching an online video streaming service. Many famous organizations all over the world have been shut down their operation due to not changing the business patterns. For example, Kodak has fallen off from the top position in the world. Apart from these, some company has accepted the changes in order to adjust to the revolution of technology such as computers, smartphones, social media, and so on.

Organizational Change For Globalization

Secondly, globalization is another important factor that influences organizations to adapt to the changes. Globalization creates an opportunity for an international company to sell its products and services beyond the border. It is a great scope for international companies to extend their business all over the world. It is a blessing for them but the national and small company faces multiple complexities due to globalization. Finally, the national and domestic companies are changing their business structure and policy to combat international companies. They are trying to produce international level products and services to satisfy customers. Indian software companies Wipro and Infosys changed their work environment due to the global workforce.

Organizational Change For Customer’s Need

Additionally, evolving the customer’s need triggers the company to adapt change to exceed the customer expectations. Change is constant hence; the customer’s needs are being changed day by day. The organization cannot stop the customer from evolving their expectations because it is a natural process of human beings. The process of changing the behaviors and expectations of the customers will not be stopped, so the organization needs to change its business models and policies to attract them. Netflix had changed its business patterns two times to meet the customer’s needs and consumers have accepted these changes. It is safe to say that the launching of video streaming service has become the prime business pillar of income. Finally, Netflix changed from HTTP to HTTPS encryption the website in order to ensure the privacy of the viewer. Netflix accepted all these organizational changes to satisfy its consumers.

Organizational Change For Market Condition

Apart from changing the customer’s needs, the market condition has been changed according to the socio-economic condition of the current world. Organization adapts changes to combat the current situation. For example, the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the world economy dramatically as well as the way people live in society. The world health organization (WHO) urged to imposed a lockdown on all affected countries to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. It has changed world economic market conditions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Air Aisa company offers free hotel booking opportunities for travelers to collect more passengers and to combat the current market condition. It was incredibly difficult for the airline during this period, when they had to land all scheduled planes, making pay cuts and cutbacks for the first time in the company’s history because of the pandemic. Similar exercises are likely to continue throughout the transition process, but their goal is to ensure a good restructuring in order to retain as many workers as possible.

Organizational Change For Poor Performance

Finally, poor performance is the most important factor to motivate an organization to change. Poor performance is the prime cause of low benefits. Every company or organization wants to earn more profit as well as reputation through excellent performance. Polaroid is one of the best examples of changing the business model due to poor performance. In 1994, it become the best camera and film Production Company. Change in top-level management influenced to increase the performance as well as achieve the competitive advantages.


Based on the discussion that has been outlined, it is safe to say that change is very important for an organization to combat the crisis and to achieve competitive advantages. Many factors stimulate the Company to adapt changing such as the revolution of technology, globalization, evolving the customer’s need, market condition, and poor performance. Despite the negative impact of organizational change, change is constant and it happens because of the organization’s wellbeing.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Change in Organization: Importance of Organizational Development. Educational Website For Online Learning.