Malaysia Vision 2020: Vision 2020 has Successfully Been Achieved or Not? The Nine Challenges that Must Overcome to Achieve Vision 2020. Discussion and Opinion Why Vision 2020 has failed to achieve its goals.
Malaysia’s vision 2020 with nine challenges was introduced in 1919 by the fourth prime minister. The Vision calls for the nation to achieve the status of a self-sufficient industrialized nation by the year 2020. Discuss whether the aim of Vision 2020 has successfully been achieved.
Malaysia Vision 2020
Vision 2020 or Wawasan 2020 was a mega policy of the Malaysian government introduced by the Malaysia fourth and seventh prime minister Mahathir Mohamad in 1991 (Jeshurun, 1993). Leong (1997) stated that this mega plan came up with the objective of securing the eligibility of a developed country by 2020. He also said the prime goal of the Vision 2020 was to obtain a self-sufficient industrialized country by the year 2020. In addition to that, there are some other objectives that also wanted to achieve by this plan such as social well-being, economic prosperity, world-class education, technology-based society, political stability, as well as psychological balances.
Based on achieving the vision 2020, some mid-term and short-term plans had been taken by the government such as the National Development Policy 1991-2000 with OPP2, National Vision Policy 2001-2010 with OPP3, and Economic Transformation Program (ETP) under Malaysia Tenth Plan in 2010. Even, the annual budget was proclaimed to ease the way of achieving vision 2020. All these plans were encompassed to establish a progressive, prosperous, and developed Malaysia where everyone will live in harmony.
The Nine Challenges that Must Overcome to Achieve Vision 2020
The nine strategic challenges were outlined to overcome before 2020. Malaysia cannot be a prosperous and developed country until overcome these challenges entirely that experienced from the beginning of independence (MALAYSIA AS A FULLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY, n.d.). Therefore, the authority published eight challenges that need to overcome to achieve the Vision 2020.
Challenge-1: The first challenge of the Vision 2020 is to develop a united Malaysian nation with a spirit of mutual destiny. This will form a peaceful nation where everyone lives in harmony. The country will ensure loyalty, justice, and equality and fair partnership for all citizens that is called ‘Bangsa Malaysia’ (MALAYSIA AS A FULLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY, n.d.).
Challenge-2: The second challenge to create a secure, developed, and psychologically freed country. The people will live in a society with full confidence and faith in the nation. The society must be fully conscious about its opportunity and potentiality and respected by the foreigners (Islam, 2010).
Challenge-3: The third challenge of the Vision 2020 is to practice liberal democracy inside the country that can make Malaysia a model for other developing nations in Asia as well as all over the world. In short, it all about nurturing and promoting a mature democratic society.
Challenge-4: The fourth challenge is to establish an ethical and moral society. The citizen of the nation will live in a society with religious, cultural, and traditional values.
Challenge-5: The fifth challenge is about developing a liberal, tolerant, and knowledgeable society, in which all Malaysian can practice their culture, traditions, religion, belief, and creeds. All Malaysian people belong to one nation it doesn’t matter what is the religion, what is the origin, and what is the language.
Challenge-6: The sixth challenge is to establish an innovative and technology-based progressive society. The people of this society will not only be a client of technology but utilize them to well-being for society.
Challenge-7: The seventh challenge is to create a caring and cooperative society, in which people will not leave their families but maintain a strong resilient family system.
Challenge-8: The eighth challenge is to assure an economically self-righteous society, in which the fair distribution of the wealth will be practiced in society without any discrimination, exploitation, and injustice.
Challenge-9: The last and ninth challenge is to establish a prosperous and developed society. The economy of the nation will be strong, resilient, competitive, and dynamic.
The Vision 2020 has Successfully Been Achieved or Not?
Based on my observation, it is clear that Vision 2020 has not been achieved. The main aim of Vision 2020 was to establish a self-sufficient industrialized country by the year 2020 as well as secure the eligibility of a developed country. Until now, Malaysia has not achieved the status of developing countries because the nation could not overcome all the nine challenges that they mentioned earlier.
Discussion and Opinion Why Vision 2020 has failed:
Doubtfully, there are some reasons that affected the failure of Vision 2020 directly and indirectly. Based on my research, I have discovered three important reasons that affected to achieve Vision 2020, for example, leadership, discrimination, and economy.
According to B (2019), Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad blamed that the objectives of Vision 2020 were not achieved due to the wrong leadership skills of the previous prime minister Abdullah Badawi and Najib Razak who are responsible for the failure of Vision 2020. Actually, the Vision 2020 has been failed because the nine challenges were not completely understood by the administrators in Malaysia who championed them.
The challenges of Vision 2020 are fostering a liberal democratic society, moral and ethical society, scientific progressive society, discrimination, and exploitation free society. A Malay-led government cannot establish a liberal democratic society and the discrimination still exist in several sectors in Malaysia including University, job, business, and politics. Thus, the discrimination has barred to achieve the Vision 2020.
Finally, the ninth challenge was to create an economically righteous society. An economically righteous society takes care of the interests of the mass people not only rich but in Malaysia, rich people are getting wealthier day by day through the domination business market while general people survive just hand to mouth. The economy couldn’t ensure the fair share of the country’s wealth to everyone; therefore, the Vision 2020 has not been achieved.
The Vision 2020 was introduced by the Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad in 1991 to establish a prosperous, developed, discrimination-free, technology-based, ethical, and liberal society. The eight challenges had been outlined to overcome to achieve the Vision 2020. Although they have established enough technological, economical, and structural development in Malaysia until the Vision 2020 has not been achieved completely.
Youth Unemployment in Malaysia: How National Youth Policy Can Overcome Youth Unemployment in Malaysia. Definition of Youth in Malaysia. What is Unemployment? National Youth Policy in Malaysia (NYP). How the National Youth Policy Overcome the Challenges of Youth Unemployment? Conclusion
Youth Unemployment in Malaysia
Definition of Youth in Malaysia
According to the National Youth Development Policy of Malaysia, youth refers to those people in Malaysia who are aged between 15 and 40 years old. They also mentioned that the activities and programs for empowering young people in Malaysia will be conducted based on age between 18 and 25 years. According to Aun (2020), the Youth unemployment rate in Sabah is at 14 percent followed by the Kelantan, Kedah, Perak, and Perlis at only 11 percent but this rate is only 8% at Penang. This rate has increased by 10 percent in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor. Malaysia’s youth unemployment has been increased dramatically due to the Covid-19 pandemic in 2020.
What is Unemployment?
Unemployment indicates those people who already have been enough aged to do work, and they are looking for a job as paid employment but the job is not available around them (Yunus, 2007). They are interested to do the job but the government and non-government agencies cannot provide a job for them.
National Youth Policy in Malaysia (NYP):
The national youth policy in Malaysia is one of the great initiatives that the government has taken to develop a harmonious Malaysia where youth will come up with inspiration and moral values (Nor, 2015). In order to empower the young generation, the government has passed the Youth Societies and Youth Development Act 2007 (Act 668). The government and NGOs will work together to help the young generation as well as to reduce the youth unemployment rate (“LAWS OF MALAYSIA”, 2007).
Ahmad (2018) stated that the Government and Non-government organization launches some volunteerism programs such as Tunas Usahawan Belia Bumiputera (TUBE), National Transformation 2050 (TN50), MyCorps, iM4U, and Malaysian Youth Council (MBM) to prepare the young generation to face challenges. Malaysian former Prime Minister Datuk Seri Najib Tun Razak started a sophisticated Youth Policy to develop the youths for gaining a higher income nation (E, 2015). In 2018, the policy has been applied to execute the potentiality of youths for maintaining the country’s excellence.
How the National Youth Policy Overcome the Challenges of Youth Unemployment?
Based on my observation I have outlined three recommendations for the National Youth Policy to overcome the challenges of youth unemployment in Malaysia. Five recommendations are as follows:
Reduce dependence on foreign workers.
Motivate youths to be online freelancers.
Sanction loan for SMM business.
Train the unemployed youths.
Collaboration with agencies.
1. Reduce Dependence on Foreign Workers:
First of all, the National Youth Policy can suggest the Malaysian government to reduce the dependence on foreign workers in every sector in the country. The government should stop recruiting new workers from abroad. In addition to that, they have to give instruction to the company for recruiting Malaysian youth to operate activities rather than assigning foreign workers. The former Malaysian Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad had expressed dissatisfaction over the dependence of foreign workers. Foreign workers have occupied most of the job sectors in Malaysia. These foreign workers come from Indonesia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and so on. The company will be bound to recruit Malaysian unemployed youths with a high salary when they will not be able to bring foreign workers from abroad.
Motivate Youths to be an Online Freelancer:
Secondly, the NYP has to motivate the young generation to be an online freelancer. The Covid-19 pandemic has taught us a great lesson that employee will not lose their job if they are associated with online freelancing jobs. In this pandemic period, many companies sacked their employees but no online freelancer loses the job. According to the Impact of Covid-19 on jobs (2020), it is estimated that around 50 percent of self-employed lost their job opportunity due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Therefore, it is important to motivate unemployed youth to be an online freelancer to cope with the pandemic. It will allow them to earn huge money from home.
Sanction Loan for SMM Business:
Additionally, the government should sanction the loan for operating social media marketing business by the National Youth Policy. SMM is the abbreviation of the social media marketing that has become one of the most popular marketplaces for buying and selling products and services. Sanctioning loan for the business related to social media marketing will persuade young generation to be an entrepreneur. The youth are highly interested in online and social media, so they will feel interested to do business if they get financial support from the government.
Train Unemployed Youths:
Furthermore, the initiative has to take to train unemployed youths through NYP to make them a skillful citizen. We have to enrich them with technical and vocational knowledge that they can execute in the job sector as well as a personal business. An educated person will find his job automatically when he or she will earn skilled in a specific sector.
Collaboration in Agencies:
Finally, the National Youth Policy has to manage governmental agencies, NGOs, and private organizations for working together to eradicate the high rate of unemployment youth. Here, NYP has to play a vital role to compel all agencies to work hand in hand to decrease the unemployment youth rate in Malaysia.
In short, the amount of unemployed youth in Malaysia has been increased dramatically for the Covid-19 pandemic. Unemployed youths are a burden of a country but it can be turned into a strength by empowering them. The challenges of the unemployed youths can be overcome by executing and following the recommendations driven by the National Youth Policy.
(2015, May 15). PM launches new Malaysia Youth Policy. Borneo Post Online. https://www.theborneopost.com/2015/05/16/pm-launches-new-malaysia-youth-policy/
Ahmad, M. R. M. (2018, April 6). Developing youths remains a priority. NST Online. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2018/04/353682/developing-youths-remains-priority
LAWS OF MALAYSIA. (2007). YOUTH SOCIETIES AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT (ACT 2007). Retrieved from https://www.youthpolicy.org/library/wp-content/uploads/library/2007_Laws_Malaysia_Youth_Societies_Development_Eng.pdf
Aun, L. (2020). Unemployment among Malaysia’s Youth: Structural Trends and Current Challenges [Ebook]. Singapore: PDF. Retrieved from https://www.iseas.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/ISEAS_Perspective_2020_65.pdf
Yunus, F. (2007). Youth Employment and Employability in Malaysia. Malaysian Youth Report: Youth for Nation Building.
Nor, N. A. A. M. (2015). Entrepreneurship development policy in Malaysia. Economic and Social Science Research Centre, MARDI, Persiaran MARDI-UPM, http://ap. fftc. agnet. org/ap_db. php.
Malaysian Development Plans and Policies Since 1971 To 2020.A Case Study on Malaysian Development Policy. New Economic Policy (NEP), National Development Policy (NDP), Long-Term Planning, Medium-Term Planning, Short-Term Planning or Annual Budget, First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), 1971 – 1990, Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), 1991 – 2000, Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), 2001 -2010, Vision 2020, 1991 – 2020, Conclusions.
According to Robinson (2011), Malaysia has become one of the most enriched and developing countries in Southeast Asia by introducing and implementing some mega plans driven by the government of Malaysia. These plans have been taken by the higher authority of the country and implemented by different terms of the government. Kim (2018) stated that Malaysia is an economically enriched country located in Southeast Asia that consists of three federal territories and thirteen states. In addition, the South China Sea has separated this country into two regions such as Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo’s East Malaysia.
Malaysia has the 35th largest economy in the world and the third-largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and Thailand. Malaysia is going to acquire the eligibility of the developed county by 2020 (“MALAYSIA AS A FULLY DEVELOPED COUNTRY,” n.d.). The Federation of Malaya got independence on 31st August 1957 and Malaysia was proclaimed on 16 September 1963 (Sinha, 1998). After 60 years, Malaysia has become one of the most enriched countries in the world by executing many mega polices.
Since 1966, the government of Malaysia has taken 11 medium-term plans to develop the socio-economic conditions in Malaysia. The eleven fruitful Malaysian plans are First Malaysia Plan (1966 – 1970), Second Malaysia Plan (1971 – 1975), Third Malaysia Plan (1976 – 1980), Fourth Malaysia Plan (1981 – 1985), Fifth Malaysia Plan (1986 – 1990), Sixth Malaysia Plan (1990 – 1995), Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996 – 2000), Eight Malaysia Plan (2001 – 2005), Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006 – 2010), Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011 – 2015), Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016 – 2020 (“The Malaysia Plan,”n.d.). The first Malaysian plan was taken to exceed the challenges to achieve the country’s economic growth. The New Economic Policy was introduced based on the principle of the second Malaysian plan that was introduced in 1970.
New Economic Policy (NEP):
The New Economic Policy had introduced in 1970 under the Principles of OPP1 by the late Tun Abdul Razak Hussein who is the second prime minister in Malaysia (“The New Policy Called New Development Policy NDP Economics Essay,”2016). This policy was introduced with two objectives these are the eradication of poverty from Malaysia and the reduction of ethnic discriminations. This policy came out because of the racial riots incident of 1969 (Zainuddin, 2019, August 13). Based on the Malaysian social-economic conditions now, it is very safe to say that the New Economic Policy had gained success. After the five decades, Malaysia stands in a very good economic competitive advantage position in Asia comparative to the other countries. The two main objectives of NEP are eradication of poverty and the reduction of racial economic differences in terms of income.
At the evaluation time, the government identified that poverty had been eradicated but not fully and the income inequity had been reduced but Malay corporate ownership had not been exceeded. Both Tunku and Mahathir had articulated concern that the Malays still remained too much dependent on the Chinese economically. Hence, another policy was accepted in 1991 for a period of 10 years and it was succeeded by the National Vision Policy (NVP) in 2001.NEP was adopted for 20 years period from 1970 to 1990 and it was finally replaced by another mega-development project named National Development Policy (NDP) in 1991.
National Development Policy (NDP):
The National Development Policy also part of the VISION 2020 was another mega plan to achieve the eligibility of a developed country. The acronym of the national development policy is NDP that had introduced under the Principles of OPP2 in 1990. According to Aziz (1996), the NDP was first proposed and introduced by Mahathir Mohamad also Prime Minister of Malaysia. The prime minister of Malaysia directed to implement this national development policy in 1990 (Unit, 2004, May). The prime objective of the national development policy is to achieve economic growth in all sectors, and ensure the benefits will reach every sector of society.
Although the development plan in Malaysia started in 1950 with the publication of the Draft Development Plan of Malaya. The National Development Policy replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1990. According to “The New Policy Called New Development,” 2016) Dr. Mahathir introduced the vision 2020 plan in 1990.
The Malaysian government had taken three-tiered planning covering long-term, mid-term, and short-term planning. The long, medium, and short term planning horizons as follow:
First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), 1971 – 1990
Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), 1991 – 2000
Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), 2001 -2010
Vision 2020, 1991 – 2020
Five-year development plans
Mid-term review of the five years plans
First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), 1971 – 1990
The New Economic Policy had been introduced in 1970 under the Principles of OPP1, 1970-1990 (“The New Policy Called New Development Policy NDP Economics Essay,”2016). According to the Speech of Dr. Mahathir (2008) stated the percentage of the nation’s poverty has declined from 52.4 percent in 1970 to 17.1 percent in 1990. In west Malaysia also known as Peninsular Malaysia, the poverty had declined to 15 percent while in east Malaysia declined to around 30 percent. However, the New Economic Policy had not been succeeded to eradicate poverty completely.
Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), 1991 – 2000
New Development Policy (NDP) was introduced under the principle of the Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2) in 1991. It was one of the best policies to make Malaysia a fully developed country by the year 2020.
“In 1992, the Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2) was introduced and it was formulated based on the New Development Policy (NDP)
This plan is covered the period from 1991 to 2000. It includes the Sixth Malaysia Plan and the Seventh Malaysia Plan towards vision 2020. The Seventh Malaysia Plan has introduced the knowledge-based economy, which can accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase international competitiveness (“The New Policy Called New Development Policy NDP Economics Essay,”2016).
Figure 1 – Malaysia’s Policies and Development Plans
Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), 2001 -2010
The Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) was introduced in 2001 for covering from 2001 to 2015. It includes the three mid-term plans such as the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005), the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) as well as the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015). The objective of the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) was to increase the usage of ICT in all sectors in the society, developing the manufacturing sector as well as developing the services sector (“The New Policy Called New Development Policy NDP Economics Essay,”2016).
Vision 2020, 1991 – 2020
The Vision 2020 was a mega policy for the Malaysian government to secure the eligibility of a developed country by 2020. The other mid-term and short-term plans were articulated based on achieving this vision of 2020. In addition, the annual budget had been proclaimed to ease the way of achieving vision 2020. The New Vision Policy (NVP) was launched in 2001 and under Malaysia Eighth Plan while the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) is under Malaysia Tenth Plan in 2010. All of this planning is toward Vision 2020. The purpose of the National Vision Policy is to establish a progressive and prosperous Malaysia where everyone will lives in harmony (“The New Policy Called New Development Policy NDP Economics Essay,”2016).
The objectives of the National Vision Policy (NVP) were to ensure sustainable development which is environmentally friendly. This policy focuses more on ensuring that the environment is clean, safe, and healthy for living. Abdullah bin Badawi, fifth Malaysia’s Prime Minister presented five regional economic corridors to safeguard Malaysia’s achieves vision 2020 goal. The five regional economic corridors are the Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER); Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE), Iskandar Malaysia, East Coast Economic Region (ECER); Sabah Development Corridor (SDC). These five economic corridors were very important to enrich the Malaysian economic growth.
Medium-term planning also known as the mid-term plan was very effective to increase economic growth in Malaysia. This plan had been taken for five-year development plans, for example, the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), 2016-2020. Mid-Term Reviews (MTR) of the five-year development plans are based on the framework set by the long term plan OPP. The medium-term plan implements for a five-year development plan targeted for economic growth as well as the public sector development program. The medium-term review (MTR) is executed in the middle time of the five-year plan. The government takes new initiatives and directives to accelerate the long term policy with a medium-term plan. They decide whether the project will keep ongoing or need to change something in the plan based on the medium-term review (MTR).
The annual Budget is also known as short-term planning that is prepared and declared by the Ministry of Finance in Malaysia. The policy of annual budget implementation is aligned with the long-term and medium-term plans (Kanapathy, 2001). During the preparation of the annual budget, the authority focuses on all private sector organizations and stakeholders. The annual budget development allocation is provided based on the list of development programs and projects approved under the two-year rolling plan.
A Case Study on Malaysian Development Policy
Malaysian people are very much aware of the Malaysian development policy. The statements differ from person to person. According to the statistic report in 2019, the total population in Malaysia is around 32.6 million, which increased from 32.4 million in 2018 (“Current Population Estimates, Malaysia, 2018-2019,” 2019). The percentages of the Malaysian population are Bumiputera 62% (Malays and indigenous peoples, including Orang Asli, Dayak, Anak Negeri), Chinese 20.6%, Indian 6.2%, other 0.9%, non-citizens 10.3% reported by 2018.
Based on the topic, two interviews have been conducted with two Malaysian people to get their opinions concerning the Malaysian development policy. The first interview has been conducted physically with a student who is studying at University Putra Malaysia. The origin of the interviewed person is Malays or Bhumiputra also known as “son of the land” or “son of the soil”.
Physical Interview with Malay People:
We invited the person to come to our house as well as participating interview session. Before conducting the interview, we had outlined some questions to ask them. The list of the questions has been mentioned below.
Who introduced the Malaysia development policy and when?
What is the phase and time period of the Malaysia development policy?
What is the prime objective of the Malaysia development Policy?
Do you support New Economic Policy?
Do you think, the Malaysian government should declare anymore a long term vision or policy?
We got the completely correct answer to the first two questions as we exposed information but the answer to the third question was partially correct. According to the first Malay person, the objective of the Malaysian development policy was for the economic development of all over Malaysia. He replied yes for question number four and presented rationale statements with evidence. We got the same positive nodding answer for question number five and he is vehemently agreed to declare more long term policy for the country’s development.
Virtual Interview with Indian Malay People
A virtual interview session has been conducted with an Indian Malaysian student. We asked the same five questions to an Indian Malaysian people who also a student at University Putra Malaysia. Because of the pandemic, we could not meet with him physically therefore we made a video call to complete our discussion.
We have got the same answer as we got before from the Malay student but the rest of the questions’ answers is totally different from the previous person. According to the second person, the objective of the Malaysian development policy intended to assist only Malay people or indigenous people of Malaysia also known as Bhumiputra. Again he gave the distinguished reply for question number four and he did not express solidarity to the previous person. The Malaysian policy especially the new economic policy facilitates only indigenous people to be prospered economically. As we stated before, the two main objectives of NEP are the eradication of poverty and the reduction of racial economic differences in terms of income.
This person disagrees with the second objective of the new economic policy that is the reduction of racial economic differences in terms of income. The government gave more opportunities to the Malay people than Indians, Chines, and other ethnic groups. Malay people became the owner of the public property by this policy. Finally, he expressed that the government should take more long term policy for the development of the country but not giving priority only to the Malay people.
Based on the question and reply session of the interview that happened with two Malaysian people who are different ethnically, all Malaysian people had not accepted this policy for the wellbeing of Malaysia. The Indian Malay, Chines Malay, and other ethnical groups thought that this policy intended to facilitate only Malay people but not everyone. Finally, every one of the Malaysian has been benefited by the grace of super development in Malaysia. The prime objective of all long term policy is to make Malaysia the most prosperous country in South Asia.
In addition, the eradication of poverty was the main intention of the new economic policy that was introduced in 1970 by late Tun Abdul Razak Hussein who is the second prime minister in Malaysia. Dr. Mahathir (2008) stated the percentage of the nation’s poverty has declined from 52.4 percent in 1970 to 17.1 percent in 1990. The benefit of the eradication of poverty had enjoyed and appreciated by every citizen in Malaysia. These policies were beneficial for people from all walks of life although Malay people got a little bit extra benefit from this policy.
Malaysia has managed to become one of the most prosperous and developing countries in Southeast Asia by planning and implementing some specific plans driven by the government of Malaysia. The Malaysian government has taken long term, medium-term and short term plans to achieve vision 2020 which mission is to be a developed country. Since 1966, Malaysia started to take a strategic plan to increase economic growth, and finally, the plan has been fruitful. Before Malaysia was very unstable economy and the country experienced poverty problem after getting independence from the British in 1957. Malaysia is going to be a developed country very soon that already achieved high-income status through the 11th Malaysia Plan.
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