How to Analyze the Paralinguistic & Non-Verbal Features Found in a Video.

How to Analyze the Paralinguistic and Non-Verbal Features Found in a Video. Para-linguistic and Non-Verbal Features: What Else Are We Communicating? Paralinguistics mean nonverbal aspects that is spoken communication without using words.

This is an assignment for the student of University Putra Malaysia under the CEL2102 Course. The instruction has been given outrightly.

Assignment Instruction:

This is a group project which requires students to analyze the para-linguistic and non-verbal features found in a video. At the end of the project, the group is required to present the findings in class.

Part 1 (Preparation)

1. Form a group of 4-5 members.

2. Select a talk/ presentation/ lecture/ speech/ interview in English and get approval from the instructor in Week 11.

3. The topic of the selected video has to be informative and educational. You can use videos or snippets from TED Talks, Toastmaster International or talk shows. Here are sample videos for your reference:




4. Each member selects one paralinguistic or non-verbal feature from the following list:

a) Stress patterns & Rhythm

b) Intonation

c) Hesitation

d) Pauses

e) Fillers

f) Eye Contact

g) Body Gestures

h) Posture

5. Each member then identifies three instances of the selected paralinguistic or non-verbal feature found in the video and analyze the intentions or purposes for every identified instance.

6. Complete the attached worksheet (UPM-CALC/SEM 1/2017-18/CEL2102/PROJECT3 – WORKSHEET).

7. Bring the completed worksheet and the selected talk/ presentation/ lecture/ speech/Interview with class in Week 13 for reflection and feedback.

8. Based on the reflection and feedback, amend the worksheet.

9. Submit the hard copy of the worksheet to the instructor in Week 13 before the presentation.

Note: Avoid stand up comedies, trailers, advertisements, and documentaries.

Part 2 (Presentation)

1. One of the group members provides an overview of the talk/ presentation/ lecture/ speech/ interview. The overview must be between 1-2 minutes.

2. Each group member then presents his/her analysis of the selected paralinguistic or non-verbal feature by playing the scene (the specific time frames/time references) from the talk/ presentation/ lecture/ speech/ interview that contains the selected feature.

3. Every member must speak for 2-3 minutes. The group must complete the task within 15–20 minutes.

Assessment Marks will be awarded individually based on task analysis, language, and fluency.

Based on this first YouTube video (, the student analyzed paralinguistic and non-verbal features.

Analyze the Paralinguistic and Non-Verbal Features Found in a Video


CEL 2102 Effective Listening and Speaking

Project 3: Paralinguistic Features: What Else Are We Communicating?


Group: 3

Name :

Name of the talk/ presentation/ lecture/ speech/ interview:

Your body language may shape who you are | Amy Cuddy

URL link:



Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature:  Stress
Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Paralinguistic / Non-Verbal Feature

(2 marks)

Purpose / Intention

(2 marks)

00:55-00:58 The speaker stresses the word “He” in this sentence: “He does not think it is a good idea” The intention of the speaker in stressing the word “he” is to indicate that it is not someone else who thinks it is a bad idea, the emphasis is therefore on whom.

Student 1

Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature: Eye contact

(Eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behavior).

Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Scene

(2 marks)


(2 marks)

00:48-01:03 Sometimes we hold on to our like this, sometimes we spread out. (Laughter). I see you. Focusing

Speaker uses her eye contact to point out the person who responds to her words during speaking on stage.

02:58- 03:08  

Even more dramatic Alex Todorov at Princeton has shown us that judgment of political candidate’s faces in just one second 70 parents in US senate and gubernatorial race outcome and even lets going digital emoticons used well in online negotiations, can lead you to claim more value from the negotiation.


Prolonged eye contact: The speaker uses Prolonged eye contact that can make other people understand the conversation clearly. It also represents Signals Trust, Shows Interest and Empathy and Increases Self-Awareness.

So, powerful people tend to be not surprisingly more assertive and more confident more optimistic. They actually feel they are going to win the event at games of chance.


Shutting eyes:

When you keep eye contact with Open and Close your eyes.

You are doing to it indicates that you are focused and paying attention.


Student 2

 Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature: Body Gesture
Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Scene

(2 marks)


(2 marks)

1:00 – 1:03  

The speaker uses her hands in outward manner while saying “significantly change”.


The speaker uses this gesture to further emphasize the message she is giving, which is “It could significantly change the way your life unfolds”.
2:00 – 2:02  

That Speaker brings her index fingers together while saying the word “communication”.


Speaker uses the gesture to show that communication is ‘two-ways’, implying it requires two people for communication to occur. “So we think about communication”.
2:04 – 2:07 The speaker points outwards while saying “So what does your body language…” and points to herself while saying “communicating to me?”


The speaker puts emphasis on which person she is referring to when she is speaking.


Student 3

Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature: Hesitation
Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Scene

(2 marks)


(2 marks)

1:13 – 1:17  

The speaker used hesitation fillers of “like you know, umm, a errm” before explaining further on her examples.


The speaker actually got distracted in her speech when the crowd starts to laugh at the picture she displayed. So, the speaker hesitates for a moment to gather her thoughts because she may have forgotten her points possibly due to the unexpected crowd’s laugh and anxiety.
7:32 – 7:34 Speaker hesitation fillers of “errrm” on her sentence before giving out some examples. The speaker asked a question, answered the question and gave examples.



Speaker used hesitation fillers of “errrm” to give people enough time to comprehend what the speaker is trying to convey. She rephrased or defined her answer by coming up with examples to ease the understanding of her point.
10:06 – 10:08 The speaker used the hesitation fillers of “ummm” before stressing on her supporting point about ‘role changes can shape the mind’.



The speaker is using her hesitations to stress an important point. When the speaker used hesitation fillers of “ummm” after saying the body can shape the mind, it shows that she is going to share her second point. Thus, it improves the efficiency and clarity of the speech.


Student 4

Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature:  Stress Pattern and Rhythm


Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Scene

(2 marks)


(2 marks)

0:30 – 0:33 The speaker was stressing on these highlighted words: “Right now, do a little audit of your body.”



The speaker was trying to give instructions to the audience to be aware of their body language at the moment by stressing the word ‘now’, ‘do’, ‘audit’ and ‘body’.


7:07 – 7:08  

Speaker was stressing on these highlighted words: “I really wanted to know.


Speaker was telling the audience what she wanted, therefore these words ‘really’, ‘wanted’ and ‘know’ were stressed.
18:19 – 18:22 The speaker was stressing on these highlighted words: “You have got to participate or else you are going to fail.”



The speaker was telling a story of her friend that was going to fail if she did not participate. Therefore, these words ‘got’, ‘participate’, ‘else’, ‘going’ and ‘fail’.

Student 5

Paralinguistic / Non-verbal Feature:   Intonation
Time reference

(1 mark)

Description of Scene

(2 marks)


(2 marks)

3:41 – 3:44 The speaker made a falling intonation at the end of the question, “What non-verbals am I talking about? This falling intonation at the end of the sentence is used for wh-questions.
6:09 – 6:13 Speaker made a rising intonation with the word “surprised” in this sentence: “One, you’re not going be surprised, it seems to be related to gender” The rising intonation at the word “surprised” is used to indicate the speaker’s sentence isn’t finished yet. The speaker then continued by saying that the result is related to gender.
11:26 – 11:28 The speaker did a falling-rising intonation with the word “gamble” in the sentence: “and then we give them an opportunity to gamble”.


And, the falling-rising intonation is used to make a question-like statement that shows that she’s asking for confirmation from the audience even though she has an idea that everyone understands the word “gamble”


Communication Elements: The Nine Components of Basic Communication Process

Communication Elements: The Nine Components of the Basic Communication Process, for example, context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver,  feedback, and noise.

Communication Elements

The Nine Components of communication Process

Components are essential elements of every effective communication process. Communication means sharing knowledge and exchanging opinions verbally or non-verbally. The communication process could be a liner that is a one-way process or simultaneous. A simultaneous process seems like a two-way process of communication with feedback. We are going to discuss the nine components of the communication process. These are many essential components to occur communication between senders and receivers.Communication Elements, 9 Components of the Basic Communication Process Figure 1: The Nine Elements of the Basic Communication Process

Communication Elements- Context

1.Context – Firstly, context is the prime component of every communication process. Context represents the setting in which communication happens or takes place. This context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues. This is an example of a social context that influences communication.

Communication Elements- Sender

2. Sender/encoder – The sender/encoder is a person who sends the message in contrast to the receiver. A sender makes use of symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response.

Communication Elements-Encoding

3. Encoding (communication symbol) – the process of conversion of the subject into symbols. Encoding seems similar to the sender and also in contrast to decoding. The message or subject of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.

Communication Elements- Message

4. Message – Message seems like a key idea that the sender wants to send to communicate with the receiver. So, it must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable.

Communication Elements- Medium

5. Medium/channel – It is the way of exchanging/transmitting the message. For instance, a small group of people chooses a written medium to convey the message, while people choose an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient as misunderstandings are cleared then and there.

Communication Elements- Decoding

6. Decoding – it is the process of translation of an encoded message into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. Finally, the receiver converts the symbols, words, or signs received from the sender to get the meaning of the message.

Communication Elements-Recipient

7. Recipient/decoder – recipient/decoder is a person for whom the message is intended/aimed/targeted in contrast to the sender. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of the recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.

Communication Elements-Feedback

8. Feedback – Feedback is the main component of the effective communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It also helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of the message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.) it may take written form also in the form of memos, reports, etc.

Communication Element-Noise

9.Noise- Finally, Noise is any type of distraction that interferes with the communication process.

These are the Nine Basic Components of the Communication Process, for example, context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise.

Please Comment us if you have any query regarding this issue

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication. Pros and Cons of Small Group Communication. Six Advantages and Three Disadvantages of Small Group Communication.Superior performance, Greater member satisfaction, Greater civic engagement, More learning.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

Every group communication tries to yield something good for group members although there have some pros and cons of group interaction. The most significant positive characteristic of group communication is superior performance, Greater member satisfaction, Greater civic engagement, More learning, More creativity, Enhanced cultural understanding, and so on. Apart from the positive characteristic or advantages of small group communication, there have some negative characteristics or disadvantages such as More time energy, and resources, conflict, and people problems. Based on our study, we are sorting out a list of the advantages and disadvantages of Small Group Communication. First,  we are going to talk about the six advantages of small group communication. 

Six Advantages of Small Group Communication

  1. Superior performance
  2. Greater member satisfaction
  3. Greater civic engagement
  4. More learning
  5. More creativity
  6. Enhanced cultural understanding

1. Superior Performance

  • According to MIT Management Professor, Peter Senge: “If you want something really creative done, you ask a team to do it, instead of sending one person off to do it on his her own”
  • Groups make decisions also solve problems, especially complex, and unclear problems.
  • Finally, groups share the workload

2. Greater Member Satisfaction

  • Social benefits – opportunity to make friends, socialize, receive peer support, and feel part of a unified and successful team/group.
  • The more opportunities group members have to communicate with one another; the more satisfied they are with the group experience.

3. Greater Civic Engagement

  • You are able to apply theories, methods, and tools to better engage in service to the community that you learn in a group communication course.

4. More Learning

  • A group provides many resources to work on a problem
  • “Synergistic” effect (Buckminster Fuller, the architect of the geodesic)
  • Synergy = the sum is greater than its parts
  • Members are able to learn from also with other members
  • New members learn from veterans, similar amateurs learn from experts.
  • They also learn more about how to work as a group in contrast just merely topics they discuss.
  • It also helps in the decision-making process.
  • It is the product of interacting individuals stimulating one another so that what emerges is a product that no one member could accomplish working alone.
  • Sharing collective information, stimulating critical thinking, challenging assumptions, and raising standards of achievement
  • In the academic context, collaborative learning promotes higher individual achievement in knowledge acquisition, retention, accuracy, creativity in problem-solving, and higher-level reasoning.

5. More Creativity

  • The key to creativity is the mental flexibility required to mix thoughts from our many experiences.
  • Groups provide a creative multiplier effect by tapping more information, more brainpower, and more insights.

6. Enhanced Cultural Understanding

  • Members differ in characteristics, life experiences, cultures, interests, and attitudes.
  • Working effectively = understand, respect, and adapt to differences in members’ skills, experiences, opinions, and behavior as well as differences in gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, race, status, and worldviews.

    Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication
    Advantages and Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

Three Disadvantages of Small Group Communication

  1. More time, energy, and resources
  2. Conflict
  3. People problems

1. More Time, Energy, and Resources

  • First, A group needs more time to discuss issues and to analyze and resolve problems than does an individual working alone.
  • In addition, A group does not have a long attention span (David Berg, 1967)
  • Furthermore, Tendency to get side-tracked.
  • Similarly, Topics that do not pertain to the discussion at hand may be brought up.
  • Finally, It is, sometimes, hard to get agreement on where and when to meet.
  1. Conflict

  • Disagreement = aggressive also disruptive
  • Members in a group often are confronted with an individual who wants to take over therefore conflict exists in the group.

3. People problems

  • Finally Sleeping members in Small groups.