Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism

Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism & Photography. The 8 Types of Photojournalism are Spot News, General News, Feature Sports, Action Sports, Features, Portrait/Personality, Pictorial, also Illustration. Types of photojournalism pdf.

Photojournalism

Photojournalism refers to explaining a moment, issue, incident, or story by using photography. It is a way of storytelling that represents a story visually via photos. Photojournalism is an essential part of journalism.

Types of Photojournalism

Different Types of Photojournalism in Photography

The 8 Types of Photojournalism are:

  1. Spot News Photojournalism
  2. General News Photojournalism
  3. Feature Photojournalism
  4. Sports Action Photojournalism
  5. Sports Features Photojournalism
  6. Portrait/Personality Photojournalism
  7. Pictorial Photojournalism
  8. Illustration Photojournalism
1. Spot News Photojournalism

Spot news photographs carry an urgent, unplanned, and often unpleasant or undesirable ambiance. The coverage cannot be scheduled in advance. Spot news photography includes automobile accidents, airplane crashes, tornadoes, fires, murders, bank robberies, and so more. It also represents various acute, exciting, and usually noteworthy occurrences that help characterize life. Usually, spot-news occurs without notice and ends quickly, or its most newsworthy aspects do. Unless aftermath photos are acceptable, so photographers must arrive soon. Many newspaper photographers use police monitors, cellular telephones, social media platforms, for example, Facebook, Twitter to get spot news.

Types of Photojournalism- Example photo of spot photojournalism

Covering Spot News

The key to successfully covering spot news, once the photographer has arrived, is to quickly ascertain what is going on and decide which aspect is the most important and truthful—which element is the most appropriate truth. Then photographers marshal all the technological and creative aspects of photojournalism to inform readers well within appropriate legal restraints and ethical limitations. Photographers should always record what appears to be the essential aspect first. It would help if you made every reasonable effort to keep intrusion to a minimum—by using attention-getting flash, stay physically as far from the action as possible, respect police lines, take care not to destroy potential evidence—by walking on them.

Spot news often presents two sides: the hard-core event and secondary but often humanizing aspects.

2. General News Photojournalism

Journalistic organizations schedule the general news photojournalism process is termed general or planned news. Covering general news may not have the adrenaline-producing excitement of raging fires, police shootouts, etc., but this category regularly offers photojournalists opportunities to inform readers about significant happenings. General news allows photojournalists to plan is knowing a story—what it is, where it came from, where it is, and where it probably is headed. If time allows, delve into subjects so you can make informed decisions about coverage and emphasis—can avoid covering the superficial and obvious gimmick set up. Photojournalists should get familiar with the subject and physical layout of coverage sites.

Covering General News

Must be cooperative with reporters from your organization who can help you in your quest to inform readers visually. Reporters can provide insight into a story that photojournalists might miss.

Types of Photojournalism- Hard News
Two Types of General News
  1. Hard News: Something that’s happening now. It’s “important” news. Seeks to inform rather than entertain.
  2. Breaking News: Hard news that’s happening right now. An ongoing story. 
3. Features News Photojournalism

The feature is a broad category that includes images with at least some news value and pictures that may easily fit in one or more other non-news categories.

Two Types of Feature photojournalism  are:

1) Lighthearted images that entertain more than inform.

2) Serious images that inform more than entertain.

For example, light-hearted images are squirrels chewing on nuts, children playing in large boxes, parents pushing children on swings.

For example, serious images are dying people with AIDS mounting a valiant fight against the disease, a child violin prodigy destined for fame. Serious images convey news overtones or connections or probe the life of their community, to reach toward their subjects’ hearts and souls.

Editors tend to use features when space is available, and they have no images of a more severe and essential nature or when the graphically dull page needs sprucing up.

4. Sports Action Photojournalism 

Sports action images are interested in capturing the actions as they happen. Photographing sports action is dangerous. 

However, there are three essential ways to minimize your risk in covering spots action and to ensure you record critical moments are:

  1. Firstly, knowing how games are played.
  2. Secondly, knowing the strengths, weaknesses, and preferences of players and coaches.
  3. Finally, constantly being alert to potential as well as actual action.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Action Photojournalism 

Covering Sports Action

1. Using telephoto lenses of 180mm and longer is suitable for sports action coverage.

2. Motor drives are highly desirable because no photographer can regularly capture the height of action with a single manual exposure.

3. Monopods also are highly desirable when using telephoto lenses because monopods provide a relatively steady platform

4. Unless they have a specific reason to do otherwise, photographers should follow the ball in games where a ball is used.

5. Photographers should carry a short telephoto and a wide-angle or a zoom equivalent while covering the action. This allows photographers to record other scenes related to the game, particularly features and activities close to them.

5. Sports Features Photojournalism

Sports feature pictures are the same as features, except they always involve sports. Photographers typically take these pictures immediately before, during, or after sporting events and may take them at other times. Sports features round out sports events by revealing their off-stage activities. They humanize sports, showing the emotions of players, coaches and spectators and conveying other game-related activities important but arguably secondary to gameplay.

For Example, opposing coaches embracing after a hard-fought game, a player on the losing side weeping, etc.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Features Photojournalism

6. Portrait / Personality Photojournalism

The portrait/Personality category is not all faces, but it offers glimpses into hearts and souls. The photographer lets readers walk in the shoes of those pictured.

Although faces lend themselves to the person’s scrutiny, portrait/personality images need not be facial views to probe for deeper meaning. Back pictures and body forms can speak volumes. Good portrait/personality images reveal as much about the photographer as the photographer. Only image-makers attuned to nuances of nonverbal behavior and comfortable with personal interaction can consistently visually plumb subjects’ inner selves. Actually, it represents emotion and sympathy.

Types of Photojournalism- Portrait Photography

7. Pictorial Photojournalism

Outstanding images in the pictorial category showcase the artistic side of photojournalism. Pictorials typically depend on light and form and their interaction. These images make readers pause, perhaps to reminisce about pleasant and similar experiences, or to feel a little better also a little brighter.

 Pictorial typically entertains more than inform.

8. Illustration Photojournalism

Illustration photojournalism refers to combined or manipulated images that create a “new” image. Nevertheless, news photographers can not manipulate a picture without calling it a photo illustration.  Images in this category visually try to convey ideas and concepts, and products. Both categories demand a particularly high technical photographic expertise and keen, incisive minds that can produce images that clearly convey the intended messages while doing so in clever, eye-catching ways.

Example Photo of Illustration Photojournalism

Questionnaire Sample- Survey Questionnaire Example For Students

Questionnaire Sample- Survey Questions or Questionnaire Example in Research Papers. Questionnaire Introduction Sample For Students. Questionnaires Samples Word File Download Link.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire refers to an important research tool consisting of a list of questions to collect information from respondents. The respondents are the sample of the population who participate in the survey providing data. It is also known as the survey questions part of the written interview. The survey and written interview can be conducted face to face or on online platforms.

Questionnaire Sample

A questionnaire sample is an example of survey questions that assist the researcher in collecting data. The sample of the questionnaire has been collected from University Putra Malaysia. New researchers will get a concept on how to create a survey questionnaire. This sample of questionnaires represents an example of questionnaires.

The author has uploaded some different samples of questionnaires and set download links here so that readers download the pdf form. This sample of questionnaires might provide a better level of understanding for the new researchers.

Questionnaires Sample For Students

Many undergraduate and postgraduate students do not know how to set questionnaires properly; therefore, we have provided many examples of questionnaires. We really hate coping with other works; hence, we request you to take only ideas from our content to create your own questionnaire. Students can comment on this page to get more information if they need that not yet reported here.

Example of Survey Questionnaire

Questionnaires Sample Word Download Link

The examples of survey questionnaires have been given below. The UPM student at the communication department set them to conduct the survey. So, these questionnaires will assist those students who are preparing to write the thesis in the field of the communication department.

Survey Questionnaire Sample or Example-1

Research Title: Relationship between Awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the Perception of Message Credibility and Brand Trust of Facebook among youths.

Dear Participants, I am inviting you to participate in this research by completing the following survey. This research investigates the relationship between the awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the perception of message credibility and brand trust of Facebook among youths. The following questionnaire will require approximately 5-10 minutes to complete. Thank you for taking your time in assisting me with this research. Under no circumstances are you obliged to answer any of the questions; however, doing so will greatly assist me in completing my research and enhancing the understanding of this research focus. The data collected will remain confidential and used solely for academic purposes.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link -1

Survey Questionnaire Sample or Example-2

Research Title: Malaysia’s e-commerce Websites’ Information and its Influence on Customers’  Information Privacy Concerns.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link-2

Survey Questionnaire Sample-3

Thesis Title: Communicating Copyright Law in Malaysia: The Perception of Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia.

Sample of Questionnaire PDF File Download Link-3

Survey Questionnaire Sample-4

Research Title: From a Pandemic to an Infodemic: Establishing a Health Information Overload Model Based on COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia.

Questionnaire Introduction Sample For Students

Dear respondent,
Hope you are doing well and staying safe.
We are a health communication research team from the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern languages and Communication (FBMK), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). We are conducting a research project to understand how Malaysians perceive COVID-19 as dangerous and serious to them, what kinds of social media they use to seek information, and how likely they are overloaded with the information. Meanwhile, we also seek to understand how much do Malaysians understand the virus and the intention towards getting COVID-19 vaccination.

There are EIGHT (8) sections in this online survey questionnaire. You are expected to answer ALL the questions listed. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to. If you volunteer to be in this study, you may withdraw from it at any time. If you withdraw, any data collected from you up to your withdrawal will still be used for the study. There is no potential risk or harm to you for participating in this research project. If you have any concerns or questions, please contact the investigators of this research project. You are also very encouraged to share this questionnaire with your family members, friends, and others in your community, it would surely help us to obtain broader comprehension regarding COVID-19 issues in Malaysia.

Please click the “NEXT” button below to answer the questions if you agree to participate in this research.
Thank you for your time and we hope you and your loved ones are staying safe always.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link-4

Sample of Questionnaires

Questionnaire Sample- UPM Logo

Dear respondent,

I am a student at the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages, and Communication at University Putra Malaysia. I wish to collect some information about your awareness of obesity.

You are invited to participate in this survey in which your insight and information are valuable for us to strategize the health communication campaign to be more effective. I greatly appreciate your help in providing us with your honest answers to the questions below. I reassure you that the information gathered in this survey will only be used for event purposes and will be kept confidential.

Thank you.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC

1 Ethnic : □ Malay □ Indian
2 Gender : □ Chinese □ Other: ______________
□ Male □ Female
3 Age : Below 15 31–35
15–19 36–40
20–25 41–45
26–30 Above 45

 

  1. Which written language(s) do you understand? (Choose whichever relevant)
Malay English
Chinese Tamil

 

  1. Which spoken language do you prefer? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Malay English
Mandarin Tamil
Cantonese Hakka
Hokkien Other: ___________

SECTION B: MEDIA CONSUMPTION

  1. What are the main sources you use the most to obtain health information? (Choose minimum one (1) answer and maximum three (3) answers)
Newspaper Internet
Magazine Facebook
Television Instagram
Radio Twitter
WeChat Other: ______________

 

  1. If you have selected a newspaper as one of the sources for obtaining information about health, which newspaper vehicle do you read the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Sin Chew Daily Guang Hwa Daily
China Press Oriental Daily
Nanyang Siang Pau The Star
Utusan Malaysia Berita Harian
Kosma! News StraitTime
Guang Ming Daily Other: ______________

SECTION C: MEDIA PREFERENCE

  1. Do you watch local television (TV) station(s)?
  • Yes (Proceed to Q2)
  • No (Proceed to Q4)
  1. How many hours of TV do you watch in a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day
  1. Which TV channel you watch the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Astro NTV 7
RTM 1 8TV
RTM 2 TV 9
TV 3 Other: ______________
4. Do you listen to the local radio?
  • Yes (Proceed to Q5)
  • No (Proceed to Q7)
  1. How many hours of local radio station do you listen to a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day
  1. Which local radio station you listen to the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
One FM Hitz. FM
988 FM Fly FM
Melody FM Lite FM
MY FM Mix FM
Ai FM Era FM
Red FM Hot FM
Sinar FM Other: ______________

7. Which social media do you use the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Facebook Twitter
Instagram WeChat
WhatsApp Other: ______________

SECTION DAwareness about Obesity

Tick (✓) the spaces provided to indicate your level of agreement with the statements below.

I. Problem Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/

5

1 Obesity is becoming an increasingly large problem in my community.
2 There is an urgent need to solve the obesity problem in my community.
3 There is much room for local authorities and the government to improve the policies in controlling obesity in Malaysia.
4 I believe the prevention of obesity is very important.
II. Constraint Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/5

1 I am not able to do anything to solve the obesity problem in my community.
2 My efforts to combat the obesity problem in my community are pointless.
3 I do not see any points in trying to encourage my community members to control their weight.
4 I think I could not affect my community members to control their weight and to prevent obesity.
III. Involvement Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/

5

1 I am concerned that overweight is affecting my life.
2 I believe obesity could affect my health.
3 I have a strong opinion about obesity.
4 I feel that obesity affects me personally.

– – End of Survey Questionnaire – –

Thank you for answering.