Causes of Climate Change- Eight Human Activities That Cause Climate Change

Causes of Climate Change: Eight Human Causes of Climate Change and Nine Natural Causes of Climate Change. Eight Anthropogenic Causes of Climate Change. Impact of human activities on climate and weather. Human-induced causes of climate change.

Climate Change

Climate change means a change in the atmosphere of specific areas for a long time. It also refers to the new condition of the weather, including drought, temperature, rain, earthquake, snowfall, and so more. Climate change brings different weather on the Planet different than in previous years. The climate of the Earth has been changed in the current decades. It is related to global warming that is a much-talked topic globally. Global warming denotes increasing the temperature of the Earth. However, climate change does not only mention the rising temperature but also reduces the Earth’s temperature.

The temperature on the Planet has risen dramatically in the last 100 years. For instance, the Planet is 2 degrees Celsius warmer than last century. However, the Earth’s temperature has never been constant; instead, it evolves from time to time. The last five years were the warmest year in the current age. The top country leaders, including the prime ministers in America, Canada, and Australia aware of the climate change topic. World leaders and scientists have come up with a vision to control the Planet’s temperature.

Climate change refers to the change in global climate patterns of the last century. Most scientists accept that it is a reality tied to carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted through human activities, including fossil fuels, that emit greenhouse gases and trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, causing temperatures to rise. The ten warmest years on record have all occurred since 1998. so how did we get here in 1769? James Watts’s version of the steam engine was patented. This innovation led to the widespread use of coal, a primary fossil fuel.

Causes of Climate Change

The two types of climate change causes are human and natural causes of climate change. Natural causes refer to the physical factors that contribute to the change of the atmosphere on the Earth. On the other hand, human causes mean artificial factors and people’s activities that change to climate on the Earth. Based on the studies, the author has outlined nine major natural and eight human causes of climate change on the Planet.

 Types of Causes of Climate Change
The Two Types of Causes of Climate Change are:
  1. Human Causes of Climate Change
  2. Natural Causes of Climate Change

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Human Causes of Climate Change

Human causes refer to the people’s activities that change the atmosphere on the Planet. People’s activities affect climate change directly. Therefore, it is also known as the anthropogenic cause of climate change. Anthropogenic denotes human activities that pollute the environment. People pollute the environment directly, which changes the climate; it is known as the human cause.

What are the human causes of climate change?

The Eight Human Causes of Climate Change are
  1. Burning Fossil Fuels
  2. Deforestation
  3. Livestock Production
  4. Fluorinated Gases
  5. Chemical Fertilizers
  6. Fluorinated Gases
  7. Industrial Gases
  8. Food Waste
  9. Transport Vehicles.

These are the crucial human activities that cause climate change on the Planet.

 1. Burning Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuel burning is the most crucial human cause that enhances the temperature on the Planet. Fossil fuels contain a large amount of carbon and hydrogen gases beneath the Earth’s crust. They are made from decomposing animals and plants. The most common examples of fossil fuels are natural gas, bitumen, oil, coal, tar sands, and petroleum. People burn fossil fuels to generate energy for electricity and transportation. Fossil fuels release greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), that trap heat in the atmosphere. So, burning fossil fuels is a catastrophic cause of global warming. They are the source of 80% of Earth’s energy that is not renewable.  The average temperature of the Earth has risen around 1-degree Celsius and sea level. As a result, people experience scorching weather in summer. It is also caused to biodiversity destruction, plant and animal extinction, worsening health conditions of people globally.

2. Deforestation

Deforestation is another human cause of environmental change in the Planet that occurs by the people’s activities. People are directly associated with deforestation that affects biodiversity and the ecosystem on the Earth. Deforestation means cutting the forest areas by humans. People cut trees in the forest for urbanization, crop cultivation, and mining factors. Since 1960, the deforestation process has reduced the forest areas on the Earth excessively, which contributes to changing the atmosphere. According to the oxygen cycle, people inhale oxygen and exhale the carbon dioxide that trees consume. On the other hand, trees receive carbon dioxide and release oxygen for the respiration process.

The more trees on the Planet consume, the more significant amount of carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide is increasing in the atmosphere due to deforestation. Deforestation destroys the carbon stores and releases the carbon dioxide on the Planet. It is a primary human cause of rising greenhouse gases and climate change. According to a study in 2019, deforestation is responsible for an increase of 11 percent of carbon dioxide (CO2).

3. Livestock Production

Livestock production is another primary human cause of climate change. It contributes to producing greenhouse gases that trap heat in the atmosphere. Livestock production is the agricultural process of farming domestic animals, including breeding, caring, and raising them. Nowadays, people farm domestic animals for commercial purposes to produce meat, milk, leather, etc. The most common animals in livestock farms are cows and sheep. These animals generate methane(CH4) when they consume and digest foods. A report shows that cows generate around 150 billion gallons of methane gas every day.

Methane is one of the greenhouse gases that contribute to raising the temperature on the Planet. Livestock production is responsible for producing 14.5 percent of greenhouse gases. Domestic animal farming produces a large amount of carbon footprint that causes climate change. As people are actively associated with livestock, it is optimal to say that livestock production is an essential human cause of climate change.

4. Chemical Fertilizers

Chemical fertilizer is responsible for changing the climate on the Earth; therefore, it is another man-made cause of climate change. People produce chemical fertilizers to use in modern agriculture.

Chemical fertilizers are modern fertilizers formed with chemical syntheses such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, etc. These ingredients contain nutrients for the plants. Fertilizers containing nitrogen produce nitrous oxide emissions. The farmers use chemical fertilizers to get more benefits from the farm. Although these fertilizers help to grow plants quickly and produce more corn and fruits, chemical fertilizers have adverse consequences on the environment.

For example, nitrogen-based chemical fertilizers emit nitrous oxide (N2O), known as greenhouse gas(GHG). It is said that nitrous oxide (N2O) is a long-lived greenhouse gas produced by agricultural activities. Chemical fertilizers contain nitrate (NO3) and ammonia (NH4+).  As a result, chemical fertilizer in agriculture generates critical greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). Nitrous oxide (N2O) traps the heat in the atmosphere that allows shortwave infrared to enter the Earth and obstacle the longwave Infrared to return toward the sun. The percentage of nitrous oxide in greenhouse gasses is 10-14 per cent. People are responsible for producing 80% nitrous oxide by modern agriculture. The scientists warned the modern farmer to reduce chemical fertilizers in agriculture to combat the climate change problem.

5. Fluorinated Gases

Fluorinated gases are also human causes of climate change as people produce these gases for commercial purposes. The most common fluorinated gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), nitrogen difluoride perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). People produce these fluorinated gases as the elements of aerosol cans, air conditions, refrigerators, and so more. These gases are crucial materials to produce semiconductors in the factory.

Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases

    1. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
    2. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
    3. Nitrogen trifluoride (NF3)
    4. Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)

The fluorinated gases are also powerful GHG that trap temperature in the atmosphere. Fluorinated greenhouse gases are also known as F-gases that are responsible for global warming. According to the report, fluorinated greenhouse gases affect global warming more than 23000 times than carbon dioxide (CO2).

6. Industrial Gases

Industrial gasses include carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, helium, noble gases, etc. These gases can be produced from two types of human activities: people intentionally produce them and industrial gases emitted from industrial factories. Firstly, people produce these industrial gases in factories for commercial purposes. They compress these gases into liquid in the cylinder to sell them in the market. Secondly, electrical factories generate carbon dioxide and nitrogen when producing goods and energy. In the United States, electricity production factories emit 40 percent carbon dioxide (CO2).

Industrial gases such as carbon dioxide and gaseous nitrogen materials are greenhouse gases that affect ozone depletion. The quantity of industrial gas emissions is increasing due to rising factories globally.

7. Food Waste

Food waste is one of the silent human causes of climate change that many people do not know.  For example, many people waste foods intentionally without knowing the negative consequences of food waste. Food waste occurs during processing and distribution from the seller to the buyer. It is estimated that American people waste around 40 percent of their food yearly. Additionally, Americans waste around 27,000 gallons of water annually by throwing vegetables, fruits, eggs, and beef. Food waste produces methane(CH4) gas when it decomposes in landfills. Methane(CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas that causes global warming and climate change on the Earth. The study shows that around 6-8 percent methane gas is emitted from wasted food. Therefore, food waste is a significant factor of climate change that many people do not know.

8. Transport Vehicles

Transport vehicles consume fossil fuels and emit greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most devastating greenhouse gas that raises the temperature. It is estimated that vehicles generate around 30 percent of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gas emission has been increased rapidly in the last 30 years.

Natural Cause of Climate Change

Natural causes refer to the actual elements and actions that contribute to changing the atmosphere of the Earth. It is also known as the physical cause of climate change. Natural factors occur naturally from the natural cycle of the Planet. The most common physical causes are the Milankovitch cycle, ocean, gravity, forest fire, solar activities, volcano, and greenhouse gases(GHG). People can’t control these factors therefore these are known as natural causes. Some factors contribute to increasing temperature on the Planet; on the other hand, other factors trigger to reduce them. These natural causes stimulate change to the condition of the Planet instantly and slowly.

Natural Cause of Climate Change
Nine Natural Causes of Climate Change

The nine physical causes of climate change are Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases.

1. Solar Activities

Solar activities mean releasing various types of radiation from the sun from time to time. It includes sunspots, solar flares, and solar radiation. For example, sunspots release more solar radiation than the regular portion of the sun, making the Planet warmer. So, the sun’s heat depends on the solar activities driven by the sunspots. Recently scientists have identified many sunspots on the sun’s outer layer that emit a larger number of solar radiation. However, the temperature in the sunspot is lower than the natural part of the sun. It seems like a black hole that gets visible for the magnetic cycle. Sunspots occur from the storm on the surface. It is the most crucial factor in the sun that emits solar flares.

The sunspot’s temperature is around 3,800 degrees Kelvin, and the sun’s average temperature is 5,800 degrees Kelvin. So, the sunspot’s temperature is lower than another part of the sun. Sunspots emit many ultraviolet rays that hit the Planet’s surface and increase the temperature. It takes around 11 years to reach the sunspots on a peak known as the solar maximum. The solar minimum of the solar cycle occurs when there is a small number of sunspots visible. In recent decades, the Planet’s temperature has risen 0.1 degrees Celsius due to solar maximum. It makes the sun brighter and the Planet warmer.

2. Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruption is a natural hazard that occurs naturally. It releases a massive number of dust, magma, and gases that affect the environment. The most adverse impact of the volcanic eruption is destroying the ecosystems. Many people can die from the eruption who stay near to the place. Additionally, it raises around 1100 degrees Celsius temperature of the surrounding area. The lava can set fire on the forest that causes forest fires. Volcanic eruption destroys animal diversity and the ecosystem when it occurs in the ocean. The dust and gases emitted from the volcanic eruption make a dark ash cloud on the atmosphere. This ash cloud works like a sheet that reflects the sun’s radiation. Solar radiation cannot enter the Planet due to the ash cloud in the sky. Therefore, the ground place gets colder than the average temperature.

Many people believe that volcano eruptions raise the Planet’s temperature that is not true. The boiling lava emitted from the volcano increases the surrounding temperature for a short time. However, the ash cloud reflects the solar radiation that makes the surrounding area colder for a long time.

3. Axial Tilt

The Milankovitch Cycle describes the entire process of how the planet orbit the sun. The Planet needs 365 days to move around the sun. At the same time, the sun needs only 24 fours to rotate on its axis.

Axial tilt is the angle of the Planet that occurs during rotation. It relates to the angle within the orbital and perpendicular plane. Axial tilt is also called obliquity. The axial tilt or obliquity is responsible for the various seasons on the Planet. The Planet is 23.5 degrees tilted from its orbital plane. Usually, the obliquity differs from a minimum of 22.1 degrees and 24.5 degrees during rotation. The season gets extended when the axial tilt is maximum, and the season gets shorter when the axial tilt is minimum. The Planet consumes more solar radiation when it rotates with maximum tilted towards the sun. In contrast, the Planet receives less heat from the sun when it tilts the opposite side of the sun.

The cycle takes 41,000 years to get back to the ice age; people will see the ice age again after 41,000 years. The Planet is 23.5 degrees tilted towards the sun; therefore, it receives more heat from the sun. It is the reason for extended summer and winter on the Planet.

4. Precession

Precession is the transition of rotational axis’ adjustment for the gravity power. It relates to the action of the gyroscope power. It takes around 26,000 years to complete the entire cycle. The Planet wobbles towards the sun or opposite the sun after this period that contributing to the change in the climate. The Planet gets more solar radiation when it leans toward the sun for precession. On the other hand, it gets less heat when tilted opposite the sun. So, precession is the natural cause to change the atmosphere on the Planet.

5. Eccentricity

Eccentricity refers to the Planet’s position while moving around the sun; therefore, it is called orbital eccentricity. The Planet takes 365 days to orbit the sun completely. The Planet does not follow the same path to move the sun. We know that the Planet moves around the sun on a circle that is not true. The Planet does not move the sun in the same way. Sometimes, it moves the sun elliptical way. So, it measures the deviation of the circular path of the Planet. Orbital eccentricity is included the deviation of the circular and elliptical way of the Planet’s movement around the sun. The variation of the Earth’s movement around the sun controls the solar radiation received from the sun. The deviation path sets the distance between the Planet and the sun.

The summer season is longer than the winter season due to the orbital path variation- for example, it is around 5 days longer than the winter season. The Planet is located approximately 94.5 million miles away from the sun in the summer season. So, the Planet receives more solar radiation from the sun when it locates the farthest distance. It receives more heat, not for distance but the position of the Planet. In contrast, the Planet locates around 91.4 million miles far from the sun in the winter season. The Planet moves around the sun in a short distance during the winter season. The cycle takes around 100,000 years to complete the round. Now the position of the Planet and sun is not circular rather, it is elliptical in shape with the eccentricity e ≈ 0.0167.

6. Continental Drift by Plate Tectonics

Continental drift means movement of the Planet’s plate tectonic called a change in the Planet’s crust. The Planet has seven continents, and the position of these continents is not constant. The research has shown that few continental drifts are moving slowly. The process of movement is prolonged. The movement motion is approximately 0.5 to 10 cm annually.

Hence, the movement of continental drift causes to change the atmosphere on the Planet. It has both positive and negative consequences on the Planet. The continent is set on the Planet’s crust, and each continent is separated from another. The tectonic crust differs into two types of crust such as less dense and more dense crust. These tectonic crusts move slowly and independently. The movement of these crusts is responsible for earthquakes, volcanoes, and tsunami. Few factors provide evidence of the Planet’s crust movement, such as crust collision, subduction, spreading, and movement fault. The plate tectonic collision is the main reason for the earthquakes. Recently, a study showed that the Himalayan mountain height has extended due to the clash between Indian and Eurasian plates.

The collision between plates is also responsible for volcanic eruptions. It emits lava that is made from molten rock. So, continental drift is responsible for changing the atmosphere on the Planet.

7. Ocean Current

The ocean current refers to the continuous movement of the ocean waters. It is one of the crucial physical causes to change the environment. The ocean current is formed from the gravitation power between the sun and moon, winds, and the Planet’s axial rotation. The ocean occupies around 75% of the Planet’s area; therefore, it absorbs most solar radiation emitted from the sun. The solar radiation evaporates the ocean water and generates vapor gases(H20). Although the land receives some solar radiation, it returns some heat to space. The ocean release very little heat compared to the land areas. The solar radiation evaporates the water and creates the ocean current. The evaporation process raises the temperature in the surrounding areas on Planet. However, it makes rains by the evaporation cycle that reduce the temperature and humidity.

The ocean current melts the ice of the northern part that increases the sea level. It is responsible for melting the ice in raising the sea level continuously. The Planet’s weather gets changes rapidly if there are no ocean currents. It warms the Planet.

8. Natural Forest Fire

Forest fires mean burning a forest for natural and human activities. Wild forest fire is the burning of a forest due to natural causes such s drought and lightning. It is a physical or biological cause of environmental change. Fires always create smoke, dust, greenhouse gases, and heat. These elements undoubtedly raise the temperature of the surrounding areas.

The most common types of forest fires are natural and human forest fires. Wild forest fires occur naturally without humans’ activities. On the other hand, human forest fires mean setting the fire by the people intentionally or unintentionally. Forest fires can burn millions of plants, animals, insects, and birds. Its impacts the ecosystem and diversity extremely. The studies have shown that natural forest fires are only 18 percent and artificial forest fires occupy 82 percent.

The warm temperature during the summer season triggers to set fire in the forest. It engulfs the entire forest within a short time. Although lightning and drought are responsible for setting fire in the woods, the wind soon spread the fires.

The forest fires can make a green forest into a dark desert. Forest fires release a large number of greenhouse gases, for example, carbon dioxide (Co2), methane (Ch4), and ashes. The greenhouse gas, especially carbon dioxide, traps the heat in space that increases the temperature on the Planet. Additionally, it spoils the soil nutrient and creates methane gases that also contribute to raising the temperature on the Planet.

9. Natural Greenhouse Gases

There are two types of greenhouse gases: natural greenhouse gas created naturally and greenhouse gases produced by human activities. Natural greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). These gases contribute to increasing the Planet’s temperature by trapping heat on the temperature. The volcanic eruption, forest fire, and ocean current generate carbon dioxide and water vapor, greenhouse gases. These gases can be created without human involvement; therefore, they are natural greenhouse gases.

These greenhouse gases let the solar radiation enter the Planet easily; however, they trap the heat in space without letting them go back. So, the greenhouse gases stimulate to raise the temperature on the Planet.

Effect of Climate Change

There are two types of effects of climate change on the Planet: the direct and indirect impact of climate change.

1. Direct Impact of Climate Change

Climate change increases the maximum temperatures and reduces the minimum temperatures level. The prolonged maximum temperature melts the ice in the northern part and increases the sea level. Additionally, It raises the temperature of the ocean and brings a humid atmosphere. The higher temperature of the ocean evaporates water into vapor and makes heavy rains.

2. Indirect Impact of Climate Change

Climate change creates a water crisis, and the groundwater level is getting down day by day. In many developing countries, people suffer from water crises. These countries experience drought and flood every year. After all, it increases hunger and diseases among poor people. Climate change is directly responsible for to loss of diversity and ecosystem crisis. The contamination of the CO₂ and HCO3 concentrations in the water creates acid rain that bad for people’s health.

Climate change is also responsible for floods, erosion, landslides, and salinization. The sea level is increasing day by day due to global warming.

Conclusion

The author has represented the eight human causes of climate change and nine natural causes of climate change that contribute to changing the global atmosphere. People cannot prevent the biological causes of climate change. However, people can prevent human causes of climate change to protect the environment.

What are the Human and Natural Causes of Climate Change?
Human and Natural Causes of Climate Change PDF

Natural Causes of Climate Change: Nine Natural Causes of Climate Change

Causes of Climate Change- Natural Causes of Climate Change. Natural Causes of Climate Change PDF. The Nine Natural Causes of Climate Change are Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases. 

Climate Change

Climate change refers to the prolonged change of weather conditions such as temperature, snowfall, rainfall, tsunami, and drought on the Earth. It means different weather on the Earth compared to earlier decades. So, climate change denotes global warming on the Earth.  For example, now the Earth is warmer than thousand of years before. NASA scientists have stated that the Earth’s temperature has increased rapidly in the past 150 years. It is estimated that approximately 2 degrees Fahrenheit temperature has been raised in the last 100 years. Although the Earth’s temperature has constantly been evolving, the latest five years were the warmest years in the century. Therefore, climate change has been a much-talked topic for global leaders. Scientists mention the natural and human causes of climate change on the planet.

Causes of Climate Change

Climate change causes refer to the natural factors and human activities that change the Earth’s atmosphere. Scientists have identified many natural factors and human activities that influence changing the global atmosphere.

Human Causes of Climate Change

Natural Causes of Climate Change

The natural causes of climate change refer to the natural factors and activities that change the Earth’s atmosphere. It might occur throughout the cycle of the Earth’s motion, ocean current, plates movement, volcanic eruption, natural forest fire, and greenhouse gases. The natural causes are natural factors that occur mostly automatically rather than people’s contribution.

Natural Causes of Climate Change Diagram
Nine Causes of Climate Change & Natural Cause of Climate Change
Natural Causes of Climate Change
What are the natural causes of climate change?
The Nine Natural Causes of Climate Change are:
  1. Solar Variation
  2. Volcanic Eruptions
  3. Axial Tilt
  4. Precession
  5. Eccentricity
  6. Continental Drift
  7. Ocean Current
  8. Natural Forest Fire
  9. Natural Greenhouse Gases. 
1. Solar Variation (Sunspot)
The most significant natural cause of climate change is the solar variation that changes the global atmosphere gradually. Solar variation means emitting different amounts of radiation from the Sun. The amount of solar radiation depends on the sunspots driven by the Sun’s magnetism. Sunspots emit more heat from the Sun, and that makes the Earth warmer. They look like black holes that throw more solar radiation toward the planet compared to the natural part of the Sun. However, the solar variation and sunspots are related to the solar magnetic cycle or solar activities. Sunspots are also known as storms on the outside layer of the Sun.  It plays a critical role in ejecting solar gassy and flares from the Sun’s corona.
Solar Variation (Sunspots)- Natural Causes of Climate Change
Solar Variation (Sunspots)
Although the temperature of the sunspot is lower than other parts of the Sun, the outer layer of the sunspots releases huge ultraviolet rays and throws them on the Earth’s surface. The number of sunspots reaches a peak during 11 years of solar activities- it is called the solar maximum. In the last century, many sunspots have been identified on the Sun simultaneously the Earth’s temperature increased. The sunspots and solar variations have raised the Earth’s temperature by about 0.1 degrees Celsius. The Sun has been brighter than 100 years ago due to the solar cycle activities driven by the sunspots, as the Earth has been warmer.
2. Volcanic Eruptions

Volcanic eruptions mean emitting huge gas, flash, lava, rock, and dust from the planet’s surface. Volcano eruption is one of the most devastating natural disasters that change the environment of the disaster area. Therefore, it is another natural cause of climate change. The most adverse impact of the volcanic eruption is increasing the temperature of the Earth.  The lava emitted from volcanic eruptions can increase the surrounding area’s temperature by around 1200 degrees Celsius.

However, it emits a huge amount of flash and creates ash clouds in the sky. This ash cloud acts like a blanket in the sky that redirects the Sun’s rays. The solar radiation goes back by reflecting on the ash cloud in the sky. The prolonged ash cloud reflects the solar radiation; therefore, the ground of the Earth gets colder. In sum, the volcano eruption is a natural disaster that causes climate change.

Volcanic Eruptions- Natural Causes of Climate Change
Volcanic Eruptions- Natural Causes of Climate Change

Does volcano eruption increase or decrease the Earth’s temperature?

Volcanic activities decrease the average temperature of the surrounding areas. Although the lava increases the surrounding area’s temperature, the ash cloud reflects the solar radiation that reduces the Earth’s temperature. So, the volcano eruption makes the planet colder and changes the climate.

3. Axial Tilt

According to Milankovitch Cycles, the Earth moves around the Sun, and it takes 365 days to complete around the Sun. Additionally, the Sun takes 24 hours to complete the rotation. Axial tilt is a crucial natural cause of climate change that receives more and less solar radiation based on the position. Axial tilt refers to the Earth’s angle between the orbital plane and the equatorial plane during rotation. It is also known as obliquity that represents the Earth’s angle. Axial tilt makes different seasons in the same area of the planet.

According to the statistic reports, the Earth has been tilted 23.5 degrees perpendicular to the plane. The axial tilt differs 22.1 and 24.5 degrees from its orbital plane around the Sun. The season of the Earth depends on the axial tilt; therefore, the more axial tilt angle, the greater seasons. The Sun provides more solar radiation when the Earth’s hemisphere tilts towards the Sun in the summer season. On the other hand, the Earth receives less solar radiation when the Earth tilts away from the Sun’s orbital plane. According to Milankovitch (1930), it takes 41,000 years to complete the ice age cycle. So, the ice age comes back after every 41,000 years.

For example, now the Earth is tilted 23.45; therefore, the one hemisphere receives more solar radiation that creates extreme summer on the Earth; simultaneously, another hemisphere gets extreme winter. The axial tilt is reducing; therefore, the Earth gets extremely hot in summer and cold in the winter seasons. Based on the discussion, it is optimal to say that the axial tilt causes climate change on the Earth.

Milankovitch Cycles (Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity)- Natural Causes of Climate Change
Milankovitch Cycles- Natural Causes of Climate Change
4. Precession

Precession refers to the movement in the orientation of the rotational axis due to the gravitational force of the Sun and moon. It is a type of movement that occurs when it starts to wobble and change the direction of the first axis. The Earth rotates once every day that takes 24 hours. However, it wobbles slightly roughly after every 19 to 24 thousand years.  If it’s leaning towards the Sun, it gets more heat. On the other hand, the Earth gets less heat if it leans away from the Sun. The Earth’s precession affects climate change; hence, precession is another natural cause of climate change.

5. Eccentricity
Eccentricity is also known as orbital eccentricity, describes how the Earth moves around the Sun. The Earth does not move the Sun in the same circular motion. Orbital eccentricity measures the variation of the orbital path from a perfect circular shape. It is also known as the orbital parameter that controls the amount of solar radiation received by the Earth. The variation of the orbital path affects the gap between the Sun and planet. It controls the lengths of the summer and winter seasons. According to statistic reports, the summer is approximately 4.5 days longer than winter due to the orbital eccentricity. It is all about the distance between the Sun and Earth. The Sun is positioned around 152.1 million kilometers from the Earth in summer, the farthest distance.
The Earth gets closer to the Sun during the winter seasons in the northern hemisphere. On the other hand, in the winter season, the distance between the Sun and Earth is 147.1 million kilometers, also known as the closest distance. NASA scientists have declared the current orbital eccentricity of Earth is e ≈ 0.01671. Now, the Earth orbits the Sun in an elliptical motion shape. It is slowly reducing the cycle of the 100,000 years. The Earth gets warmer when it rotates around the Sun in a circular orbit. In contrast, the Earth gets colder when its moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit or eye shape. The discussion proves that orbital eccentricity is a significant natural cause of climate change.
6. Continental Drift by Plate Tectonics

Continental drift refers to the slow movement of the Earth’s tectonic plates, also known as the shifts in the Earth’s crust. Initially, Alfred Wegener proposed continental drift in 1912. There are seven continents on the Earth; however, the position of the continents is not fixed. Some continents are getting closer year by year; on the other hand, some are getting distant from each other. The movement is a prolonged process. The motion of the continental drift movement is around 0.6 cm to 10.5 cm per year. Hence, continental drift is the critical natural cause of climate change on the Earth.

The tectonic plates are the separated pieces of the Earth’s crust. The outer face of the crust is rocky and solid, and it differs into two types of materials, such as less-dense and the more-dense oceanic crust. These tectonic plates can move freely and cause Earthquakes and volcanoes on the Earth. Most ocean volcanoes and Earthquakes are the direct consequences of continental drift. The tectonic plate’s movement can be stipulated in four patterns: transform faulting, spreading, subduction, and collision.

For example, the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates has extended the Himalayan Mountains range. Magma is created from the molten rock below the crust emitted from volcano vents that change the climate. In sum, continental drift by plate tectonics is a natural cause of climate change.

7. Ocean Current

The ocean current is the natural cause of climate change on the Earth formed from the continuous movement of the ocean water. It is generated from the ocean wind, gravitation of the moon, breaking waves, temperature, and rotation of the Earth. The ocean current plays a crucial role in causing climate change by warming the Earth. Most solar radiation is absorbed by the ocean, although land areas receive some radiation. The land area returns some heat into space after sunset. However, the sea retains solar radiation and finally spreads them around the planet. The heat evaporates the ocean waters continuously, raising the temperature and humidity of surrounding areas on Earth. Ultimately, the evaporation process creates rain and storms that reduce the temperatures.

If the current system collapses, it will lead to dramatic changes in worldwide weather patterns. Ocean currents could rapidly freeze parts of North America. If this circulation shuts down, it could bring extreme cold to Europe and parts of North America.

8. Natural Forest Fire

Natural forest fire is a significant natural cause of climate change that increases the temperature of surrounding areas. There are two reasons for forest fires: natural causes forest fires and human causes of forest fires. Natural forest fire refers to the wildfire that burns a thousand acres of land, including trees and animals.  According to the Environmental Protection Agency report, 20 percent of forest fire occurs naturally; and around 80 percent of forest fire occurs from human activities.

Natural Forest Fire- natural cause of climate change
Natural Forest Fire- Natural Cause of Climate Change

Natural forest fires can spark from lightning and drought that set fire on trees. Usually, warm temperatures encourage setting the fire, and strong wind spread the fires surrounding areas rapidly.  Forest fire transforms green vegetation into the desert for a period of time.

Forest fires release huge greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and ashes. These gases trigger warming the atmosphere and destroy the soil nutrient.  Therefore, a natural forest fire is a significant natural cause of climate change.

9. Natural Greenhouse Gases

Greenhouse gases refer to the gases that change the climate by trapping infrared radiation or heat in the atmosphere. GHG is the short form or abbreviation of greenhouse gases. There are two types of reasons for producing greenhouse gases: natural causes and human-induced causes to produce greenhouse gases. Natural greenhouses gases are produced naturally on the Earth without people’s activities. For example, permafrost is a frozen ground that contains and releases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) naturally. 

The most common natural greenhouse gases on the Earth are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). The greenhouse gases assist the sunlight in hitting the Earth’s surfaces and blocking the heat returning from the atmosphere. These natural gases prevent the heat released from the atmosphere from passing outward from the Earth’s surfaces. Natural greenhouse gases stimulate to raise the temperature in the atmosphere directly and indirectly. In essence, natural greenhouse gases warm the Earth’s atmosphere by trapping the heat. So, it is another natural cause of climate change that warms the atmosphere.

There are two causes to generate greenhouse gases: natural causes and human causes of producing greenhouse gases. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels contribute to emitting greenhouse gases. They also produce greenhouse gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs). People cut forests for agriculture that also cause global warming. Now, researchers and political leaders are working together to reduce human-induced causes of climate change. They create social awareness to avoid global warming. Social etiquette and social awareness among people can protect the environment from pollution. In a nutshell, greenhouse gases cause global warming and change the climate worldwide.

Conclusion

In conclusion, these nine natural causes of climate change (Solar Variation, Volcanic Eruptions, Axial Tilt, Precession, Eccentricity, Continental Drift, Ocean Current, Natural Forest Fires, and Natural Greenhouse Gases) contribute to change the global atmosphere. These factors are natural contributors to global warming, change the atmosphere and change the Earth’s environment directly and indirectly.

What are the natural causes of climate change pdf?
Natural Causes of Climate Change PDF
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 30). Cause of Climate Change- 9 Natural Causes of Climate Change in 2021. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/natural-causes-of-climate-change-9-natural-causes-of-climate-change/