## Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Examples & Explanation

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

## Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 in the article THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal-transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Initially, the Shannon-Weaver model excluded feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback on the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is called the “Mother of all Communication Models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

##### Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) initially published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory, which explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model, including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear, as they did not mention feedback.

##### Shannon-Weaver Communication Model Examples of Situation
###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) to meet on Monday through the smartphone. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into a sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive messages via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the rain sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

###### Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 3

Jon is listening to the morning news via the radio. The news presenter broadcasts news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report of the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, the radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model like the Lasswell communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model for not adding “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication are:

1. Information Source.
2. Transmitter.
3. Channel.
5. Destination.
6. Noise Source.

### 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech to new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

### 2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into a signal to transfer via an electrical current on the wire.

### 3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. Communicators utilize distinguished channels based on communication, such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so on.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, the receiver is the decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

### 5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

### 6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts effective communication. Communicators found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

##### Importance of Shannon and Weaver Communication Theory

Firstly, Shannon and Weaver’s theory enhances telephone communication by representing six essential elements.

It articulates the signal-transmitting system through the medium.

At first time, this theory explains the communication noises that barrier effective message transmission.

Finally, Shannon-Weaver’s framework is the first communication model that explains message sending process through an instrument.

##### Shannon and Weaver Communication Model Disadvantages

Firstly, It is a linear communication model due to not demonstrating Feedback.

Additionally, this model is unsuitable for explaining transactional communication processes such as face-to-face communication.

##### Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model o are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional communication model. Shannon and Weaver’s Model was introduced in 1949 and is undoubtedly a linear communication model like Aristotle, Lasswell, and David Berlo’s SMCR Model.

##### Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948 known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication for the effective communication process. They also renamed The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He co-authored the same article in 1949 and renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting it in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

##### Shannon, 1948 Reference
 Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication. The Bell system technical journal, 27(3), 379-423.
##### Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
 Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. The University of Illinois Press
 APA- 7th Edition: Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2023). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

## Business Report Example and Sample For Students PDF

Business Report Example For Students-Business Report Sample For Students. Business Report Example and Sample For Students. Also, Business Report Example for Students pdf.

## Business Report Example For Students

This example of a business report for students will surely help the students to complete the assignment fruitfully. However, we do not encourage our students to copy the content from here. Students are advised to obtain only ideas of how to write a business report for assignments. Finally, they should write their own business report.

### Business Report Example For Students-1

##### 1.0 Executive Summary

Wanpaku Sandwich is a new company in Malaysia that produces and sells unique sandwiches. We have set the University Putra Malaysia as the location for the company. We have set Wanpaku Sandwich as the name of our company incorporating the symbolic sign of the product. Although this sandwich is originated in Japan, we have replicated it to make it healthy, delicious, and affordable for the customers.

We want to focus more on quality rather than quantity. Therefore, we focus on the improvement of our sandwich’s quality. It is a unique sandwich that we sell in Malaysia. Our company produces and delivers the best product and service for our customers. Surely, many people will consume our sandwich for its taste. Our primary goal is to ensure food for busy people. Usually, busy people do not get enough time to make food. So, our sandwich would help them to get rid of hunger. Our targeted customer is all UPM students, lecturers, and staff.

For the initial capital, each member contributes RM 20.  So, the total starting capital of the company is RM 200. As for the store, we don’t have any other physical store except UPM. We only deliver our products to the customers near UPM areas. We follow the open order strategy via social media platforms.

For the marketing part, we promote our product through social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram (Wanpaku_Sandwich), and Facebook (Wanpaku_Sandwich).

##### 1.1 Vision Statement

To build a high-standard food sandwich company in Malaysia and make Wanpaku Sandwich the first choice for our customers.

##### 1.2 Mission Statement

We are dedicated to accomplishing our business objective by delivering quality products and services to the customers. We produce tasty and healthy sandwiches to attract customers.

##### 1.3 Key to Success

The keys to success for Wanpaku Sandwich include:

Reputation: we believe our customers will recommend us to their friends and family as word-of-mouth marketing will be a powerful ally for our business.

Superior Customer Service: building a friendly rapport with our customers.

Location: cash on delivery service in University Putra Malaysia.

Product: offer sandwiches of high quality, sold at a fair price.

##### Company’s Logo

We have set our company’s logo mentioned above based on several group discussions via online meeting platforms. Wanpaku Sandwich in the middle represents our company’s name while the two sandwiches represent clearly the product we sell. The stall icon means our company is ready to serve and provide good product quality to our customers.

However, we have changed the font and color of the logo two times because customers could not see the clear since the font color was yellow, which is a bit bright. The font types we used previously were in calligraphy form. Therefore, we changed the font type and color to make the logo clearer to our customers and more attractive.

##### 2.1 Company Background

Our company was established on 28 February 2020. Our lecturer asks us to form 3 groups which consist of 10 to 11 students per group. We were developing a group that consisted of 10 very talented students to run the business. After that, we are given one week to decide the type of product we want to sell. We decided to sell one type of sandwich. We have decided and come out with a unique company name, Wanpaku Sandwich.

##### 2.2 Company Overview
• Company name: Wanpaku Sandwich
• Date of establishment: 28 February 2020
• Location/ selling area: UPM Area
• Start-up capital: RM 220.00
• Product: Sandwich
• Main activities: Manufacturing and selling and product provide delivery services.
• Number of staff: 10person
##### 2.3 Introduction of Product

Wanpaku Sandwich is a healthy sandwich made with nutritious ingredients. It has an attractive appearance and delicious smell. We only prepare the product based upon orders. So, customers get the food in a fresh condition. Moreover, Wanpaku Sandwich has no added preservatives or MSG. Lastly, Wanpaku Sandwich is food with affordable prices for students.

##### 2.4 Service

We will be taking orders before preparing and delivering them to our customer’s doorsteps. Our customers will enjoy the fresh and best quality sandwich.

##### 3.1 Market and Research Analysis

We have collected data by survey based on more than 100 respondents in residence of Seventeenth College. The results of the study show that a lot of people want to buy our sandwich. The seventeenth College area does not have many stalls selling different types of sandwich-like us. Based on our survey, the most preferred ingredient of our product is the chicken that we used.

##### 3.2 Competitors

The company admits that one stall sells products almost like us—for instance, a kiosk at the student plaza. However, our company is a bit different because they sell tuna egg sandwiches. In contrast, we use chicken, bigger in size, healthier, and with mouth-watering packaging. Here, we promise a wide selection of products at very affordable prices to meet customers’ demands.

##### 3.3.1 Product and Target Market

Wanpaku is a company that sells fresh sandwiches. It is made with nutritious ingredients. Our target is mainly the residents of Seventeenth College, the students, lecturers, and staff.

##### 3.3.2 Distribution Channel

We follow preorder and provide a delivery service that is available around Seventeenth College. Our ingredients supplier in the market packages the chickens, vegetables, and other ingredients by ourselves before selling them to our customers.

Our company deploys three different promoting and advertising strategies to increase customer awareness of Wanpaku. The first strategy will be the word-of-mouth marketing strategy. Additionally, we will run a digital marketing strategy on social media such as WhatsApp, Instagram, and Facebook. We will post our products’ photos on our social media. This will be the cheapest and most effective of our promoting and advertising programs. Finally, we will distribute flyers and putting a banner on our stall during the carnival.

##### 3.3.4 Pricing Policy

Our company has set up a policy in pricing our products to ensure that the company will gain profits from our sales products. Below are the pricing policies.

Firstly, the products are charged to all customers at the same price based on the product type.
Additionally, the price of the products must be able to give profits to the company. It is based on the cost of production with 15 to 30% of profit margin.
Moreover, the price may change depending on customer demands on the products or if the products or if the products are having a promotion.
Finally, the price must be affordable for the customers and able to compete with other sellers.

##### 3.4 SWOT Analysis
 Strength Weakness For example, Good communication skills Aspiration and determination to succeed Perseverance in handling stress and failure Ability to deliver the product For example, Some of the members lack experience in handling business Time restriction Lack of capital Opportunity Threats For example, Wide marketing target High demand Unique vendor For example, Slow internet connection Consumer preference The price of the sandwich might fluctuate
##### 4.0 Management Team

A business management team refers to an organizational structure. It can be defined as acquiring, allocating, and optimizing through planning, organizing, staffing, leading, and controlling the business. Management involves coordinating human, financial, material, and information resources to realize company goals and operate a business efficiently. Management is also considered one of the most crucial parts of the business. It manages the flow and executive of the business operation and whether the business is going well. The management responsibilities are setting strategic goals and developing policies, overseeing production processes, managing financial data, and managing human resources. For example, Netflix’s organizational chart maintains a decentralized U-form organizational structure that effectively improves its revenue.

It is necessary to set strategic goals and policies to develop a business. It determines the company’s position with the market and set for future growth. The production department works to solve problems on the production floor. They direct employees on how to handle a dissatisfied client. It also ensures that the company operates with sufficient materials, finds areas for potential growth, and expands into new markets. Managing financial data is the regular analysis of the company’s financial status. It is essential to understand the company’s profitability and identify problem areas. It keeps the company on track and allows the manager to either cut spending or develop ideas for expansion. Sales forecasting and marketing plans are also included.

Human resource functions mean ensuring the company has enough skilled workers to maintain productivity and provide training.  It also ensures workers have the necessary resources to perform at peak efficiency. Oversee regulations and policies to ensure the company operates within legal guidelines and complies with federal, state, and local regulations.

##### 4.1 CEO

Our Chief Executive Officer (CEO) name is Haziem bin Mohamed Hatta. All members choose him as the leader of our company, Wanpaku Sandwich, established in 2020. He is responsible for watching the overall success of our business entity and making top-level managerial decisions. Hazem is the one leading the development of the company’s strategy, creating and implementing the company’s vision and mission, assessing risks to the company, and setting strategic goals. Since our business is small, he takes “hands-on” responsibilities such as hiring and staffing for the company’s operation. As a CEO, he needs to consider and listen to every committee’s opinion in making decisions and the coordinator that resolves the conflicts and problems among the committee and company.

##### 4.2 Vice CEO

Muhammad Haziq has been appointed as the vice CEO that will be mainly helping the CEO in his work. He has the responsibility to help to make wise decisions with the CEO. As vice CEO, he also needs to help the CEO mostly check the team manager and ensure that everyone is doing their jobs. He can lead the company when the CEO is absent and mediate between the team managers in conflict. In addition, he keeps everything on track, including the operational direction and making corporate decisions. He also advises the CEO so that every step taken is worth and wise-made.

##### 4.3 Secretary

Jenny Hii is appointed as the secretary for this company due to her ability to write and deal with the letter well. She is responsible for writing the proposal and the necessary letter for our company, and going through every paperwork and lastly discuss it with the CEO to finalize the needed document. She also makes arrangements for the company’s meetings and keeps all the formal records of our discussions and decisions.

##### 4.4 Financial Team

The responsibilities of a financial manager are accounting and reporting strategic financial management. They also manage the preparation of balance sheets, financial statements, cash-flow reports, day-to-day record keeping, accounts payable, and receivable. Additionally, they ensure that the company is in line with regulations, and financial health, involving keeping track of all transactions and financial events. These records are kept safely to indicate its growth –whether making a profit or a loss. They are also responsible for making and planning our company’s financial report and statement and controlling the cash flow in our company to prevent any extra loss in money. Finally, they need to manage all start-up expenses wisely to ensure the company is working and making a profit.

##### 4.5 Human Resource Team

As a manager of the human resources department, his responsibility is to recruit the staff that has the skills to hold the post and perform the duties and tasks. He needs to be more aware of the employees’ condition and keep improving their skills through motivation or providing training. He also needs to keep the employees’ commitment and loyalty toward the company to achieve higher production. The human resources manager is also responsible for conducting an orientation program to adjust to their jobs and environment faster.

##### 4.6 Marketing Team

The marketing team promotes business and drives sales of products or services. They set a target for the customer group and identify the customers’ preferences to make sure the products can catch customers’ interests. In this case, our marketing managers have developed a marketing plan to target a specific group of customers. So that the promotion and reputation of our food production are well-known and well-built. The marketing team plays a major role in connecting customers to our products, business promotions, and developing a new business plan. It is their job to reach out to prospects, customers, investors, community people, and so more.

##### 4.7 Operational Team

An operational team undertakes some ongoing activities that are required for the provision of goods or services. In some circumstances, operational teams can work as a project team also. They are responsible for selling the products or services at the stalls or counters and even any online events together. They manage and carry out the company’s events, projects, and activities together. At the whole UPM, operational team managers are the one that responds to set up the stalls and sells our food production to the customers at different locations. The service and get feedback from the customers at the same time.

##### 5.0 Location and Places

We have chosen Seventeenth College as the location of our company, whereby our members will handle cooking and packaging.

We will bring the ingredients from the supermarkets near the Serdang area, such as Tesco, Speedmart, and nearby shops. One of our members will handle this with their transportation. Hence the surveying and purchasing process will be convenient.

We have decided to pack our product at the same place as well. Once the products are ready to be sold, we will divide small groups to deliver the products to the whole UPM coverage area.  The sandwiches will be sold and delivered to the following blocks: Block A, B, C, and D.

Supplier:

To ensure the satisfaction of our customers, we have discussed among ourselves which supplier is the best in providing us with high-quality raw materials at affordable prices. Thus, we have decided on the following suppliers as our raw material providers: 99 Speedmart and Tesco.

List of materials to be bought:

1. Raw chicken breast
4. Eggs, Carrot, Cabbage, and Lettuce.
5. Sauce (Thousand Island)
6. Cooking oil
7. Disposable food packaging

We buy cooking oil and disposable food packaging materials one week before preparing our sandwiches. Then, we immediately prepare the sandwiches and deliver them to our customers to ensure freshness.

##### 7.2 Resources

Each team member will contribute RM20 each (RM20 x 10 = RM200) as a start-up for our business. The money collected will then be used to buy the materials needed for the Wanpaku Sandwich.

##### 8.2 List of Expenses

In conclusion, the business report represents a business plan for stakeholders. An ideal company report includes an executive summary of the organization, marketing plan, organizational structure, and financial projection. Sometimes, it contains company rules and regulations to inform others.