5 Dimensions of Service Quality- Servqual Model of Service Quality

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. Servqual model of service quality or RATER model. The Five Dimensions of Service Quality are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, also Responsiveness.

Five Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality refers to the SERVQUAL Model of 5 key service dimensions, such as Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. Servqual model or 5 dimensions of service quality is also known as the Service Quality Model.  SERVQUAL Model is a multi-dimensional research process intended to measure the gap scores between expected and perceptions of service quality of the customers based on five dimensions. This model was produced and implemented by the three American marketing scholars A Parsu Parasuraman, Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L Berry.

Therefore, the 5 dimensions of the service quality model are also known as the SERVQUAL Model or RATER model introduced between 1983 and 1988.


Servqual model refers to the five dimensions of the service quality that measure the customer’s expectations. The Servqual model classifies the elements or components of service quality known as five critical dimensions of service quality. Although the model developers initially proposed ten dimensions of service quality, many experts later finalize only five dimensions of service quality: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness. The marketing students formed an acronym RATER from the first capital letter of every dimension or component. However, this model recommends the most common causes of service quality problems after measuring the gaps.

Servqual Model 10 Dimensions

However, Initially, the introducers of the Servqual model proposed 10 dimensions of service quality that are as follows:  Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Knowing the Customer,  also, Tangibles.

5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model. 5 Dimensions of Service Quality Example are Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, Responsiveness. 5 components of service quality. 5 dimensions of service.
Figure 1: 5 Dimensions of Service Quality- SERVQUAL Model
Dimensions of Service Quality

The 5 Dimensions of Service Quality are

  1. Reliability
  2. Assurance
  3. Tangibles
  4. Empathy
  5. Responsiveness.

Reliability is an essential dimension of the Servqual model that confirms the capacity to provide services exactly, on time, and credibly. Consistency is a critical factor for providing assistance or product to the customers on time with error-free conditions. You have to respect the commitment to give your service on time accurately as you promised to them.

For example, the organization is sending mail to the customers every day on time.


Assurance means creating trust and credibility for the customers. It depends on the employee’s technical knowledge, practical communication skills, courtesy, credibility, competency, and professionalism. Therefore, these skills will help the organization to gain customer trust and credibility.

The assurance dimension combines a few factors, for example, competence, courtesy, credibility, and security.

Competence means having the requisite skills and knowledge.

Courtesy refers to the politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact staff.

Credibility is the trustworthiness, believability, and honesty of the staff.

Security means freedom from danger, risk, or doubt.

Example of the assurance dimension

The employee is showing respect and being polite to the customers while servicing them.


Tangibles represent the physical facilities, employees’ appearance, equipment, machines, and the organization’s information system. It focuses on facilitating materials and physical facilities.

For example, the organization maintains a clean environment in organizations, and staff follows the appropriate dress code.


Empathy means focusing on the customers attentively to ensure caring and distinguishing service. It is an essential attitude in some countries in the world to serve every customer individually. It is also a great process to satisfy customers psychologically and increase confidence, trust, and loyalty. The company might lose its customers due to the lack of empathy inside the employees; therefore, they need to ensure compassion.

Additionally, empathy is a combination of the following factors:

  • Access (physical and social) – Approachable and ease of contact
  • Communication – keeping customers informed in a language they understand and listening to them
  • Understanding the customer – making an effort to get to know customers and their specific needs.

For example, they are an active listener when customers are speaking and recognizing regular customers by name.


Responsiveness refers to the eagerness to assist customers with respect and provide quick service to satisfy. This dimension focuses on the two essential factors, including willingness and promptness. So, you have to ensure that the customer is getting their service within a short time without delay and make the customers feel that you are very interested in helping them. Responsiveness will be defined by the length of time when customers wait for the answer or solution. In short, responsiveness is to solve the customer problem as soon as possible by providing expecting information or replacing products.

Example of the Responsiveness Dimension

The employee keeps no customer in waiting serial and replaces the product within a short time before finishing the promised period.

SERVQUAL Instrument

The instruments of the SERVQUAL Model consist of 22 perceptions items. The author has used these instruments to evaluate consumer’s thoughts and expectations regarding the quality of service. The developers of the Servqual model designed 22 perceptions items and 22 expectation items to set into five dimensions of service quality. The gap score of the customers will come out ideally.

Servqual instruments- 22 scale items
Figure 2: SERVQUAL Instrument- 22 Scales Items

The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are Knowledge Gap, Policy Gap, Communication Gap, Delivery Gap, also Customer Gap.

In conclusion, the Servqual Model or Service Quality Model has become very popular and worldwide accepted because of increasing the customers’ service quality. It is a multi-dimensional research system that represents a customer satisfaction framework to satisfy customers as well as stakeholders.