Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage

Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model and Lewin’s Change Theory. Lewin’s change model consists of three stages, such as unfreeze, change & refreeze. Change Communication during Change Management.

Lewin’s Change Model

Lewin’s change model refers to the three stages of management change theory. The three stages of Lewin’s change model are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Lewin’s change model is also known as Lewin’s change theory. The alternative name of the Lewin change model is the three-step change model or Lewin 3 stage model or Kurt Lewin change model or Kurt Lewin change theory or Lewin model, or unfreeze change refreeze model.

In 1947, Kurt Lewin introduced the 3 phases of the change management model known as Kurt Lewin’s change model. Researchers and scientists established many models to describe organizational changes such as Kotter’s Change Management Model, Kübler-Ross Five Stage Change Management, ADKAR Change Management Model, McKinsey 7-S Change, Management Model, also Lewin’s Change Model or Theory. Lewin’s change model has become the most popular for its simplicity and fewer stages, for example, unfreeze, change, and refreeze.

Nowadays, researchers have developed multiple theories based on Lewin’s change management model. So, it is the foundation of all modern change management theories. For example, John Kotter’s 8-stage management change model was developed based on Lewin’s change model. Now, the management system is complex compared to before when the model was introduced. Therefore, the practice of Lewin’s change management model is controversial in modern organizations. It has excellent theoretical significance in the research arena rather than practical importance.

Lewin’s Change Model Real-Life Example

Many reputed companies apply Lewin’s change management model to survive in the current situation. For example, Netflix has applied a change model to adjust to the digital era. Netflix’s change management process handled the force of organizational change to achieve a competitive advantage. Now, they are one of the most successful companies globally. Netflix is a real-life example of Lewin’s change management model. It is known as Lewin’s Change Model Business Example.

Lewin’s Change Management Model Example

An ice block cannot get converted into a new shape without melting it. So it would be best if you created a hot environment to melt the ice block. The temperature must be more than 32°F (0°C) temperature to melt the ice. So, here, increasing the temperature denotes the unfreezing stage.

According to Lewin’s theory, unfreezing refers to preparation for accepting the new norms of the workplace. It is the initial stage to get ready to accept the change. The management needs to motivate employees to accepts change.

It will take time to transform the entire ice block into the water.  Keep the glass in an isolated place and ensure the temperature is suitable for melting ice. When the ice block completely transforms into water, pour it into a pot to give it a new shape. For example, pour all water into a glass melted from the ice block. Here, pouring the water into a glass is changing steps or moving stage. Melting the ice denotes the change stage of Lewin’s theory.

According to Lewin’s theory, changing refers to accepting the new norms and moving on to change. The employee starts to change and accept the new norm of the working place.

Finally, keeping the glass in a cold place to transform the water into ice again. It is the way of freezing the water transform again into a new solid shape. It is called the process of refreezing and the final stage of Lewin’s change management model.

Refreezing refers to adjusting to the new norms of the workplace. The employee has already accepted the change, and they adjust to the new environment.

The model summarised that successful management change is accomplished through a three-stage process; unfreezing, changing or moving, and freezing or refreezing.

Lewin’s Change Theory Examples

For example, the educational institute has shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, all organizations, including educational institutes, decided to conduct virtual or online classes to ensure the continuation of education for students. These educational institutes are applying online meeting platforms, for example, Zoom, Google Meet, to conduct virtual classes and organizational meetings. It was a new experience for lecturers; therefore, they were afraid of uncertainty and interested in taking online courses. But, the university authority compels them to accept the change. The university authority maintains effective communication through social media platforms to motivate employees to get change. They thought that organizational change would help achieve competitive advantages as the other educational institutes adopt the changes. So, finally, they accept the change and adjust to the new working environment. It is a perfect example of Lewin’s Change Theory.

Lewin’s Stages of Change

The three stages of Lewin’s change model are:
  1. Unfreeze stage
  2. Change stage
  3. Refreeze stage
Lewin's Change Model- Lewin change theory
Figure 1: Lewin’s Change Model or Theory

Unfreeze Change Refreeze

1. Unfreeze Stage

Unfreeze is the initial stage or step of Lewin’s change model or Lewin’s change management model. In this stage, employees take mental preparation to accept the change of the organization. In the management system, unfreeze stage refers to breaking down the existing state of circumstances to take the organizational changes. Usually, employees feel comfortable in the organization’s current condition; therefore, some do not like to accept organizational change quickly due to uncertainty. The unfreezing stage consists of the process of educating people about opportunities for organizational change. The organization should practice the change communication strategy to prepare employees for the change.

The key point of this stage is to compel employees to accept organizational change through effective change communication. It is essential to maintain effective interaction within the organization to persuade employees to accept change. Employees will receive the change if they can understand the new things cannot protect the company or organization from surviving.  Additionally, they need to realize that change is essential to sustain the organization and achieve competitive advantages.

A high level of positive motivation among employees helps to accept organizational changes. The organization needs to persuade the stakeholders that the change will bring benefits to everyone. Some people will receive it quickly, but some of them will deny it at the initial time. Finally, everyone will come up with the motivation to make the change.

Communication During the Unfreeze Stage

The primary communication objective is to prepare stakeholders, employees, and the organization to accept the change – “Readying” the organization. However, resistance will increase at the same speed with how huge the change is and how much it affects the organization. Effective communication can overcome resistance. In order to ‘ready’ the organization for accepting the change, it is essential to declare the objective of the change. Additionally, you have to ensure that everyone in the organization knows what will happen and why. The first factor must be communicated for change by pointing out the difference between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. This first message or declaration should come from the top-level management of the organization to avoid communication conflict.

2. Change (Move) Stage

Actual changes take place in this stage when everyone in the organization decides to accept the change with positive motivation. Employees receive and adjust to the new working atmosphere. Changes can be major or minor based on the organization’s needs. The organization needs to provide sufficient training and support for the employees to embrace the changes. It is the stage of implementing the entire process of changes; therefore, many issues need to be done consciously. Some employees may spread misleading information due to having insufficient knowledge about organizational change. So, the organization needs to practice an effective communication process within organization to avoid unwanted issues. However, at the end of the day, employees will be focused on practicing the new work.

Communication During the Change Stage

The organization should ensure effective communication among employees to reduce uncertainty as well as rumors. People may indulge in spreading disinformation and lies that have less information about the process of change. The communication has to have a more specific character in this stage than in the previous phase. Communication in these steps is essential to provide authentic, accurate, and detailed information on what will happen to those who have less sketchy details on implementing changes. Finally, it distributes the new responsibility among assigned people in the organization.

3. Refreeze Stage 

In this stage, employees adjust to the organizational change day by day. Refreezing is a slow process of adopting the new culture and atmosphere of the corporate workplace. Employees and stakeholders may take a long time to adjust to the new systems. The pace of the practice among employees determines the time of the refreezing stage. So, refreezing is the most crucial stage in Lewin’s change model so, everyone deals with it efficiently. The new attitude and behavior of employees become solidified as the norm of the organization. Finally, everyone starts to feel comfortable as in the previous stage before unfreezing.

Communication During the Refreeze Stage

The communication process should answer employees’ queries regarding rewards, control, efficiency, and relationship roles. In this stage, the information flow should be concrete, continuous, and multidirectional so that employees have a sufficient understanding of the personal associations of the change. Unavoidable misunderstandings may occur in this step, so; communication should focus on making the change successful.

Kurt Lewin 1951 References
  • Lewin, K. (1951). Forces of change: Field theory in social science.
Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/lewins-change-model-3-steps-management-change-and-communication/

Proofreading Steps, Symbols-Difference Between Proofreading and Editing.

Proofreading Steps, Difference Between Proofreading and Editing.  What is Proofreading? Difference Between Proofreading and Editing. Proofreading Steps. Proofreading Tips & Process. Do’s, and Don’ts of Proofreading.

Proofreading Symbols

Proofreading symbols are the marks that a proofreader makes on a paper when they edit it. They are a coded set of instructions that point out where mistakes have been made and how a piece of writing can be improved.

Proofreading, or ‘copy checking’, originally referred to newspapers, where an editor would take typeset paper and check the text for errors against an original manuscript. These days, even in newspapers and magazines, which often have their sub-editors proof on-screen, it’s all done digitally.

Proofreading is a surface-level check and final check on a document. A proofreader will look for misspellings, incorrect/missed punctuation, inconsistencies (textual and numerical), etc. Editing, on the other hand, corrects issues at the core of writing like sentence construction and language clarity. Although editing will help improve the readability, clarity, and tone of the text. An editor will scrutinize and polish your writing for a smooth narration.

Proofreading Steps

Proofreading Steps and Process

The steps of proofreading refer to a set of instructions that proofreaders need to follow thoroughly. The proofreading steps are very important to check the errors of an original manuscript.

Don’t Rely On Spelling and Grammar Checkers

Spell checkers are great as the first port of call and will be useful in assisting you to identify high-level errors. However, automated spelling and grammar checkers are severely inadequate and they cannot identify many common grammatical errors. Furthermore, they often make serious mistakes that can mislead even the most diligent writer.

Proofread For One Error at a Time

Proofreading really is a meticulous and time-consuming process, but the more you put into it, the more you get out. If you attempt to identify and correct all errors within one sitting, you risk losing focus and you may find that you miss major mistakes. Sometimes it’s useful to check for spelling mistakes and punctuation errors separately. This will make it easier to spot issues and you can vary the proofreading technique you use on each pass to suit the type of mistakes you are searching for.

Read Each Word Slowly

One technique that the majority of professional proofreaders use is to read the writing they are proofreading out loud. This forces you to voice every single word and involves your auditory senses in the process, meaning that you can hear how the text actually sounds when it is read. Trying to read something quickly forces your brain to skip some words and make unconscious corrections.

Break the Text Into Manageable Chunks

Breaking the text into separate sections provides you with more manageable tasks. Read each section carefully and then take a break before you progress to the next. This will prevent you from feeling overwhelmed by the task ahead and will allow you to concentrate more effectively on the section of writing that you are proofreading. This technique is especially useful if you are proofreading a very large document, such as a thesis or dissertation.

Circle Punctuation Marks

This method may seem over the top but it is one of the most effective methods out there for spotting punctuation mistakes. By circling every single punctuation mark, you force yourself to look at each one in turn and question if it really has been used correctly.

Read the Writing Backwards

This proofreading method is useful for identifying spelling mistakes because it forces you to concentrate on each word in isolation. Start with the last word in your text and follow each one separately until you reach the beginning of the document. While you are doing this, you are not really interested in punctuation and grammar; you are focusing entirely on how the words have been spelt. Many proofreaders also recommend reading papers backwards, sentence by sentence.

Note the Errors You Make On a Frequent Basis

Proofreading writing on a regular basis can help you to identify your own strengths and weaknesses and understand where you make mistakes. If you are aware of the common errors you make, you can learn to look for them during the writing process itself and, over a period of time, will learn to avoid them altogether. Keep style guides and grammar rules to hand as you proofread, and look up any areas that you are uncertain about. Over time you will develop your knowledge and your writing skills will improve.

What is Proofreading?

Proofreading is the reading of a galley proof or an electronic copy of a publication to find and correct production errors of text or art. Proofreading is the final step in the editorial cycle.

Difference Between Proofreading and Editing

Proofreading and editing are often viewed similarly, but they are very different parts of any publishing process. They also ought to be very different parts of the draft writing process. Proofreading ought to be done at the end of the writing process, as the final stage of writing before the draft, is ready.

Editing must be done earlier to perfect the document in advance. Editing deals with basic language usage and communication. Editors are going to look at word choice, whether or not a document uses too much passive voice. They also check whether or not there are too many words used in
general. Editing is concerned with trying to improve the writing content in a way that relates to the text quality, not just its presentation.

The Purpose of Proofreading

1.For better or for worse, people do tend to dismiss the value of almost any piece of writing based on a few spelling errors or other minor surface language errors.
2. It is also important to proofread because poorly checked writing would be harder to read. Well-read people are going to learn by word recognition.

The Process of Proofreading a Paper

First, you will need to take note of all the errors you should fix. Otherwise, you might end up proofreading for spelling errors but not for punctuation errors. Once you have familiarized yourself with everything you should do during the proofreading process, start picking every sentence apart. Look for the potential surface language errors that might be there. While reading
each sentence, check the spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors as well as typing mistakes.

When the paper or piece of writing is proofread the first time, read through it a second time. Just use the same proofreading process. People who have missed a few errors should manage to find them during the second reading. Depending upon the nature of the situation and the importance of the writing, it might be a good idea to do a third reading.

Proofreading Process

Figure 1: Proofreading Symbols & Steps

Proofreading Tips

Tip 1. It is important not to rely on spell-checkers entirely. Some of them might misdiagnose words as misspelt due to the dictionary’s limitations. Some of them might not pick up on misused words.

Tip 2. Certain words are more likely to be mistyped than others based on the position of the letters on the keyboard. For instance, the word ‘the’ is often typed in as ‘teh’ for the people who are typing very quickly. You should remember which words these are to scrutinize them more carefully when writing.

Tip 3. People who are prone to misspell certain words should keep in mind which words these are. You might want to avoid using them altogether. Otherwise, just keep your eyes on these words.

Tip 4. Getting a rhythm going is an essential part of proofreading. And it is not the most exciting writing task that is out there. People who try to view the task mechanically will be that much more likely to get through it.

Do’s and Don’ts of Proofreading

• Do repeat the proofreading process more than once.
Don’t proofread during the writing and editing process.
• Do look for grammatical errors, typing errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors.
Don’t proofread only certain sections of the document at the exclusion of others.
• Do pay attention to words that are frequently mistyped, misspelled, or misused.
Don’t spend too much time on the proofreading process.