Hardball Tactics in Negotiation- Hardball Tactics Definition & Examples

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation, Definition & Examples. Top 8 Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are Good cop bad cop, Lowball Highball, Bogey, Nibble, Chicken, Intimidation, Aggressive behavior, and Snow Job.

Hardball Tactics

Hardball Tactics refer to the typical method applied by negotiators to achieve the goal anyhow. Any part of the negotiation can use hardball tactics to gain an advantage. Hardball tactics are the deceptive way to gain the objective. The negotiator usually employs these tactics to get the benefit from the detriment of another party. People use these hardball tactics for personal, social, political, and business purposes. They adopt them to purchase a product, make an agreement, deal with others parties. It is a significant strategy in business communication

The Most Common Hardball Tactics

Hardball Tactics Examples-The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
What are the hardball tactics in negotiation?
The 8 Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are:
  1. Good cop/bad cop
  2.  Lowball/Highball
  3.  Bogey
  4. The nibble
  5.  Chicken
  6. Intimidation
  7. Aggressive Behaviour
  8. Snow Job

1. Good Cop Bad Cop Tactic

A good cop/ bad cop negotiation refers to tactical bargaining between two parties to benefit from the other party’s detriment. It occurs amid two parties’ negotiation when two people in the same party deal with the other party as good and bad.

Good Cop Bad Cop Tactic Example -1

For example, the police want to ask some questions in a police station, but the prisoner would not want to say anything. So, two police officers plan to play a game, and one acts like a rude, devilish person so that he can ask the question fiercely. On the other hand, another police officer interrogates the prisoner politely. After comparing the two policemen, the prisoner decisively told the information and admitted his fault to the gentle policeman.

Good Cop Bad Cop Tactic Example -2

For example, A customer goes to a mask shop where the shop owner and his manager sell products. The customer wants to buy a mask; therefore, he was negotiating with them. The shop owner is persuading the customer, saying that the facemask will protect you and your family from Coronavirus. It would be best if you bought it without focusing on only RM 5 per piece. On the other hand, the manager says to the customer that you have to pay RM 5 if you want to buy or not sell it for less than RM5. The manager also intimidates the customer, saying that you can go now without paying RM 5. However, the owner is still trying to persuade the customer to buy the mask for RM5. The owner is dealing in a friendly manner, whereas the manager is threatening the customer. However, both (owner & manager) want to sell the product. This kind of negotiation is called a good cop/bad cop negotiation.

Good Cop Bad Cop Tactic Example -3

When I was a secondary student, I had violated the school rules for being late to school. The school discipline teacher acted as the “Bad Cop” who commanded on punishing me according to the school rules and regulations. Meanwhile, the counseling teacher held an open-minded talk to understand why I was late and advised me patiently. Finally, I will never be late again in the next five years.

2. Lowball Highball Tactic

The negotiator applies a lowball/highball tactic to get the attention of the other party. They know that they will not be able to achieve it but offering. Actually, the lowball/highball tactic begins with an extremely low or high opening offer to the opposite party. The extreme proposal will stimulate the other party to re-evaluate their opening offer and move closer to or beyond their resistance point.

Lowball Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, your son does not want to go to school by bus because his friends come by private vehicle. Therefore, he decided not going school till buying a private car. You offer him to gift a new personal car by next month to make him happy. You know very well that you will not be able to buy a new private car by next month. It is a ridiculous offer that is called a lowball/highball tactic. Later, you manage to persuade him to go to school by bus for six more months, but you will buy a motorbike for him after six months.

Lowball Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, imagine that you want to buy a woody chair. Them negotiate with the seller, the set price is 100RM, you might think it is unacceptable price, so you say can I buy it in 20 RM, because it does not seem that high price, the seller might shock a while, after that the seller might say” 50RM, take it okay?” Finally, your goal has been achieved.

Lowball Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, my girlfriend (ELA) stopped talking to me because another girl likes my photos uploaded on Facebook. ELA is jealous of girls who like and comment on my Facebook photos. I offered him not to use Facebook anymore to continue our communication. She also knows that It is quite impossible to stop using Facebook. However, this tactic stimulates her to talk to me for bargaining.  We argue for an hour to finally agree that I would block the girl from following me on Facebook. Finally, I managed to think that blocking is so much better when it is a bad idea to stop using Facebook due to the girl.

3. Bogey Tactic

Bogey tactics in negotiation are demonstrated when negotiators conceal their interest in front of the other party. Negotiators pretend that the issue is of very little importance to them, the opposite party offering. The issue is significant for them, but they do not want to show their interest in front of the opposing party.

Bogey Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new Samsung mobile phone with a face lock feature. Now, the shop owner is showing you the latest Samsung mobile phone and indicting the new feature. You are glad to see the new feature on the phone. However, you are not showing interested in the face lock feature. You are concealing your interest in front of the shop owner. You think that shop owner can increase the price if you show more interest in the new feature. Therefore, you pretend that you have no interest in buying this new phone. Eventually, you buy a phone at a low price that has the new face-lock feature.

Bogey Negotiation Example-2

This tactic is usually applied to the gambling situation. When I play mahjong with my family members, I maintain my poker face even though the mahjong I drew is good, and I win the game. But, I stay calm to distract my opponents’ attention, not to sense my happiness. After that, I pretend that I want mahjong A, but my target is mahjong J. Then, I successfully won the game by misleading the other family members to discover my true intention.

4. Nibble Tactic

The nibble tactic refers to asking for a minor concession to make the deal final. Usually, negotiators use this tactic after a long time of negotiation between them. The negotiator needs to add a small item to complete the deal or agreement. 

Nibble Negotiation Example-1

For example, the customer will purchase the secondhand iPhone if the seller provides headphones and a charger and at the same price. It happens at the ending period of the negotiation when any party wants to close the deal.

Nibble Negotiation Example-2

For example, the tenant will rent the house if the owner replaces the old refrigerator with a new one. Finally, the owner agrees to add a new refrigerator to complete the agreement.

5. Chicken Tactic

In a negotiation tactic, the negotiator uses a big bluff with a frightening action to force the other party to fulfill their demands. The negotiator forces another party to close the deal immediately. 

Chicken Negotiation Example-1

For example, one party is threatening the other party with, “If you do not sell this phone at RM 1000, I will buy the same phone from the next shop who is interested in selling it at the same price. The owner believed the customer’s bluff and agreed to sell the phone at RM 1000. 

Chicken Negotiation Example-2

For example, The customer said he wants the furniture ready on the weekend or to find another shop. The shop owner became agree to deliver furniture before the due date believing the customer’s bluff. 

Chicken Negotiation Example-3

For example, after a long negotiation, both sides are not satisfied with each other. Then one side says, “if you really oppose accepting my ideal price, I will find another person who will provide my ideal price.”

6. Intimidation Tactic

Intimidation tactics attempt to force the other party to agree by applying emotional appeal. They use emotion, anger, or fear to agree with the opposite party. The other side may deliberately use anger to show the seriousness of the position. 

Intimidation Negotiation Example-1

Calvin is a small employee in a company. David is a well-known violent temper person in the organization. They are bargaining for various issues for a long time. Suddenly, David slapped the table, glared at Calvin, and said: Think about the difficulty of your job. Your wife and children at home are still waiting for dinner. Finally, Calvin accepted the conditions.

Intimidation Negotiation Example-2

For example, if someone bought a television, it did not work when he wants to open it at home. Still, it was nothing wrong when he checked the tv in the store, and then he asked the store to replace one for him, but the store refused to return it because it is available when he checked in the store. Finally, he said if you do not replace it for me today, I will post this on social media; nobody will come afterward.

7. Aggressive Behaviour Tactic

Aggressive behavior refers to the strategy of being aggressive in pushing your position or attacking the other person’s position to gain advantages. It is similar to intimidation tactics, but negotiator uses their position to intimidate other psychologically. It includes asking for further concessions.

Aggressive Behaviour Negotiation Example-1

For example, one customer comes to buy a mobile phone formally and says: Let’s not waste time, what is the maximum price? Here, the customer wants to emphasize that their time is significant, so close the deal soon. 

Aggressive Behaviour Negotiation Example-2

For example, a sales manager offers RM 5000 for iPhone 12, but the customer is still negotiating to reduce the price. Instantly, the owner gets angry at the manager and “how can you make such a low offer.” Do you know today I have sold three iPhone 12 at RM5500 within 30 minutes? You are really wasting our time. It stimulates the customer to buy it at RM5000.

Aggressive Behaviour Negotiation Example-3

For example, a customer goes to buy a personal car in the showroom—the salesmen bargains with him regarding the price for a long time. Eventually, the customer brought out his identity card and showed the salesmen said, “I am also marketing manager, so please do not apply the marketing policy on me.”  Here, the customer uses his position to win the negotiation. 

8. Snow Job Tactic

Snow job tactic is demonstrated when negotiators surprise the other party with huge additional information. These additional make the opposite party confused about figuring out which facts are fundamental and essential. It occurs when negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information to get distracted.

Snow Job Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new mobile phone, and the seller provides you with so much information about the additional factors. They ensure that this phone is eco-friendly. It will not harm you. They also show you how many people are dying due to mobile blasts and so more. The use of many technical terms to confuse anyone who is not familiar with the topic.

Snow Job Negotiation Example-2

The negotiator explains the deal in English, but Ahmad, a non-native English speaker, will see him as educated. Ahmad will say yes without asking many questions to avoid embarrassment because the negotiator seems knowledgeable and more expert than him. 

Snow Job Negotiation Example-3

Snow Job tactics are frequently used in government project tendering. When the government starts a new development project, they will publish massive information to hide the accurate worthy information behind the overwhelming information. This tactic is used to prevent the misuse of precious data for any illegal activity. 


Top 8 Hardball Negotiation Tactics are Good cop bad cop, Lowball Highball, Bogey, Nibble, Chicken, Intimidation, Aggressive behavior, and Snow Job. These typical tactics are crucial elements for win-win and win-loss negotiation. 

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 30). Hardball Tactics in Negotiation- Hardball Tactics Definition & Examples. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/hardball-tactics-examples-example-of-hardball-tactics-in-negotiation/

Communication Models- 3 Models of Communication Linear, Interactive & Transactional

Communication Models- 3 Models of Communication Linear, Interactive & Transactional. Three  Models of Communication are Linear, Interactive, and Transactional in 2022. Also, the Linear Model of Communication and the Interactive and Transactional communication models are used.

Communication Models

Communication models refer to the conceptual frameworks or theories that explain the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication between the sender and the receiver. The communication model tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions; for example, what is communication? Who is involved in this process? When does it happen? Where does it take place? Why does it occur? And finally, How does the communication happen?

Additionally, communication models contribute to developing many other theories and models. For example, the communication models are the basis of the mediated communication technology adoption models.

Furthermore, communication models explain the elements of the communication process, for example, context, sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, feedback, and noise. These are the components of communication that describe the entire process of communication. However, some communication models do not have all these elements or features. For example, the linear model of communication does not have feedback. The communication model also explains the factors that prevent effective communication, known as barriers or noise. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

 Three Types of Communication Models
The 3 Models of Communication are:
  1. Linear Models of Communication
  2. Interactive Models of Communication
  3. Transactional Models of Communication

The three communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A list of the best communication models, including the established year, has been outlined below to obtain more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also been discussed in the communication model table.

Models of communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive and Transactional.

1. Linear Models of Communication

The linear communication model is a one-way interaction where feedback is not present. Linear is the primary communication model, whereas the transactional model is formed based on the linear model. The sender communicates with the receiver without receiving feedback. It also represents the one-way process of communication.

Many scholars have established linear communication models, such as Aristotle’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, Lasswell’s, and Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.

Linear Model of Communication Example
Communication Models Year
Aristotle Model of Communication. 300BC
Lasswell’s Model of Communication. 1948
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication. 1949
Also, Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication. 1960

2. Interactive Models of Communication

The interactive communication model refers to the two-way method of communication with feedback. However, feedback is not simultaneous, providing slow and indirect feedback. Sometimes, the communication can be linear if receivers do not reply to senders. The interactive model of communication indicates mediated and internet-based communication.

For example, Osgood-Schramm and Westley, and Maclean’s models are interactive communication models.

Interactive Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957

3. Transactional Models of Communication

The transitional communication model seems like a two-way communication process with immediate feedback. Simultaneous feedback is the essential component of the transitional models of communication. So, the communication process will not become transactional without feedback. The feedback is direct and very fast. The receiver is compelled to provide instant feedback. The major difference between the interactive and transactional models is indirect and direct feedback.

For example, Wilbur Schramm’s model of communication, Barnlund’s transactional model of communication, Dance’s Helical model of communication, and Eugene white’s communication model are transitional communication models.

Transactional Model of Communication Example

Eugene White’s Model of Communication 1960
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication 1967
Also, Barnlund’s Transactional Model 1970
Different Types of Communication Models

The best communication models are Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, Shannon–Weaver’s Model of Communication, Berlo’s Model of Communication, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication, Barnlund’s Transactional Model, Eugene White’s Model, and also, Dance’s Helical Model of Communication.

Linear Models of Communication

1. Aristotle Model of Communication

Aristotle’s communication model refers to the communication model with the speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect elements. In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear communication model focusing mainly on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is also known as the first model of communication. Aristotle’s communication model consists of five primary communication elements: speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and Effect. The speaker plays a crucial role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. However, the speaker’s speech is a message that might vary on occasion.

Aristotle's model of communication
Aristotle’s Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) delivers a speech to persuade voters to vote for him. The political leader is the most crucial person who provides the message or information. The speech is the leader’s message to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion, and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. Political leaders might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters, whether they are motivated to vote for him or not.

2. Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Political scientist and professor Harold Lasswell introduced Lasswell’s communication model in 1948. It is a linear model of communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s model explains the communication process by answering the following questions; who says what in which channel to whom, and with what effect?

Laswell's model of linear communication model
Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s communication model and the example, firstly, the answer to “Who” is the news presenter of the BBC News Channel. Secondly, it Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the “In which Channel” question means the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people watching this channel. Finally, With what effect shows the awareness.

3. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars, Shannon and Weaver, in 1949. The Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models. Shannon and Weaver did not include feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. However, Norbert Weiner added feedback to the model in responding to the criticism. At first, this model was designed to articulate the technical communication process. Later, it was used to discuss all types of communication. The Shannon-Weaver model represents six essential communication elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. Later, this model was criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is vital in making the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication-
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication
4. Berlo’s Model of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication is the SMCR model that includes the element of Source-Message-Channel-Receiver. David Berlo developed Source-Message-Channel-Receiver in 1960. It is also known as the David Berlo SMCR model of communication. However, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). The four elements of David Berlo’s SMCR communication model are the source, message, channel, and receiver. Berlo focuses on both verbal and nonverbal communication elements to convey information.

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication
David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

Transactional Models of Communication

5. Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

Osgood-Schramm Model provides a two-way form of communication. However, Wilbur Schramm adopted the concept from the theory of another scientist Charles Egerton Osgood. Osgood proposed that the communication process is circular rather than linear. So, the person simultaneously plays a role as the sender and receiver of the message. The person receives the message and interprets it to provide feedback. Therefore, it is known as the Osgood-Schramm Model of communication.

The elements of the Osgood-Schramm Model are Interpreter, Encode, Decode, and Message.

Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
6. Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Westley and Maclean’s model is an interactive model of communication that examines the communication process between sender and receiver. Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean Jr. established the model in 1957. Westley and Maclean’s communication model was adapted from Newcomb’s communication and Lewin’s change management model. It represents the two-way communication process, so feedback is subsisted in this model. It also explains interpersonal and mass communication. The feedback is indirect and slow in mass communication, whereas feedback is direct and fast in interpersonal communication. According to Westley and Maclean’s model,  A represents sender, B represents receiver, and C represents mass media. The interactive communication process is more effective than linear communication.

Westley and Maclean Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Transactional Models of Communication

7. Eugene White’s Model of Communication

Eugene White’s model is one of the crucial transactional communication models introduced in 1960. According to Eugene White’s model, communication is a circular process interaction between senders and receivers. The most essential element of this communication model is feedback, which continues the communication process; therefore, it is a transactional communication model.

Eugene White's Model of Communication
Eugene White’s Model of Communication

There are eight stages of the oral communication process: thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, feedbacking, also monitoring. So, communication is a sequential interaction process; however, it cannot determine the receiver’s active role in the continuous communication process.

8. Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

In 1967, Frank Dance introduced the transactional communication model called the Helical communication model. The author initially named Dance’s Helix communication model. Frank Dance used helix to develop the model that describes the complex communication process. The word helical has come from the

Dance's Helical Model of Communication
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

helix, meaning spiral staircase. Communication gets more extended when it grows up like a helix. Communication is an evolutionary and dynamic process with feedback.

Any communication starts from a small circle when the communicators share little information about themselves. Communication expands boundaries when people share more personal information. Finally, the relationship grows up gradually to reach the top level.

9. Barnlund’s Transactional Model

In 1970, Dean Barnlund introduced the transactional communication model. The author formed this model based on public, private, and also behavior cues. Barnlund’s transactional model refers to the multi-layered communication process with feedback. The sender and receiver exchange their role for conducting effective communication, and therefore, the sending and receiving message occur reciprocally between sender and receiver. The eight elements of Barnlund’s communication model are person, encoding, decoding, public cues, private cues, verbal, behavioral cues, nonverbal behavioral cues, and message.

 Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication
Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication
Importance of Models of Communication

Communication models are essential tools for understanding the communication processes. It presents detailed information regarding the communication process and illustrates the flow of information. Therefore, they have a tremendous positive impact on the research by introducing many conceptual frameworks of communication processes. Additionally, the model introduces the elements of the communication process. Furthermore, the communication model provides tips on how communicators can communicate effectively. They represent the barrier or noise that obstacle the process of communication. They also explain the complexities of the communication system. Finally, the model proposes improving the communication process to avoid conflict.


In conclusion, the best nine communication models are Aristotle’s Model, Shannon-Weaver Model, Lasswell’s Model, Berlo’s SMCR Model, Osgood-Schramm Model, Westley and Maclean’s Model, Wilbur Schramm’s model, Barnlund’s Transactional Model, Dance’s Helical Model, and Eugene White’s Model of Communication.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022). Models of Communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive & Transactional. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/3-types-of-communication-models-linear-interactive-transactional/