Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process

Communication Elements- 9 Elements of the Communication process are Context, Sender, Encoder,  Messages, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise. Additionally, Examples of the 9 Components of Communication.

Communication Elements

Communication elements are essential components and stages connected with transmitting messages from senders to receivers. They are also known as the elements of an effective communication process.  Communication elements initiate and regulate the information-sharing cycle between the sender and receiver. Therefore, communication elements are essential and interconnected parts of the communication process.

Based on linear interactive and transactional models of communication, the 9 elements of communication are Context, Sender, Encoder,  Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise. These are essential tools and mechanisms except noise to convey messages between sender and receiver. Communication elements are also known as the components of an effective communication process.

Communication Process

The communication process refers to sharing information verbally or non-verbally between the sender and receiver. Verbal communication means communication among people through spoken words. Nonverbal communication refers to interaction among humans through nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, facial expression, movement, body language, eye contact- nonverbal communication, and so more. Communication means conveying a message via written text, speech, signals, visuals, or behavior. It is also a process of exchanging opinions and imparting knowledge between speaker and audience through communication elements.

9 Elements of Communication

 The 9 Elements of Communication are;
  1. Context
  2. Sender
  3. Encoder
  4. Message
  5. Channel
  6. Decoder
  7. Receiver
  8. Feedback
  9. Noise
Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication. Elements of the communication process with examples. Components of communication.
Nine Elements of Communication Process With Examples
 Examples of 9 Communication Elements 

Elly wants to pay the electricity bill. She thinks that her husband (Jack) can pay for it now; therefore, Elly requests her husband to deposit $100 for the electricity bill while talking to her husband on a smartphone. At the same time, her son watched a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high. Therefore, her husband could not understand exactly how much he needed to pay for the electricity bill. So, she repeated the exact words to confirm him. Consequently, her husband asked about the due date for paying the electricity bill, and she replied that today was the last date to pay the electricity bill without penalty. In the meantime, she showed her angry face to her son to reduce the TV volume. Instantly, her son reduced the volume.

Based on the example, the context is a verbal communication. Verbal communication occurs when people converse physically or over a phone call. Elly is the sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Similarly, her husband is also a sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Turning the thought into a message is the act of encoding. In contrast, transferring the message into view is the process of decoding. The smartphone is the medium or channel of the communication process, and TV volume is the environmental noise that bars the communication process.

Example Scenario of Nine Communication Elements
  1. Sender: Elly
  2. Message: "Deposit $100 for the electricity bill"
  3. Encoding: "Elly decides to call her husband to send a message".
  4. Channel: Phone Call
  5. Receiver: Her Husband (Jack)
  6. Decoding:  Her Husband (Jack) interpreted the message and took action
  7. Feedback: "Asked about the due date for paying the electricity bill".
  8. Noise: "TV Sounds".
  9. Context: "Verbal Communication".

1. Context in Communication

Context refers to the environment of communication in which the interaction happens or takes place. Communication context is the circumstance and prime element of every communication process that controls the communication process among senders and receivers. The most common five communication contexts are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication settings. Additionally, this context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you may feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues, and you will not speak to an unknown person as you talk to your wife. So, the context of communication sets the environment of the communication process.

Types of Communication Context

The most common five types of communication contexts are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication. The additional contexts of communication are verbal and nonverbal communication settings.

Example of Context in Communication

For example, Elly talks to her husband informally and feels very comfortable. Therefore, the social context has been designed from this communication process, and it is also an interpersonal context as they communicate face to face.

2. Sender in Communication

A sender is a person who sends a message to the receiver. The sender is also known as the encoder of the message. The sender initiates the communication process and starts the procedure by sending a message or information. Therefore, the sender is a significant element of the communication process. A sender makes and uses symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. Therefore, a sender is a speaker, writer, or person who provides the information to share opinions, ideas, and messages.

Example of Sender in Communication

For example, Elly is the sender and encoder who sends messages to communicate with her husband, and the sender is the person who sends the message to share with others. So, Elly is the sender and an element of the communication process.

3. Encoding in Communication

Encoding means transforming abstract opinions and ideas into symbols such as words, pictures, signs, and marks. A symbol might represent or indicate opinions, statements, and actions. In contrast, decoding is the process of transforming the symbol into an idea or thought. Encoding is the process of transformation of the subject into symbols. The encoding process is related to the sender and receiver.

The message of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.

Example of Encoding in Communication

For example, Elly has converted his thoughts into words to convey the message to her husband, which is called encoding. Here, converting ideas into words is the process of encoding. Words serve as the spoken communication symbol. She called her husband and uttered some words to share an opinion as well as send a message.

4. Message in Communication

The message refers to the information, ideas, feelings, opinions, thoughts, attitudes, and views the sender wants to deliver to the receiver. The message seems like a vital element of any communication process. Any communication conveys a message, also known as sharing ideas, opinions, thoughts, and information. Invariably, the sender wants to convey the message to communicate with the receiver. So, senders need to ensure that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable.

Messages may be conveyed through verbal and nonverbal cues. Verbal cues are the spoken language of the speaker, for instance, spoken words.

On the other hand, the most common types of nonverbal communication are facial expression, eye contact, physical appearance, posture, gesture, etc.

Example of Message in Communication

For example, Elly was speaking to convey a message that indicates verbal communication. She also showed her angry face to her son to reduce the TV volume, which is called non-verbal communication. In this regard, spoken words and facial expressions are examples of messages in communication. The most common examples of messages in communication are spoken words, written words, facial expressions, eye contact, phone calls, video, email, and text messages. Facial expression, eye contact, and body language are nonverbal communication channels that convey messages.

5. Channel in Communication

Channel is the way or tool of transmitting a message from one person to other people and from one place to other places. It is also known as a medium of communication that conveys the message from sender to receiver. Communicators use different channels to communicate in a distinct context of communication. In face-to-face communication, the sender's senses, such as hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and tasting, are the channels for transferring the information. It is also one of the crucial elements of the communication process.

On the other hand, organizations use Television, Newspapers, and radio to disseminate information. People use computers and mobile phones to communicate with people who live far away from each other. Many people use virtual meeting platforms to conduct group discussions. Sometimes, people choose a written medium, such as a letter, to convey the message, while others prefer an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient.

In 2024, most people use social media sites such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram, and Google Meet to communicate with others. Social media communication channels seem convenient ways to send and receive messages. However, people experience both advantages and disadvantages of social media communication for its positive and negative sites.

Example of Channel in Communication

For example, Elly has transmitted the message through a smartphone, so the smartphone is the channel of the communication process. She uses technology to convey messages, which is called mediated communication. The most common example of communication channels is TV, Radio, Newspapers, Social media, and the five human senses. For instance, Global Assistant is a renowned education consultant in Asia and they communicate with potential customers via official websites and social media platforms. So, websites and social media sites are channels of communication.

6. Decoding in Communication

Decoding is "the process of" translating an encoded symbol into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. In this process, the receiver converts the symbols into thoughts received from the sender. Decoding is the opposite process of encoding to get the message's meaning.

Example of Decoding in Communication

For example, Elly has transformed his thoughts into words to convey the message to her husband called encoding. At the same time, her husband converts those words into thoughts to understand the message, which is the process of decoding.

7. Receiver in Communication

Unlike the sender, a receiver is a person for whom the message is targeted. Therefore, the receiver is the audience of the communication process that decodes the message to perceive the meaning. The sender indeed sends a message aimed at the receiver. Receivers can be one person, a group of people, or an enormous population. The degree to which the decoder understands the message depends on various factors, such as the recipient's knowledge, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.

Example of Receiver in Communication

For example, Elly sent a message targeting her husband, with whom she wanted to communicate. Hence, her husband is the receiver in this context of communication.

8. Feedback in Communication

Feedback in communication refers to the response of the receiver or audience. It is one of the main elements of the effective communication process that differentiates the communication models into linear and transactional. Linear communication models explain one-way communication without feedback.  Feedback is an inevitable component of the transactional model.  Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form and also in the form of memos, reports, etc. Feedback is also one of the essential elements of the transactional communication process.

Feedback differentiates the linear and transitional models of communication. Linear means one-way communication, and transactional denotes two-way communication. The communication model is linear if there is no feedback in the communication process, for example, Aristotle's Model of Communication, Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication, Lasswell's Communication Model, and Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication.

On the other hand, the communication model will be identified as an interactive and transitional communication model if the feedback is presented, for example, the Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication, Eugene White’s Model of Communication and the Helical Model of Communication.

Example of Feedback in Communication

For example, Elly's husband asked about paying the electricity bill's due date. Additionally, feedback is demonstrated when the students reply lecturer's questions.

9. Noise in Communication

Noise refers to the communication barrier or obstacles to effective communication. It is also known as communication noise or communication barrier. Noise is an unwanted element of communication that communicators always want to avoid during the interaction.

It is the barrier that obstacles the effectiveness of the communication process. Noise exists in all kinds of communication, such as face-to-face, group, mediated, etc. Communication will be more effective and interactive if there is no noise. Noises are unnecessary elements of communication that distract receivers from receiving the message.

Example of Noise in Communication

For example, Elly's son watches a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high when talking to her husband. The sound of the cartoon video bars Elly from listening to her husband's speech, so it is an example of a communication barrier communication noise or communication distraction.

The seven types of noise in communication are Physical noise, Physiological noise, Psychological noise, Semantic noise, and Cultural noise.


In conclusion, the nine elements of the communication process are context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise. These components are essential in the transactional communication process. The communication process might get faulty without any elements except noise because noise is the unwanted communication element. This article has presented the nine elements of the communication process with examples. The author completed a bachelor of Communication at the University of Putra Malaysia. This article helps students to complete their assignments and researchers to conduct research projects.

Citation For This Article(APA-7th & MLA-9th Edition)
APA Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). 9 Elements of Communication Process With Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform.

Social Group Types: Ten Types of Social Groups and Examples

Social Groups Types and Examples In Sociology PDF. Also, Ten Types of Social Groups.

Social Groups

Social groups refer to groups of people in society who communicate regularly to achieve individual and group goals. Every social group is formed by more than two people. The people in the same group share similar characteristics, mutual expectations, and shared identity. These groups have been prevalent in society for thousands of years, such as learning groups, work groups, self-help groups, etc. The social groups are divided into different small sub-groups. A small social group consists small number of people in society. The members of these small social groups communicate regularly and share common objectives. Group communication is significant to achieving the group goal.

Group development models explain that group communication has many stages, tensions, and conflicts, so members need to maintain all the challenges to achieve the final goal. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group discussion are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Members must overcome all these stages to achieve the independent and interdependent goal. The four types of barriers in group communication are Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination.

Social Groups Types In Sociology
Ten Types of Social Groups Example

Types of Social Groups

The 10 Types of Social Groups are:
  1. Primary Group
  2. Secondary Group
  3. Self-help Group
  4. Learning Group
  5. Service Group
  6. Civic Group
  7. Work-Group
  8. Public Group
  9. Virtual Group
  10. Political Group

Based on the research, the author has revealed a list of the top 10 types of social groups—the list of the top 10 types of social groups with the overall purpose and example given below.

Types of Social Groups with Examples

1. Primary Group

The primary group refers to close relationships among family members, friends, and roommates. The members satisfy primary needs including affiliation, belonging, love, and esteem. The primary group maintains interpersonal communicative behaviors among members such as self-disclosure, empathy, trust, and perceived understanding. The researchers term primary group as a long-standing group in many textbooks; because of long-term relationships.

For example, the Nuclear family, Roommates, Several friends who meet daily around a table (best friends), and co-workers who regularly share Coffee breaks are under the primary group.

2. Secondary Group

A secondary group is formed when few people communicate to complete daily tasks. Most scholars mentioned that the secondary group is usually formed to do work. The group members form this group to complete a project and solve a problem. Similar to the primary group, secondary group members share a common interest or engage in a shared activity.

For example, Athletic Teams and Peer Groups are social groups.

3. Self-Help Group (SHG)

A self-help group refers to voluntary team members who meet together to improve their living, physical, and financial condition. Group members face similar health conditions, common problems or life situations, and financial crises. This group goal is directed to a mutual approach to resolving problems. It offers support and encouragement to members who look for individual development. Self-help groups are available on the Internet, providing health, personal, or relationship issues.

For example, Diabetes Peer Support Groups, Cancer self-help and support groups, and Early Morning Running Groups.

4. Learning Group

A learning group refers to a collective of people who come together to develop skills and abilities. Usually, the educational or learning group primarily discovers and develops new ideas and ways of thinking.
This group is intended to enhance members’ skills, abilities, also cognitive processes. Group members gain additional knowledge to improve their behavior.

For example, the English-speaking club members come together to practice and improve English language proficiency.  professional workshops and health and fitness classes (Yoga) are examples of learning groups.

5. Service Group

The service group refers to a group of volunteers who donate their time, energy, and effort to help others who need particular assistance. This group members seek to help those people who need something to lead their lives. They foster social etiquette and responsibility towards others in society.  The task of this group is to help someone less fortunate. 

For example, the Physical Therapy Foundation and Kiwanis is a service group.

6. Civic Group

A civic group is formed to support the community by raising voices. In this group, members help people within the community. Civic groups play a vital role in promoting civic engagement, fostering social cohesion, and advancing positive social changes. Members mobilize resources, raising awareness, and advocating for policy reform. They provide opportunities for individuals to come together, voice their concerns, and take collective action to address pressing issues facing their communities and societies

For example, Parent-Teacher Associations, Churches, Mosques, Scouting and Rotary Clubs.

7. Work-group

The working group is, also known as a decision-making and problem-solving group. The group members deal with solving specific issues that occur within an organizational context. Members complete particular tasks and routine duties on behalf of an organization whose members take collective responsibility for the job. The group goal is to collaborate in collective work.

For example, Standing committees, Taskforces, and Management Teams are workgroups.

8. Public Group

A public group is focused on discussing important issues for the benefit of the public. The group members focus on the common goals that benefit everyone within context. They are key decision-makers and promote general public matters. 

For instance, symposiums, panel discussions, and forums are examples of public groups.

9. Virtual Group

The task-oriented group can work across time, space, and organizational boundaries. Virtual meeting group members work interdependently on a task but from different physical locations via communication technology. This group evolves into a virtual community or a group that meets regularly in cyberspace for members to share their experiences, opinions, and knowledge on a particular topic or interest. Virtual groups communicate via virtual meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom meetings, Microsoft Teams, etc. 

For example, a freelancer works from a different country via online meetings.

10. Political Group

A political group discusses crucial economic and political issues and contributes to countries' well-being. The political leaders meet physically or virtually to make decisions. 

For example, the Democratic Party and Liberal Party is a political group.

In conclusion, the ten types of social groups are primary group, secondary group, self-help group, learning group, service group, civic group, work group, public group, virtual group, and political group. Then members of these groups communicate and work together for people's well-being. The advantages of small group communication are enhancing performance, member satisfaction, and greater civic engagement.