Principles of Total Quality Management & Eight Principles of TQM

Principles of Total Quality Management & Eight Principles of TQM.

Quality Definition in Business

Quality in business means satisfying the customers by providing excellent products and services. Researchers defined quality in many ways, but the essence of the definition is almost similar. Edward described that “quality is the ability to exceed the customer’s satisfaction by providing service and product.” In addition, Crosby defined “quality as conformance to customers’ requirements.” Moreover, Juran defined quality as being ‘fitness for use. So, quality is the standard or degree of the products or services that can differentiate them from others by measurement.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to the management process that includes the commitment and dedication of every employee in the organization to maintain a high level of quality in every sector for customer gratification. The employees have to be informed about the strategy before implementing it. In the mid-1980s, total quality management (TQM) was introduced based on the Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC) and benchmarking process. Later, many scholars, such as Juran, Deming, and Ishikawa, contributed to the practices and improved the content of Total Quality Management. The most important contributions of Total Quality Management are the Deming Cycle, Juran quality trilogy, Ishikawa’s Fishbone diagram, and CWQC (Yang, 2012). For example, Netflix practices Total Quality Management, and Netflix organization changes confirm that the authority focuses on maintaining the TQM tools.

What are the Principles of Total Quality Management?

Principles of Total Quality Management

The 8 Principles of TQM are:
  1. Customer Focus
  2. Leadership
  3. Involvement of People
  4. Processes Approach
  5. System Approach
  6. Continual Improvement
  7. Factual Approach to Decision-Making
  8. Mutual Beneficial Supplier Relationship.
Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)- 8 Principles of TQM
Principles of Total Quality Management (TQM)- 8 Principles of TQM

In the mid-1990s, the eight basic principles or elements of total quality management (TQM) were proposed by some well-known philosophers (Evans, 2013). These eight principles of TQM entirely work together to develop the process and yield customer satisfaction. The 8 Pillars of TQM are key components to achieve competitiveness. Many organizations adopt these TQM pillars to gain top position in market.

1. Customer Focus

The first and prime principle of total quality management (TQM) is to focus on the existing and potential customers who are buying the products and services. Customers are the people who justify the quality of the products and services. So, the company needs to ensure that the customers will feel that they have spent their money on a quality product if it can last long enough to fulfill demands. You can exceed customer satisfaction only when you know their needs. So, successful companies align their objectives with the client’s needs. According to the gap model of service quality, organizations can lose clients if they misunderstand the service quality

2. Leadership

Leadership is the process by which an individual influences other people to work effectively to achieve organizational goals. They enhance relation engagement in the organization.  Leadership is essential in maintaining unity among employees to achieve interdependent goals (Evans, 2013). Although there are mainly three types of leadership in the industry, the democratic leadership style is the best to perform well. Leaders can form a convenient environment to work effectively inside the organization, where all employees work to achieve the organization’s goal. So, leadership seems to be an essential principle of total quality management.

The primary advantages of Leadership are:

The primary motive of the leaders is to motivate the employees to improve job performance.
Leaders inspire, motivate, and create a strategic plan congruent to the business goal.
They develop a precise vision for the future of the organization.

3. Involvement of People

People from every level give their all-out efforts and dedication to the organization’s profits. The total employee commitment enables the industry to develop products and grow sales. So, all the employees in the organization have to be well-trained, committed, and dedicated to achieving an interdependent goal on time. Additionally, the industry needs to create a responsive environment where every employee will be motivated to complete the task correctly. The employees’ activeness, motivation, and retention can yield customer gratification. The involvement of people can produce effective teamwork. According to Evans (2013), three types of cooperation are vertical, horizontal, and inter-organization.

The primary benefits of People Involvement are:

It influences employees who are dedicated in the workplace.

The involvement of people is an intrinsic motivation that charms employees to contribute to the organization’s growth. The process theories of motivation explain how people’s involvement and affiliation motivate employees to keep working in the workplace.

It enhances employees’ creativity and innovation in the organization.

4. Processes Approach

The company needs to improve the process consistently to yield sound output. A good result from the processes approach can bring customer satisfaction. Hence, TQM focuses on the process approach to assure product or service quality.

5. System Approach to Management

Total quality (TQM) highlights executing the strategy systematically. The industry makes a proper implementation plan and collects data while applying those processes.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes this principle: “Identifying, understanding, and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.”

6. Continual Improvement

Continual improvement of the process is an essential step for every industry to satisfy its customers. Therefore, TQM assists the company in keeping watching the constant improvement of the system to improve the service quality and product of the industry. Above all, continual improvement assists the company in achieving competitive advantages, and it is the most critical principle among the eight principles of TQM.

7. Factual Approach to Decision-Making

An objective approach to decision-making is another crucial principle of TQM. It eases making decisions based on the information collected from data. Making a decision based on facts is an effective way to achieve customer satisfaction. This principle uses the actual method to collect and analyze data to make decisions for the company’s progress.

8. Mutual Beneficial Supplier Relationship

Mutual beneficial supplier relationship is another essential principle of total quality management for building rapport with suppliers. It is also called reciprocity. Usually, a business is conducted by multiple combined departments, and each department is assigned individual tasks, although these departments’ functions are interconnected. The total quality management process helps all sections work combined to achieve an interdependent objective. The company uses visual aids and flowcharts to understand how employees perform perfectly. Executing total quality management (TQM) is not easy; TQM represents a significant cultural shift, so the company needs to implement it slowly and accurately (Evans, 2013).

Conclusion

The Eight Core Principles of TQM are Customer Focus, Leadership, Involvement of People, Processes Approach, System Approach to Management, Continual Improvement, Factual Approach to Decision-Making, and mutually beneficial Supplier Relationship. These are examples of total quality management principles, also known as the eight pillars of comprehensive quality management. However, the eight principles of TQM are fundamental elements in driving a business successfully. Everybody in the company has to be conscious of the plan, method, and strategy to achieve a goal. The risk of failure can increase due to not maintaining the principles of total quality management. So, the authority should ensure that every employee is aware of them. It will motivate the employees, letting them know they contribute to the industry. Effective communication also reduces the risk of failure and increases coordination and cooperation.

 Examples of Total Quality Management (TQM) in Practice:
  1. Toyota Production System (TPS): Toyota’s renowned production system is a prime example of TQM in action. TPS focuses on eliminating waste, improving efficiency, and empowering employees to identify and solve quality issues on the production line. By implementing TQM principles, Toyota has consistently delivered high-quality vehicles while minimizing costs and lead times.
  2. Six Sigma: Six Sigma is a methodology used by companies like General Electric and Motorola to reduce defects and variation in processes. By applying statistical tools and rigorous analysis, organizations identify root causes of problems and implement solutions to achieve near-perfect quality levels. Six Sigma emphasizes data-driven decision-making and continuous improvement to drive business success.
  3. Kaizen: Kaizen, meaning “continuous improvement” in Japanese, is a fundamental aspect of TQM. Companies such as Honda and Canon embrace Kaizen as a core philosophy, encouraging employees at all levels to suggest improvements and participate in problem-solving activities. Through small, incremental changes to processes and systems, organizations achieve significant improvements in quality and efficiency over time.
  4. ISO 9000 Quality Management System:

Many organizations adopt the ISO 9000 series of standards to implement TQM principles and ensure consistent quality in products and services. By establishing formal quality management systems that focus on customer satisfaction, process improvement, and compliance with regulatory requirements, companies demonstrate their commitment to delivering high-quality products and services.

  1. Customer Feedback Systems: TQM emphasizes the importance of listening to customer feedback and using it to drive improvements. Companies collect feedback through surveys, focus groups, and online reviews, and use this information to identify areas for enhancement. By continuously monitoring customer feedback and responding to their needs, organizations strengthen customer relationships and enhance overall satisfaction.
  2. Employee Training and Empowerment: TQM recognizes the critical role of employees in achieving quality objectives. Companies invest in training programs to ensure that employees understand quality standards and are equipped with the necessary skills to contribute to continuous improvement efforts. By empowering employees to participate in problem-solving and decision-making processes, organizations foster a culture of engagement and ownership for quality.

These examples demonstrate how TQM principles can be applied across various industries to drive continuous improvement, enhance customer satisfaction, and achieve sustainable business success, all while ensuring the originality and authenticity of the content.

Practices of Total quality management (TQM)
Total quality management (TQM)
The Advantages of Total Quality Management Principles

Although Japan identified total quality management (TQM) advantages in the mid-1950s, now the benefit of the TQM is disclosed worldwide. The most important benefits of the TQM are:

The TQM principles develop the quality of products and services to satisfy customers; it motivates employees naturally and boosts their productivity.

Additionally, the principles of TQM reduce production costs and faults and make processes more efficient and reliable.

Moreover, it improves the condition of the work environment and the communication process.

Finally, the core principles of TQM raise the profit margin.

Total Quality Management Tools

The researchers introduced many tools of the TQM that help the industry operate smoothly with profit. These tools can help the industry in many approaches. For example, the fundamental strategies are; identifying difficulties with quality, analyzing data, collecting information, identifying the leading causes of the problems, and assessing the results.

Quality Strategy to Profitability in the Organization

Since the 1980s, researchers have represented diverse quality management systems to maintain the quality of the products and services in the organization, such as total quality management system (TQM), Six Sigma, reengineering, skeletal system, and so on. The company has executed the most quality improvement strategies worldwide to yield good results by solving problems or faults.

The History and Evolution of Quality Management Strategies
  • Inspection quality control (IQC), since 1910
  • Statistical process control (SPC), since 1930
  • Total quality control (TQC), since 1950
  • Company-wide quality control (CWQC), since 1970
  • Total Quality Management (TQM), since 1985
  • Six-Sigma (6σ), since 1986
  • Business Excellence Model, since 2000
  • The development and implementation system of the DMAIC Six Sigma program
References

Evans, J. R. (2013). Quality & performance excellence. Cengage Learning.
Yang, C. C. (2012). The integration of TQM and Six Sigma. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, 219.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Principles of Total Quality Management & 8 Principles of TQM. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/total-quality-management-tqm-eight-principles-and-practices-of-tqm/

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication Stages With Advantages and Disadvantages

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication. Bruce Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning.  Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman Theory PDF.

Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory refers to the five stages of the group development model developed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. It is also known as Tuckman’s model, Tuckman’s theory, Tuckman’s ladder, five stages of group development theory, Tuckman’s team development model, Tuckman’s theory of communication, and Tuckman’s stages.

Bruce Tuckman introduced his four stages of group development theory in 1965. However, in the 1970s, he added the fifth stage to his four stages of group development theory. In 1977, Tuckman and Mary Ann Jensen included the fifth and final stage in Tuckman’s theory. The name of the fifth stage is Adjourning, which represents the happiness of achieving the interdependent group goal by the group members. So, it became known as Tuckman and Jensen’s theory after adding the fifth stage.

Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development

Tuckman’s five stages of group development are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. Additionally, a perfect theory describes how group members adjust and adapt to a group gradually.

Tuckman's Theory of Communication Five Stages. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman's Theory.
Bruce Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory

The five Stages of Bruce Tuckman’s Theory in Communication are:

  1. Forming Stage
  2. Storming Stage
  3. Norming Stage
  4. Performing Stage
  5. Adjourning Stage.
1. Forming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Orientation)

Forming is the first stage of Tuckman’s theory of communication, also known as the five stages of the group development model. Usually, members carefully explore both personal and group goals in this stage. They feel uncomfortable working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues trying to understand and test personal relationships. Member also orients itself to itself.

Group Develops in the Forming Stage: 

  • Ice-breaking” stage.
  • Group members are uncertain about their roles.
  • Mutual trust is low.
  • There is a good deal of holding back to see who is in charge.
  • Conflict is beneficial and leads to increased creativity.
Primary Tension

Firstly, group members feel social unease and stiffness accompanying the getting-acquainted stage in a new group. They become overly polite with one another. Additionally, members don’t interrupt one another. They often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions, also talk less, and provide little in the way of content.

How to Solve the Tension?

Firstly, the members should be positive and energetic so that other members build positive attitudes toward them. Secondly, smile and Laugh at others when interacting with them. Additionally, nodding in agreement and exhibiting enthusiasm is a useful non-verbal cue to hold effective interactions. Group members should also be patient and open-minded, knowing that the primary tension will decrease with time. Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting to help the group focus on its task.

2. Storming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Power Struggle)

Storming is the second stage of Tuckman’s theory of Group Development. Group members become argumentative also emotional. The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership. Many groups try to skip this stage to avoid competition and conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing. The conflicts among group members are also known as noise in communication.

Group Develops in the Storming Stage:
  • Time of testing (Testing leader’s policies and assumptions and how they fit into the power structure).
  • Subgroups take shape
  • Subtle forms of rebellion occur
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
Secondary Tension in Tuckman’s Model

Firstly, frustrations and personality conflicts are experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group. Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence. They gain a high level of energy and agitation. The group becomes noisier, more dynamic, and physically active in this stage of group development. Usually, members start to speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking simultaneously. Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats. Finally, everyone is alert and listening intently.

How to Solve the Tension?

Making jokes is very important to avoid tension in the second stage of Tuckman’s theory. They should work outside the group setting to discuss group members’ difficulties and anxieties.

3. Norming Stage of Tuckman’s Theory (Cooperation)

Norming is the third stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development Theory. Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and be task-oriented. They start developing “rules of engagement.” However, they feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open. Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge inside the group.

Group Develops in the Norming Stage:
  • Group more cohesive.
  • Less conflict with increasing team member interactions and interdependence of work tasks.
4. Performing Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Synergy)

Performing is the fourth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Stages of Group Development theory. Members become fully engaged and eager to work at this stage. Members adjust and adapt to the situation and also start solving critical problems. Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high in this stage. However, disagreements occur, but members usually resolve them intelligently and amicably. Finally, Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; the members are cheerful, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.

Group Develops in the Performing Stage:
  • Activity focused on problem-solving.
  • Work done without hampering others.
  • The climate of open communication and full engagement.
5. Adjourning Stage of Tuckman’s Theory: (Closure)

Adjourning refers to the fifth stage of Tuckman’s 5 Group Development Theory. Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband. It also represents whether the group members will work together or form a new group. Finally, they are happy with their achievements but feel lost when the group dissolves.

  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
Group Develops in the Adjourning Stage:
  • Work completed; group moves on to other activities.
  • Opportunity for leaders to emphasize valuable lessons.
Tuckman’s Theory of Communication

Tuckman’s theory of communication has significant theoretical and practical contributions to research. The Five Stages of Tuckman’s Theory of Communication are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Although in 1965, Tuckman proposed a four-stage group development theory but later added the fifth stage called adjourning. Tuckman’s theory assists group members in subduing the group barriers. It also helps to adjust them in the group gradually.  Therefore, it is known as a group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group development theory consists of five stages that facilitate group formation and development.

Tuckman identified both the advantages and disadvantages of group communication; therefore, he provided suggestions for reducing the barriers to group communication.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory

The Tuckman model has both theoretical and practical advantages and disadvantages. Many researchers have identified the pros and cons of the Tuckman theory. It is also known as the strengths and limitations of the Tuckman model.

Advantages of Tuckman’s Theory
  1. Concise Framework for Understanding Group Dynamics: Tuckman’s model provides a structured framework for understanding the natural stages of group development. It clarifies the specific stages of any group and team discussion; for instance, the five stages of group development are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Tuckman’s theory helps to understand more about primary and secondary tension generated from group communication. It also recommends reducing the tensions among members and influencing group activities. It is essential to reduce the tension among the group because the tensions are obstacles to achieving the group goal. Additionally, the theory strengthens the relationship among group members and motivates them to be productive. Finally, the Tuckman group developing theory shows the perfect successful way of solving group uncertainty issues and gaining interdependent goals.
  2. Predictive Capability: By recognizing the typical stages of group development outlined in the model, leaders can predict potential challenges and issues that may arise. This predictive capability enables proactive intervention to address conflicts, facilitate communication, and foster cohesion within the group.
  3. Facilitates Team Building: Tuckman’s model emphasizes the importance of communication, trust-building, and goal-setting in group development. It guides leaders to actively promote team-building activities and create an environment conducive to collaboration and goal achievement.
  4. Enhanced Leadership Effectiveness: Understanding Tuckman’s model allows leaders to adapt their leadership style to the needs of the group at each stage of development. Effective leaders can provide support, direction, and empowerment as necessary, facilitating the group’s progress toward maturity and productivity.
Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory

1.Oversimplification: Critics argue that Tuckman’s model oversimplifies the complexities of group dynamics. Real-world groups may not always linearly progress through the stages, and the model may overlook individual differences, cultural influences, and external factors that can impact group development.

2. Focus on Conflict: The emphasis on conflict in the Storming stage of Tuckman’s model may reinforce negative stereotypes about group dynamics. While conflict can be a natural part of group development, an overemphasis on conflict may neglect the importance of relationship-building and collaboration in achieving group goals.

3. Limited Practical Application: In dynamic and rapidly changing environments, Tuckman’s model may have limited practical application. Groups operating in fast-paced settings may not have the luxury of progressing through each stage sequentially and may need to adapt more quickly to changing circumstances.

4. Neglect of External Influences: Tuckman’s model primarily focuses on internal group dynamics and may neglect external factors such as organizational culture, leadership style, and external pressures. Ignoring these influences may limit the model’s applicability in diverse organizational contexts.

5. Difficult to Maintain: Tuckman’s theory consists of five important stages that are difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions to maintain effective communication and a good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no instant solution to solve all conflicts in group communication, although it suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts. Furthermore, Tuckman’s model did not mention what would have happened if the storming stage did not end. Finally, Tuckman’s model has failed to discuss why the group changes over time. These are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory.

Conclusion

This article offers elaborate information about Tuckman’s theory of group development. It explains the five stages of group development in social groups. The author suggests tricks to reduce group conflicts and noise in communication. Finally, this article mentions the advantages and disadvantages of Tuckman’s theory. Thus, this content benefits students, researchers, instructors, researchers, group members, and leaders. It enables the group leader to regulate the team properly to achieve common goals.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Tuckman Theory of Communication, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/tuckmans-model-five-stages-of-group-and-team-development-theory/
Tuckman 1965 Reference Apa 7th Edition

Tuckman, B. W. (1965). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin63(6), 384.