Research Paper Abstract Example APA

Research Paper Abstract Example APA. Examples of an Abstract for a Research Paper in APA

APA-Style Abstract

The APA-style abstract of a research paper refers to the executive summary of the entire research project within 250 words including research background, procedures, aims, results, and significance. An APA-style abstract illustrates a summary of the study within 150 to 250 words. It is a concise paragraph of a complete research project. The APA style comprises 12 Times New Roman fonts using single-spaced and aligned to the left at the top of the page. An abstract is the most important part of the research paper or proposal to attract the leaders to read the entire article. The abstract of a research paper or proposal is known as an executive summary of the study.

The readers are lecturers, supervisors, co-supervisors, members of the supervisor panel, students, researchers, and practitioners. A good abstract attracts the readers to read the entire study. It outlines the key findings of the research topic before reading the full manuscripts.

Elements of a Research Paper Abstract APA

The five key elements of writing an APA-style abstract for a research paper or proposal are background, objective, method with tools, findings, and significance. The students or researchers must include these five components in the abstract to explain the executive summary of entire documents.

Background: It is a simple opening sentence that includes the background of the study and context. Sometimes, it also presents the problem statements of the thesis.

Objective: It illustrates the aim of the study within one or two sentences. It also demonstrates why this study is important.

Method(s) with Tools: It explains what type of method will be used to conduct the research within one or two sentences. Researchers must mention tools utilized for data analysis within one sentence. For example, SPSS, PLS-SEM, CB-SEM.

Findings: It demonstrates the results of studies indicating the accomplishment of research projects.

Significance: The concluding sentence highlights the positive consequences of the results within one sentence. It also indicates how the results will be used theoretically and practically.

Characteristics of a Good Abstract For Research Paper

A good abstract answers the following questions:

  1. Why do you want to conduct this study or research?
  2. How do you want to complete this study or research?
  3. What do you want to find from this study?
  4. Where do you want to use the findings of the study?
  5. Who are the respondents or participants of this research if necessary?

An ideal abstract follows an inverted pyramid style of writing that answers why, what, how, where, and who questions. The answers represent the six key elements of the research paper including background, objective, method(s), tools, findings, and conclusion. It is a bad idea to merely copy the sentences from the article or proposal and put them in the abstract section. The researchers must paraphrase the sentences and write accurate and concise information. Additionally, you have to proofread the manuscript to fix grammatical errors, spelling, and punctuation. Finally, you must follow the simple present and past tense when writing the abstract.

Example of abstract for research paper APA
Research Paper Abstract Example and Sample APA

How To Write an APA Abstract for a Research Paper or Proposal

Background:

Social media have been indispensable communication channels for sharing and consuming news. The evolution of social media platforms has boosted digital journalism practice globally.

Objective:

This study intends to examine factors influencing social media engagement to practice citizen journalism by adopting a prominent technology adoption model unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT).

Method(s) with Tools:

The researchers designed online survey questionnaires and distributed them among university students through Google Forms to collect data, where 301 valid samples were collected. The structural equation modeling (SEM- PLS) approach was utilized to ascertain the presented model based on the empirical data found from respondents.

Findings:

The findings show performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence significantly affect social media users’ practice of citizen journalism. The results indicate that social media engagement significantly influenced citizen journalism practice.

Significance:

This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially digital journalists, and content created. Emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research. People practice citizen journalism on social media sites to report real-time news, entertain friends, educate people, and shape public opinion.

Research Paper Abstract Writing Example APA

The following example assists readers in writing a good APA-style abstract for a research paper or proposal. The authors demonstrate a few examples of abstracts for research papers in APA style. These APA-style abstracts are collected from master in science by research and PhD students from the University of Putra Malaysia, the University of Malaysia, and the National University of Singapore.

Example of Abstract for Research Paper APA-1

Research Paper Title: Examination of the Relationship between Social Media Engagement and Citizen Journalism Practice.

Abstract
Social media have been indispensable communication channels for sharing and consuming news. The evolution of social media platforms has boosted digital journalism practice globally. This study intends to examine factors influencing social media engagement to practice citizen journalism by adopting a prominent technology adoption model unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The researchers designed online survey questionnaires and distributed them among university students through Google Forms to collect data, where 301 valid samples were collected. The structural equation modeling (SEM- PLS) approach was utilized to ascertain the presented model based on the empirical data found from respondents. The findings show performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence significantly affect social media users' practice of citizen journalism. The results indicate that social media engagement significantly influenced citizen journalism practice. This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially digital journalists, and content creator emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: Social Media, Engagement, Citizen Journalism, UTAUT, Online news.

Sample Abstract for Research Paper APA

The author has collected the following abstract from an empirical article published in the Wiley Online Library. It is a perfect example to write a research paper abstract in APA style. The research title is: “Artificial intelligence adoption among Human Resource Professionals: Does market turbulence play a role?”

Apa Style Abstract Example
Abstract Writing Example Adopted From Wiley Online Library
Abstract

Background and Objective of the research

Drawing from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Technology- Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigates the factors that influence the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) among human resource (HR) professionals in the tourism organizations of Malaysia.

Method(s) with Tools and Findings

Responses were collected from 389 HR employees working at tourism organizations. Based on a partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis, results revealed that perceived ease of use, usefulness, technology competency, top management support, and competitive pressure have significantly positive impacts on AI adoption in the tourism industry in Malaysia.

The study’s contribution to the TAM and TOE models is the inclusion of market turbulence as a moderating factor, which is a significant moderator as it enhances the understanding of HR practitioners and others regarding the factors most influential in AI adoption among HR employees in the tourism industry.

Significance of the Study

The model developed in this study highlights how market turbulence can foster the relationship between AI adoption and organizations. In addition to the managerial and theoretical implications, the study discusses its limitations and outlines directions for future research.

Research Paper Abstract Example APA-2

Research Title: Green Innovation and Firm Efficiency in China’s Automotive and Energy Sector: The Moderating Role of Environmental Governance

Abstract: This study examines the mediating role of environmental governance in the relationship between green innovation and firm efficiency, particularly technical efficiency, in the automotive and energy industries. With increasing pressures to adopt sustainable practices, industries are urged to innovate while also adhering to environmental policies. This research employs a quantitative methodology, analyzing data from prominent automotive and energy companies to assess how green innovation influences firm efficiency through environmental governance mechanisms. Preliminary analyses suggest a significant mediating role of environmental governance, which could guide companies in strategic planning and policy formulation. This study aims to contribute to both theoretical frameworks in environmental accounting and practical applications in industry governance.

Examples of an Abstract for a Research Paper in APA-3

Research Title: The influence of digitalization in supply chain management and Competitive advantages on the financial performance of E-commerce companies in Malaysia.

Abstract: Digital technology, has become an important tool for businesses to maintain viable partnerships and establish
significant value connections with other companies. The constantly emerging new digital technologies are affecting almost all business processes and activities every day. This study investigated the impact of digital supply chains on the performance of Malaysian e-commerce companies. This article further evaluates the mediating role of enterprise competitiveness between digital applications and e-commerce enterprise performance. These goals are achieved through quantitative research design. Researchers used stratified sampling technology to send 500 online survey questionnaires via email to Malaysian e-commerce companies engaged in online sales. The questionnaires were collected incomplete responses were deleted, and the TAM model was used to analyze the data.

Malaysian e-commerce companies can consider adopting DSC in their business processes to maintain reliability in a fiercely competitive market by providing good supply chain performance and optimal overall organizational performance. This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially supply chain management and Malaysian e-commerce companies. Emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research.

Example of an Abstract APA Research Paper-4

Research Title: Evaluating the Impact of Greenwashing on the Financial Performance and Market Reaction to Green Bonds in developing and developed countries.

Abstract: This study delves into the differential effects of green bonds on financial performance and market reactions across developing and developed countries, assessing the influence of greenwashing. It explores whether green bonds have greater financial benefits and stronger market reactions in developing countries and investigates how greenwashing impacts as a moderate variable. The findings offer significant insights for investors, policymakers, and financial institutions aiming to optimize the use of green bonds for promoting sustainable development. The results are expected to influence strategies and regulations, particularly highlighting the need for vigilant monitoring of greenwashing practices to safeguard the integrity and effectiveness of green finance, especially in emerging markets. The study contributes to an understanding of sustainable finance and green bonds as green projects proceed into different markets.

Example of a Dissertation Abstract- 5

Dissertation Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION

This dissertation investigates the various factors influencing the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), with a focus on economic, ecological, and public concern determinants. Firstly, the research employs quantitative methods to identify what factors may impact EV sales in different geographic areas. Additionally, this study utilizes text mining techniques to analyze the themes of public concern and acceptance levels of EVs expressed in online media and discussions in the emerging EV market. The goals are to:1. identify patterns and correlations between these factors and their influence on the rates of EV adoption. 2. By providing a detailed understanding of public concerns and acceptance, this research aims to offer valuable insights to policymakers and industry stakeholders to foster a more favorable environment for EV uptake.

Significance of this Article

Firstly, the researchers get a clear concept of how to write research papers and proposal abstracts in APA style. it will guide researchers to accept their abstract for conference presentation. This article will assist students who want to write and submit an executive summary of a research proposal for a seminar presentation.

Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components

Lasswell’s Communication Model Example. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model of Communication.

Lasswell Model of Communication

Lasswell’s linear communication model consists of five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. American psychologist and sociologist Harold Lasswell introduced a linear communication model in 1948. It is also known as the Action Model in communication. Harold Lasswell’s model describes the communication process with five questions; “Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom, and with what effect?” These are the five fundamental components of the Lasswell model. The researcher did not explain the feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. It was a significant model for explaining the verbal communication process.

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Example of Lasswell Model of Communication

A news reporter disseminates news regarding the negative impact of social media on BBC television to inform the general public.

Lasswell Model of Communication Components

The five components of Lasswell’s model are:
  1. Who
  2. Says What
  3. In Which Channel
  4. To Whom
  5. With What Effect

Harrold Lasswell’s model is also known as the 5Ws model for these five elements.

Who

Who refers to the sender of the message who initiates the communication. It also indicates the speaker and writer of the communication process. For example, the message’s sender is the news presenter, journalist, or political speaker.

For Example, A politician delivering a speech to mass people during an election campaign rally.

Says What

Says What refers to the message of the communication. The question “Says What” is intended to identify the sender’s statement. For example, a news presenter delivers a FIFA World Cup 2022 news update.

Another Example: The politician’s message may include promises of development and criticism of opponents.

In Which Channel

In Which Channel describes the message transmitting pathway. It shows how the information reaches target audiences. The channel of communication differs based on the communication way. For example, Television, radio, and newspapers are communication channels in mass media. In contrast, hearing, seeing, smelling,  and touching are message-transmitting channels in face-to-face communication. In non-verbal communication, the communication channels are “Physical Appearance, Paralinguistics, Body Movement, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Proxemics, Haptics, Chronemics, Artifacts, and Environment.”

Example: The politician’s speech may be delivered through various channels, such as live television broadcasts, social media platforms, or public appearances.

To Whom

To Whom describes the individuals to whom the message is delivered; it is also known as the receiver of the communication process. The receiver is the audience who receives the information. The sender disseminates the message through a particular channel to reach receivers (To Whom). For example, the news reporter conveys information to the audience who listens to them.

Example: The audience for the politician’s speech may consist of supporters, undecided voters, members of the opposing party, and journalists covering the event.

With What Effect

With What Effect illustrates the output of the message. It also validates whether the receivers comprehend the message or not. Sometimes, the sender cannot persuade the audience due to communication noise, faulty channels, and lack of speaker capability.

Example: The effect of the politician’s speech may vary among different segments of the audience. Supporters may feel inspired and energized, undecided voters may be swayed, opponents may become more entrenched in their views, and journalists may report on the speech in the media, influencing public opinion.

According to Lasswell’s communication model, there three functions of communication are Surveillance of the surroundings, Correlation of elements of society, and Cultural integration between generations. 

Lasswell Model of Communication  Examples

1. For example, if a news presenter broadcasts the FIFA World Cup information to inform Football lovers, we can relate the Lasswell model to this event. It analyzes who is disseminating information (News Presenter), What is saying (FIFA World Cup information), Which channel the news presenter is using to transfer information (Television), and “Effect” is the objective of the news.

2. Another Lasswell model example of a situation is the newspaper advertisement. We can see that the organization promotes its products via newspaper channels to inform customers.

3. Politicians address speeches on the Radio to motivate voters to vote for their parties.

4. Lecturers send assignment instructions to students via email to get their information.

6. An organization sends appointment letters to candidates through postal and courier services.

7. Students submit assignments to the lecturer on an A4 paper sheet.

8. The HR manager posts current company rules and regulations on the notice board to inform all employees. 

9. A writer publishes his latest book series for readers.

10. A motivational speaker gives a speech on how to lead a happy life with limited wealth through a YouTube channel. 

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model  of Communication
Advantages of the Lasswell Model

Firstly, the Lasswell model explains the information-transmitting process by throwing five questions to the readers. The answer to these questions indeed describes the whole communication process.

Secondly, the model is suitable for all verbal communication processes, including human communication.

In addition, this model has excellent heuristic significance, and the concept has been utilized in several types of research.

Disadvantages of the Lasswell Model

Firstly, the Lasswell formula is an outdated model of communication. Lasswell model does not indicate the feedback clearly to this model; hence, it is suitable to explain only one-way conversation but not transactional interaction like face-to-face interaction.

In addition, the Lasswell theory does not appropriately explain the nonverbal communication process since it mentions the “Who Say” component. In the nonverbal communication context, senders convey messages without spoken words.

Moreover, the Lasswell model cannot explain effective communication adequately, such as the interaction between two individuals. In face-to-face communication, both the sender and receiver provide feedback simultaneously. There is no feedback in the Lasswell model that can explain interpersonal and group interaction.

Furthermore, Lasswell’s model completely ignores the communication noise barriers to effective communication.

Finally, it is a propaganda-based linear model. This model focused on describing social and political propaganda.

Despite having advantages and disadvantages of the Lasswell model, it is still a famous model for students to study linear communication.

Lasswell’s Communication  Model Explanation

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Who and when establishes the Lasswell communication model?

Harold Dwight Lasswell’s short name (Harold Lasswell) established the Lasswell model in 1948.

What Type of Model is it?

Lasswell’s communication model explains a one-way communication process; therefore, it is linear, like Aristotle’s communication model, Shannon-Weaver’s communication model, and Berlo’s SMCR communication model. The linear communication model excludes feedback; in contrast, the transactional model includes it to explain two-way discussion.

Reference For This Article- APA 7th Edition
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components. Newsmoor. https://newsmoor.com/lasswell-model-of-communication-1948-examples-components/

In-text citation
According to Kobiruzzaman (2024)
In research from Kobiruzzaman (2024)