UTAUT Model Determinants, Questionnaire and Explanation

This article explains The UTAUT Model or Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology and its Variables, Questionnaires, Examples, Strengths, and Limitations. It also demonstrates the UTAUT Model Venkatesh Questionnaire. 


UTAUT model refers to the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model developed by Venkatesh, Davis, Morris, and Fred D. Davis in 2003. UTAUT is the short form Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) is one of the most updated and accepted technology adoption models. This study was conducted in longitudinal qualitative research that found around 70 percent of Behavioural Intention to Use (BI) and about 50% in actual use.

Viswanath Venkatesh and other authors proposed this theory based on the review of eight models that examine factors affecting the usage behavior of information systems. It is an extended theory of the eight-technology adoption models.  The authors mentioned the eight theories in the paper's abstract section. The eight models are as follows:

  1. Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
  2. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)
  3. Motivational Model (MM)
  4. Theory of Planned Behavior
  5. Combined Theory of Planned Behavior/Technology Acceptance Model
  6. Model of Personal Computer Use
  7. Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DIT)
  8. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)

The authors collected and used data from four organizations over six months to observe and record changes in variables. The data were analyzed through three points of measurement. Based on the literature study on user acceptance, the UTAUT model is broadly popular in identifying factors that influence users to adopt new technology and information systems. Venkatesh et al. (2003) mentioned the four constructs that directly and indirectly determine the user's system use motivation. The three constructs (1. Performance Expectancy, 2. Effort Expectancy, and 3. Social Influence) determine the intention to use the technology through behavioral intention. The fourth characteristic (Facilitating Conditions) directly determines the intention to use the technology. The UTAUT model also presents four moderator variables (Age, Gender, Experience, and Voluntariness of Use).

UTAUT Model Basic Info

Authors: Viswanath Venkatesh, Michael G. Morris, Gordon B. Davis, and Fred D. Davis
Title: "User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view"
Publishers: Management Information Systems Research Center, University of Minnesota
DOI URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/30036540
Research Strategy: Survey
Methodological Choice: Mono-method Qualitative
Time Horizon: Longitudinal

The Management Information Systems Research Center, University of Minnesota published the UTAUT model in 2003 under the title of USER ACCEPTANCE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: TOWARD A UNIFIED VIEW.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology  (UTAUT) Model

Previous research validates the unified technology acceptance and use of technology theory as a comprehensive theoretical model to predict the adoption intention of new technology and systems in different contexts. Consequently, the UTAUT model certainly provides an in-depth understanding of factors that predict individuals to accept and use new systems or tools. The UTAUT model describes why and how users adopt new systems and technology. This theory proves that performance expectancy, effort expectancy, facilitating conditions, and social influence influence people to use new systems in social and organizational contexts.

Many researchers extended this theory to understand factors influencing to acceptance of new systems in different contexts. For example, In 2012, Venkatesh, L. Thong, and XinXu extended the UTAUT) model to study the acceptance and use of technology in a consumer.

UTAUT Model Framework
Determinants of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model

The UTAUT model comprises four independent or predictor variables (1. Performance Expectancy, 2. Effort Expectancy, 3. Social Influences, 4. Facilitating Conditions), four moderators (1. Age, 2. Gender, 3. Experience, 4. Voluntariness of Use), and dependent variable (Behavioral Intention).

The six core variables of the UTAUT model are:

  1. Performance Expectancy
  2. Effort Expectancy
  3. Social Influences
  4. Facilitating Conditions
  5. Behavioral Intention
  6. Use Behavioral
Performance Expectancy (PE)

Performance expectancy is a predictor variable that considers how the new system will assist users in improving performance to complete the task (Venkatesh et al. 2003). It validates why the new system is advantageous for individual performance and improves efficacy. It also simulates the decision-making process of why they use the system. In a social context, people accept new technology when got benefit from it. Performance expectancy describes the importance of new systems and technology, influencing a person to use the latest technology. Based on the UTAUT model, the researcher can hypothesize that when people consider new systems and technology as helpful tools, they will utilize them in personal, social, and professional contexts. In sum, Performance expectancy will influence users to accept and use the new system to complete a particular task positively.

 Effort Expectancy (EE)

Effort expectancy is another crucial independent variable that considers how much the new technology will be easy and effortless to complete the tasks (Venkatesh et al. 2003). Researchers employ this construct to examine the level of ease of use. It represents the extent to which users determine how simple modern technology is to learn and operate. Effort expectancy demonstrates the easiness and effortlessness of using the new technology. People will adopt new technology if those tools are easy to use, affecting their decision to adopt a particular technology.

However, the users might not adopt the new system if it is challenging to operate and takes much time compared to the previous technique. Effort expectancy is a crucial factor in making adoption decisions at the beginning stage. According to the UTAUT model, people prefer to use new systems and tools that are easy to operate and system are clear and understandable. Based on the above discussion, the researcher can hypothesize that if people perceive that the new system is a trouble-free and effortless tool, they will adopt it in personal, social, and professional environments. Hence, Effort expectancy will influence new users to accept and use them positively.

 Social Influence (SI)

Social influence is the degree to which users prioritize other beliefs that why they should utilize the new system (Venkatesh et al. 2003). It directly affects others' behavioral intentions to adopt the technology. People change technology usage behaviors when considering that others benefit from the new technology (Peng & Miller, 2021; Mortenson & Vidgen, 2016). Social influence can come from friends, colleagues, family members, relatives, and managers. It happens at the initial stage when people are intended to meet their own and others' expectations. For example, people adopt the WeChat tool for social media news use because they get recommended and suggested by peers. Based on the UTAUT model, researchers can hypothesize that people embrace new systems to complete particular tasks if they observe others utilize these systems for the same purposes.  Therefore, Social influence will influence users to accept and use new tools positively.

Facilitating Conditions

According to the UTAUT model, facilitating condition is a degree to which an individual considers that the organization has infrastructural, resource, and technical support use of the new system. It ensures the organization's capability to adopt the new tools to complete tasks. For example, IT companies can easily adopt artificial technology because they have skilled human resources and technology to use them properly. In this scenario, skilled employees, and modern technology facilitate the condition to use the new system.

Based on the UTAUT model, researchers can hypothesize that people utilize new systems to complete complex tasks if they observe that they have technical and infrastructural resources to operate them. Therefore, the Facilitating Condition will influence users to accept and use new tools positively.

UTAUT Model Venkatesh Questionnaire

Venkatesh and other authors used the following item to estimate the UTAUT model also known as the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Model. However, the authors dropped the three determinants including self-efficacy, anxiety, and attitude from the model.  Finally, they kept four determinants that play predicting role. The researchers have adopted these research questionnaires to conduct diverse research in different contexts.

For example, Abdullah M. Baabdullah adopted UTAUT model questionnaires to validate his research questionnaire estimating "The precursors of AI adoption in business."

UTAUT Model ITEM To Estimate Hypotheses
UTAUT Model Questionnaire

Item Used To Estimate UTAUT Model Hypotheses

Performance Expectancy
U6: I would find the system useful in my job. 
RA1: Using the system enables me to accomplish tasks more quickly. 
RA5: Using the system increases my productivity. 
OE7: If I use the system, I will increase my chances of getting a raise.
Effort Expectancy
EOU3: My interaction with the system would be clear and understandable. 
EOU5: It would be easy for me to become skillful at using the system. 
EOU6: I would find the system easy to use. 
EU4: Learning to operate the system is easy for me.
Attitude Toward Using Technology
A1: Using the system is a bad/good idea. 
AF1: The system makes work more interesting. 
AF2: Working with the system is fun. 
Affect1: I like working with the system.
Social Influence
SN1: People who influence my behavior think that I should use the system. 
SN2: People who are important to me think that I should use the system. 
SF2: The senior management of this business has been helpful in the use of the system. 
SF4: In general, the organization has supported the use of the system.
Facilitating Conditions
PBC2: I have the resources necessary to use the system. 
PBC3: I have the knowledge necessary to use the system. 
PBC5: The system is not compatible with other systems I use. 
FC3: A specific person (or group) is available for assistance with system difficulties.
Self-Efficacy (Dropped)
I could complete a job or task using the system... 
SE1: If there was no one around to tell me what to do as I go. 
SE4: If I could call someone for help if I got stuck. 
SE6: If I had a lot of time to complete the job for which the software was provided. 
SE7: If I had just the built-in help facility for assistance.
Anxiety (Dropped)
ANX1: I feel apprehensive about using the system. 
ANX2: It scares me to think that I could lose a lot of information using the system by hitting the wrong key. 
ANX3: I hesitate to use the system for fear of making mistakes I cannot correct. 
ANX4: The system is somewhat intimidating to me.
Behavioral Intention to Use the System
BI1: I intend to use the system in the next <n> months. 
B12: I predict I would use the system in the next <n> months. 
B13: I plan to use the system in the next <n> months.
UTAUT Model Limitations

The author has collected the following limitations and shortcomings of the UTAUT model from several top papers. Firstly, in this study, authors analyzed secondary data, not primary, which is this model's limitation. Primary data are convenient for assessing mediators and moderators. The additional shortcoming of the UTAUT model is the variance of findings for utilizing a longitudinal research; because long-term studies might provide unexpected findings.

UTAUT Model Apa Citation 7th Edition
Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS Quarterly, 425-478.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples With Pros & Cons

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples. Inverted Pyramid Journalism. Advantages and Disadvantages of the Inverted Pyramid.

Inverted Pyramid Style

Inverted Pyramid Style refers to the hierarchical structure of news writing in which essential information is presented before the non-essential info in the news story. According to the Inverted pyramid style, the most essential info goes to the top, following the less important information. Many readers read only the main point of the news mentioned in the news lead section.

The mass media journalist comprehensively follows an inverted pyramid style to write a news story. It assists writers in illustrating the most crucial information on top of the news. This style prioritizes newsworthy information to write a news article, telegraph, blogs, editorial-column, and sometimes feature articles in journalism. It is one of the most effective strategies to grab readers' attention to read the whole story.  Sometimes, authors follow the inverted pyramid formula to review journal articles in analyzing the findings and accuracy of the study. However, researchers identify both advantages and disadvantages of the inverted pyramid style.

Inverted Pyramid History

The inverted pyramid style has been used since the invention of the telegraph in 1844. Samuel F. B. Morse invented the telegraph in 1840. However, the written message was sent for long-distance interaction in 1844. People followed the inverted pyramid style to send breaking news through telegraph to inform others. They put essential info on top, following the non-essential information. Nowadays, journalists follow this inverted triangle style to report stories in the different types of journalism, including print, broadcast, and digital.Inverted Pyramid Style

The inverted pyramid describes a triangle diagram pointing down feature, which is an inverted triangle writing style. The broader part of the pyramid goes top, and the narrow section goes down. It indicates that the essential news goes up to catch the reader's attention.

Inverted Pyramid Model

The inverted pyramid framework contains three segments: the lead: the most newsworthy information; the body: essential details; and the tail: background info.

1. The Lead: Most Newsworthy Information

The Lead includes the most newsworthy information, followed by the 5w and 1h of report writing style. The journalist should answer the six questions (who,  what, where, when, why, and how) to report the story. This information attracts the audience to read the entire story; hence, the writer keeps the most newsworthy words on the top of the news. The Lead segment includes around 30 words and 1-2 paragraphs. A good news lead must enclose 5w's and 1h report writing formula. The readers can stop reading at any time; therefore, journalists put an essential fact on top of the report.

2. The Body: Essential Details

The body represents the detailed information to expand the story. It also extends the news lead to provide more background details. The main issue is illustrated in this section. It is a broader part of the report where details info is explained. The body explains the issue elaborately; therefore, it is a long paragraph.

3. The Tail: Background Info

The tail is the last part of the news report. It includes background and additional information to the story for readers. The background information keeps readers engaged with the news for a long time. The editor cuts unnecessary info from the news bottom.

In journalism, the inverted pyramid style is a strategic story structure where the most important details are presented first. The report's 5w and 1 h questions appear at the story's beginning, followed by supporting details and background information.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Examples

This example of an inverted pyramid style of news writing presents how to write a news article concisely including the lead, body, and tail. This example also includes a heading, byline, news lead, and conclusion. It is a news writing example for students based on an inverted pyramid framework.

A Colorful Celebration of Malaysia's National Day
By: M M Kobiruzzaman

UPDATED AUGUST 31, 2022, 12:13 AM

The Lead: Most Essential Info

KUALA LUMPUR - Malaysia's 65 National Day parade brought a massive crowd to Dataran Merdeka, Independence Square, located in Kuala Lumpur's capital.  Around 100,000 visitors participated in the celebration on Wednesday (Aug 31) after a two-year break due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Communications and Multimedia Minister Tan Sri Annuar Musa expressed that we are surprised to see overwhelming civilian participation in the celebration. He also mentioned that around 20,000 participants joined the parades to run the show smoothly.

The Body: Details and Essential Info

Prime Minister Datuk Seri Ismail Sabri Yaakob participated in the ‘Ambang Merdeka 2022’ program at Anjung Floria with family members to celebrate the 65th National Day. The Federal Territories Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Shahidan Kassim, Deputy Datuk Seri Jalaluddin Alias, Senior Education Minister Datuk Dr. Radzi Jidin, and Transport Minister Datuk Seri Dr. Wee Ka Siong also joined the program held present 4. At midnight, the national anthem ''Tanggal 31 Ogos''and patriotic songs reverberated through the Dataran Merdeka ground—the civilians shouted to usher the occasion cheerfully.

The 31 August is the official Independence Day in Malaysia, also known as Hari Merdeka. People celebrate this day with respect and joy to commemorate the Declaration of Independence on 31 August 1957. After two years, people celebrate Malaysia's 65th National Day, full of patriotic spirit and amusement.

The most fantastic event was displaying fireworks for five minutes that lit up the Kuala Lumpur sky. The program has been blessed by the clear weather influencing people from all walks of life to cheer the crowd.

Earlier, many famous local artists such as Ella, Haqiem Rusli, Man Bai, and Ameng Spring performed to treat the crowd. The most local point in Kuala Lumpur, including KLCC and Botanical Gardens, was flooded with thousands of people to commemorate National Day.

The Tail: Additional Info

However, the gathering of thousands of people caused heavy traffic surrounding the area of KLCC. Kuala Lumpur police managed to control heavy traffic and ensured participants' safety and security.

Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing Example For Students
Advantages and Disadvantages of Inverted Pyramid Style of News Writing

The inverted pyramid is used chiefly globally in traditional print journalism frameworks for news writing. It organizes the news story chronologically and presents the news's main point in the first paragraph, including facts and evidence. The inverted pyramid style of news writing has advantages and disadvantages in news writing.

Advantages of the Inverted Pyramid News Writing Style
Facilitates Editor

The editors can modify the headline easily if it is necessary. The headline should be based on the main point of the story. Hence, the editor can rewrite the headline based on the news lead, and they do not need the whole report. Sometimes, editors cut unnecessary info from the news tail. The inverted pyramid style assists them in modifying news quickly.

Improve Writer Performance

The inverted pyramid style improves the author's news writing performance. It shows them a chronological way to publish news easily. This model applies to all types of news writing, so authors follow the same structure regularly. It certainly saves time to write and deliver news content.

Improve Reader's Comprehension

The reader can easily understand the whole topic while reading the news lead. The inverted pyramid suggests following the 5w and one h writing style, making the feature more attractive to readers.

Represent the Fact

The inverted pyramid news writing style represents the story's facts in chronological sequence. It assists the author in identifying the uninteresting factors and separating them accordingly.

Save Time

The reader can understand the entire news story by reading the news lead so they can decide whether to read it. They can avoid the news if the story is not essential or relevant. So it does not tire the readers.

Improve News Values

The inverted pyramid journalism certainly improves newsworthiness and news values. This model is applicable to all types of journalism, including Personal influence, Controversy, Suitability, Impact, and Bizarre.

Increase Revenue

The inverted pyramid news style encourages readers to narrow down to read the conclusion. The audiences spend more time online on news portals; therefore, it increases revenue.

Disadvantages of the Inverted Pyramid News Writing Style

The inverted pyramid style represents the main ideas on the top of the news; therefore, many light readers read the headline and lead and leave it. It cannot hold the audience on the same report for long.  Hence, the most significant cons of the inverted pyramid style are that it provides the primary information o  top and releases the audience.

No Suspense

This model does not influence to make suspense, but many readers find uncertainty in news stories. It demotivates readers from reading the news due to the suspense.

No Creativity

The writers can follow the same style to write all types of news. So, there is less opportunity to emphasize the author's creativity. It does not influence writers to implement creativity.


It can tell the readers that reports are generated in the same formula. A backward style gives more value to the structure rather than facts.

No Beginning

The story has no beginning or end. It focuses on the basic rules of the inverted pyramid style while writing news rather than the beginning point of the story. It demotivates journalists to write the story from the beginning point.

In conclusion, despite the advantages and disadvantages of the inverted pyramid style of news writing, most journalists, directly and indirectly, utilize the inverted pyramid style for report writing. Also, blogger follows this strategy to write creative, educational, and feature articles.