Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 by the article of THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Originally, the Shannon-Weaver model excludes feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback to the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is termed the “mother of all communication models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) originally published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory that explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear as they did not mention feedback.

Shannon-Weaver Model Examples of Situation
Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) through the smartphone to meet on Monday. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into the sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive the message via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the raining sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 1

Jon is listening to morning news via radio. The news presenter broadcast news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report for the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes the six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model due to not adding the “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are:

  1. Information Source.
  2. Transmitter.
  3. Channel.
  4. Receiver.
  5. Destination.
  6. Noise Source.
Shannon and Weaver model of Communication explanation
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech for new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So, students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into the signal to transfer via electrical current on the wire.

3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. The communicators utilize distinguished channels based on the communication process such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so more.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

4. Receiver

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, receiver is decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts the effective communication process. Communicators certainly found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, the airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional model of communication. Shannon and Weaver Model was introduced in 1949 and it is certainly a linear model of communication.

Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948; It was known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication on the effective communication process. They also renamed it The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He became co-author of the same article in 1949 also renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

Shannon, 1948 Reference
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communicationThe Bell system technical journal27(3), 379-423.
Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press
Citation For This Article
APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, November 23). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

MLA- 9th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M M. “Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples.” Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform, 24 Nov. 2021, https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

 

Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet

Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.  Also, 4 Theories of journalism and mass communication.

Four Theories of the Press

The four theories of the press are authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, communist soviet Theory. In 1956, three scholars, Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson, published the Four Theories of the Press Book. It is also known as the four theories of the Press by Wilbur Schramm 1956. The Four Theories of the Press Book describes precisely the four theories of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

News Values

What are the Four Theories of the Press?
The 4 Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory

four theories of the press

1. Authoritarian Theory of the Press

The authoritarian theory explains that the government authority directly controls the communication outlets. The government controls the press, information, and communication systems directly and indirectly (Siebert, Peterson, & Schramm, 1956). Sometimes, the government assigns authority to regulate the whole process of the information and communication system in the country. The agency controls the press thoroughly on behalf of the government. For example, the Korean Central News Agency controls the mass media outlets in North Korea.

The press cannot work independently. So, it publishes news and information that the government wants to know the public in the country.  The authority set the code of conduct for the news agencies. Therefore, the news publishing outlets must need to follow the rules and regulations set by the management. The authority also has the right to provide a license and cancel it when they want. Usually, they revoke the license when the media violate the policies imposed by the government. The media practitioners follow the government’s instructions thoroughly to publish the news.

Authoritarian Theory of the Press Example

In the second world war, Hitler controlled the news media in Germany; hence, no press could publish news without the authority’s permission.

authoritarian theory of the press example in Afghanistan in 2021 when Taliban Took over the power

For example, in 2021, the Taliban took over power in Afghanistan, and the management excessively controls all media. Similarly, in Myanmar, the army chief Min Aung Hlaing seized power in 2021.

For example, in North Korea, Myanmar, and Afghanistan

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory refers to the freedom of the press to disseminate information (Siebert et al., 1956). Therefore, it is also known as the normative theory of mass communication. The mass media outlets are entirely free to publish any ethical news and information. The press works as the watchdog of the community and society in the country.

John Milter was the first introducer of the libertarian press concept. Firstly, In the 1700s, authorities applied the libertarian theory of the press in the USA. After that, and in the 1900s in Europe accepted it. As per the Libertarian press, human beings have the right to know the accurate information published by mass media outlets. The press should disseminate the actual news for society’s people.

Sometimes Wiki leaks platform publishes confidential documents for the public. Therefore, the government of many countries around the world does not allow to practice libertarian press system. It can impact the political parties to form the government.

Libertarian Theory of the Press Examples

Firstly, mass media and communication systems are free from the government to publish news. The government does not control the Press when they disseminate information even though they criticize its activities. Therefore, journalists and media practitioners manage the press directly.

For example, Canada, Switzerland, and New zealand

3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory explains that the press media do not need to take permission from the government to distribute news and information; however, they think about society when publishing news. Therefore, the social responsibility theory of the press has linked the libertarian and authoritarian theories. It lies between those two theories. The media are somewhat free from the government but controlled by the people from the country’s society.

Social Responsibility Theory of the Press Example

In mid 20th century, many countries applied the social responsibility theory incorporating “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in the United States in 1949. Anyone can express their opinion through mass media. Additionally, mass media play an essential role in raising a voice against discrimination and corruption.

For example, In the USA, UK, and India

4. Communist Soviet Theory

Communist Soviet Theory describes that the ministry of the respective government controls the press media, but they are free to work for the society. The government regulates and guides the mass media outlets for the benefit of the people. They can publish any news without taking permission from the authority, but the government agency controls the entire system at the end of the day.

Communist Soviet Theory Example

The Soviet Union was reconstructed with the new norms based on the Marxist-Leninist beliefs in the 1917th revolution. Communist Soviet Theory is also known as Soviet Media Theory.

This theory is generated from authoritarian theory but contradicted by the libertarian theory. The government agency owns the press media, but they are free to work for society. Finally, the government set official media to deliver the information to society.

For example, In Russia, China, and Cuba

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, September 11). Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/four-theories-of-the-press-authoritarian-libertarian-social-responsibility-theory/
Reference
Siebert, F., Peterson, T. B., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do (Vol. 10). University of Illinois Press.