Technology Adoption Models- Models For Technology Adoption

Technology Adoption Models- Models of Technology Adoption. Explain Models for Technology Adoption. Also, Examples of Technology Adoption Theories and Models.

Technology Adoption Models

The technology adoption models refer to the theories and frameworks that explain why people accept and utilize modern technology. It also describes how people adopt modern technology and use them in communication, business, health, education, and other sectors. Technology adoption means accepting and utilizing modern technology confidently. Researchers have introduced several technology adoption models in the recent decade to describe the reasons for technology adoption. They also mention the significant factors of these models that stimulate people to accept modern technology.

On the other hand, academicians consider a few factors that drive users to reject modern technology. The technology adoption models play a critical role in further improving technology. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved the importance of technology adoption in social, political, educational, and business contexts. Therefore, nobody can deny the usefulness of modern technology and its application in personal life.

The Importance of Technology Adoption Models

Technology adoption models answer the most common question, “why do people use the new technology?”. In addition, the researchers and practitioners present factors that influence people to accept new technology. Technology has become an inevitable part of daily life. For example, in the COVID-19 pandemic, students have conducted virtual classes through online meeting platforms such as Google Meet, Zoom Meeting, Microsoft Team, and Skype. Additionally, many organizations have handled corporate meetings via these web conferencing applications. They have also generated virtual meeting minutes and submitted them by the technological tool. The technology adoption models are developed in order to propose the reasons and consequences of using the technology.

Models of Technology Adoption

The Models of Technology Adoption are:
  1. Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)-1986
  2. Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) (ETAM)- 2002
  3. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)- 2003
  4. Technology Acceptance Model-3 (TAM 3)-2008
  5. Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2 (2012)
  6. Motivational Model (MM)-1992
  7. Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage-1996
  8. Uses and Gratification Theory (U&G)-1974
  9. Diffusion of Innovation Theory- 1962
  10. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory (PCIT)
  11. The Model of PC Utilization (MPCU)-1991

These are examples of technology adoption models and theories.

1. Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)-1986

Fred D. Davis introduced the technology acceptance model(TAM) in 1986 in his Ph.D. thesis paper titled “A TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL FOR EMPIRICALLY TESTING NEW END-USER INFORMATION SYSTEMS: THEORY AND RESULTS”. Initially,  in 1986, Fred D. Davis included three elements: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using the system. The technology acceptance model outlines three factors: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using the system. It also represents the design feature with X1, X2, and X3.

The Original Technology Acceptance Model By Fred Davis (1986)- Technology Adoption Models
The Original Technology Acceptance Model By Fred Davis (1986)
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989)

Fred D. Davis published the technology acceptance model again, namely “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology ” in Management Information Systems Research Center, the University of Minnesota, in 1989. So, the model is familiar as Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989).

Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) PDF

The study develops and validates the two constructs, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The author also tested the validity and reliability of the variables with two six-item scales. Davis also proved that the construct “perceived ease of use” is a causal antecedent to perceived usefulness. These two constructs are prime determinants of system use and user acceptance.

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis et al., 1989)

However, In 1989, Fred D. Davis, Richard P. Bagozzi, Paul R. Warshaw presented the technology acceptance model in the research paper “User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models”, published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) located in Maryland, USA.

Fred D. Davis is a professor at the University of Michigan School of Business Administration. His research interests include user acceptance of technology, technology support to make decisions, and motivational factors of computer acceptance. TAM model was certainly derivated from the adoption Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), which describes the factors that stimulate people to change human behavior. It has also been designated as the most cited model in the field of information and communication technology(ICT). The technology acceptance model(TAM) is certainly one of the most significant technologies adoption models.

Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model
Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model By Venkatesh and Davis (1996)- Technology Adoption Models
Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model By Venkatesh and Davis (1996)

The Final Version of the Technology Acceptance Model was developed by Venkatesh and Davis in 1996. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) explains the user’s intention to accept technology by three variables: perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitude toward use. The additional factors of the TAM are user education, system features, user participation in the design, and the nature of the execution method. However, it excludes the social influence factor on the acceptance of modern technology. So, the researchers and practitioners term it as the limitation of the model for being implemented beyond the workplace.

However, In 1996, Viswanath Venkatesh and Fred D. Davis included an additional variable, “External Variables”, to the previous model and outlined the final version of the Technology Acceptance Model.

“The TAM, TAM2, ETAM, TAM3 and UTAUT have been used over the years by various researchers to explain the adoption technology systems”.

2. Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) (2000)

Venkatesh and Davis added new factors to the Technology Acceptance Model and established the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) in 2000. The extended technology acceptance model is also known as the TAM2 and ETAM. ETAM described two groups of constructs, for example, social influence processes and cognitive instrumental determinants.

Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) or (ETAM) By Viswanath Venkatesh & Fred D. Davis in 2000- Technology Adoption Models

The three social influence determinants are subjective norm, voluntariness, and image. Additionally, the four cognitive instrumental processes of perceived usefulness are Job relevance, Output quality, Result demonstrability, and Perceived ease of use. Both social influence and cognitive instrumental determinants stimulate users to accept and use the system.

3. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (2003)

Viswanath Venkatesh, Michael G. Morris, Gordon B. Davis, and Fred D. Davis established the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in 2003, under the title of the “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View”.

The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was developed from eight renowned technology acceptance modes. “The eight models are the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the motivational model (MM), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization (MPCU), the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory (SCT).”

Firstly, the authors analyze the eight models and review the literature on user acceptance. Secondly, they investigate and compare those models’ extensions. Additionally, they develop the unified model based on the eight models’ components. Finally, the unified model was tested empirically and validated using data.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) BY Venkatesh et al., (2003)

The four prime constructs of UTAUT are 1) Performance Expectancy, 2) Effort Expectancy, 3) Social Influence, and 4) Facilitating Conditions.

The first three constructs (Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence) determine user intention and behavior. However, the fourth element (Facilitating Conditions) directly determines user behavior. Besides, the four moderate variables are Gender, age, experience, and voluntariness.

4. Technology Acceptance Model 3 (2008)

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) was introduced by Venkatesh and Bala in 2008. TAM-3 provides valuable rational explanations of how and why individuals make a decision about the adoption and use of ITs, particularly the work on the determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

5. Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) (2012)

Venkatesh, Thong, and Xu established the Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in 2012. They added three additional variables, including hedonic motivation, price value, and
habit, to the UTAUT in order to explain customer technology adoption. The Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology contains age, gender, and experience to moderate variables; however, it excludes the variable of voluntariness.

6. Motivation Model (MM) (1992)

Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw introduced the motivational model (MM) in 1992. The Motivational Model describes the external and natural stimulants that integrate users’ behaviors. According to the Motivation Model, the two crucial elements of motivation are extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Firstly, extrinsic motivation includes perceived usefulness, ease of use, and subjective norm. It is the acknowledgment that stimulates the users to perform the action. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation includes the magnitude of enjoyment derived from recreating with a computer.

7. Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage (1996)

The Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage was introduced by Magid Igbaria, Saroj Parasuraman, and Jack J. Baroudi in 1996. It is also known as Igbaria’s model.

A Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage

According to the Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators simulate people accepting the new technologies or rejecting them. This model describes perceived fun as the intrinsic motivator; however, perceived usefulness is the extrinsic motivator that influences people’s behavior to use computers.

8. Uses and Gratifications Theory (1974)

Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch established the uses and gratifications theory in 1974. It explains why people utilize certain kinds of communication media. It also describes the gratification of the people using these media compared to others. The U & G theory explains why people utilize certain media and what benefits they get from it. The U&G theory includes three constructs; motivations, behavioral usage, and gratifications/ satisfaction.

9. Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) (1962)

Diffusion of Innovations Theory explains why people accept new ideas and technology or reject them. It also describes how the use of technology spread among people quickly. In 1962, Everett M. Rogers published the diffusion of innovation theory in his book Diffusion of Innovations. Therefore, it is known as rogers’ theory of technology adoption.

Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) By Rogers (1962)
Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) By Rogers (1962)

The five elements of the diffusion of innovation theory are Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, and Laggards.

10. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory (PCIT) (1991)

Moore and Benbasat introduced the perceived characteristics and innovation theory in 1991. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory is certainly developed from Rogers’s perceived Attributes Innovation (PAI) theory. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory added two additional factors: Image and voluntariness. It also separates the constructs of observability into Visibility and Results Demonstrability. Additionally, PCI renamed Rogers’ complexity to ease of use and remained other characteristics the same as before.

11. Model of PC Utilization (MPCU)-(1991)

Thompson, Higgins, and Howell established the Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) in 1991. They extended Triandis’ model to explain PC utilization attitudes. The  Model of PC utilization describes six elements of personal computer utilization such as job fit, complexity, long-term consequences, affect towards use, social factors, facilitating conditions, and experience in order to predict PC utilization behavior. However, it differs from the Theory of Reasoned Action as it differentiates between cognitive and affective elements of attitudes.

Model of Personal Computer Utilization (MPCU) Thompson et al (1991)- Technology Adoption Models

Constructs used in the Model of PC Utilization (Thompson et al. 1991)

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 by the article of THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Originally, the Shannon-Weaver model excludes feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback to the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is termed the “mother of all communication models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) originally published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory that explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear as they did not mention feedback.

Shannon-Weaver Model Examples of Situation
Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) through the smartphone to meet on Monday. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into the sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive the message via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the raining sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 1

Jon is listening to morning news via radio. The news presenter broadcast news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report for the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model includes the six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model due to not adding the “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are:

  1. Information Source.
  2. Transmitter.
  3. Channel.
  4. Receiver.
  5. Destination.
  6. Noise Source.
Shannon and Weaver model of Communication explanation
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech for new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So, students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into the signal to transfer via electrical current on the wire.

3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. The communicators utilize distinguished channels based on the communication process such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so more.

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

4. Receiver

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, receiver is decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts the effective communication process. Communicators certainly found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, the airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional model of communication. Shannon and Weaver Model was introduced in 1949 and it is certainly a linear model of communication.

Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948; It was known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication on the effective communication process. They also renamed it The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon. So, Weaver’s name cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He became co-author of the same article in 1949 also renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

Shannon-Weaver’s Model of Communication Pdf Download-

 A Mathematical Theory of Communication

Shannon, 1948 Reference
Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communicationThe Bell system technical journal27(3), 379-423.
Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference
Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press
Citation For This Article
APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022, January 08). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

MLA- 9th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M M. “Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples.” Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform, 24 Jan. 2022, https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/