Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components

Lasswell Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model is a linear communication model consisting of five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. American psychologist and sociologist Harold Lasswell introduced a linear communication model in 1948. It is also known as Action Model in communication. Harold Lasswell’s model describes the communication process with five questions; “Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom, and with what effect?” These are the five fundamental components of the Lasswell model. The researcher did not explain the feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. It was a significant model for explaining the verbal communication process.

Lasswell Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell Model of Communication

A news reporter disseminates news regarding the negative impact of social media on BBC television to inform the general public.

Lasswell Model of Communication Components

The 5 components of Lasswell’s model are:
  1. Who
  2. Says What
  3. In Which Channel
  4. To Whom
  5. With What Effect
1. Who

Who refers to the sender of the message who initiates the communication. It also indicates the speaker and writer of the communication process. For example, the message’s sender is the news presenter, journalist, or political speaker.

Says What

Says What refers to the message of the communication. The question “Says What” is intended to identify the sender’s statement. For example, a news presenter delivers a FIFA world cup 2022 news update.

In Which Channel

In Which Channel describes the message transmitting pathway. It shows how the information reaches target audiences. The channel of communication differs based on the communication way. For example, Television, radio and newspapers are communication channels in mass media communication. In contrast, hearing, seeing, smelling,  and touching are message-transmitting channels in face-to-face communication. In non-verbal communication, the communication channels are “Physical Appearance, Paralinguistics, Body Movement, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Proxemics, Haptics, Chronemics, Artifacts, and Environment”.

To Whom

To Whom describes the individuals to whom the message is delivered; it is also known as the receiver of the communication process. The receiver is the audience who receives the information. The sender disseminates the message through a particular channel to reach receivers (To Whom). For example, the news reporter conveys information to the audience who listens to them.

With What Effect

With What Effect illustrates the output of the message. It also validates whether the receivers comprehend the message or not. Sometimes, the sender cannot persuade the audience due to communication noise, faulty channels and lack of speaker’s capability.

According to Lasswell’s communication model, there three functions of communication are Surveillance of the surroundings, Correlation of elements of society, and Cultural integration between generations. 
Lasswell Model of Communication  Examples

1. For example, if a news presenter broadcasts the FIFA World cup information to inform Football lovers, we can relate the Lasswell communication model to this event. It analyzes who is disseminating information (News Presenter), What is saying (FIFA World cup information), Which channel the news presenter is using to disseminate information (Television), and “Effect” is the objective of the news.

2. Another Lasswell communication model example of a situation is the advertisement in newspapers. We can see that the organization promotes its products via newspaper channels to inform customers.

3. Politicians address speeches on radion to motivate voters to vote for their parties.

4. Lecturers send assignment instructions to students via email to get their information.

6. An organization send appointment letters to candidates through postal and courier services.

7. Students submit assignments to the lecturer on an A4 paper sheet.

8. The HR manager posts recent company rules and regulations on the notice board to inform all employees. 

9. A writer publishes his latest book series for readers.

10. A motivational speaker gives a speech through a YouTube channel on how to lead a happy life with limited wealth. 

Advantages and disadvantages of the Lasswell model of communication

Advantages of the Lasswell model

Firstly, the Lasswell model explains the information-transmitting process by throwing five questions to the readers. The answer to these questions indeed describes the whole communication process.

Secondly, the model is suitable for all verbal communication processes, including human communication.

In addition, this model has excellent heuristic significance, and the concept has been utilized in several types of research.

Disadvantages of the Lasswell model

Firstly, the Lasswell model does not indicate the feedback clearly to this model; hence, it is suitable to explain only one-way conversation but not transactional communication like face-to-face interaction.

In addition, the Lasswell model does not appropriately explain the nonverbal communication process since it mentions the “Who Say” component. In the nonverbal communication context, senders convey messages without spoken words.

Moreover, the Lasswell model cannot explain effective communication adequately, such as the interaction between two individuals. In face-to-face communication, both the sender and receiver provide feedback simultaneously. There is no feedback in the Lasswell model that can explain interpersonal and group interaction.

Furthermore, Lasswell’s model completely ignores the communication noise barriers to effective communication.

Finally, it is a propaganda-based linear model. This model focused on describing social and political propaganda.

Lasswell’s Communication  Model Explanation

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Who and when establishes the Lasswell communication model?

Harold Dwight Lasswell’s short name (Harold Lasswell) established the Lasswell communication model in 1948.

What type of model is it?

Lasswell’s communication model explains a one-way communication process; therefore, it is a linear communication model like Aristotle’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, and Berlo’s Model of Communication.

Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF

Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF. Sample Demographics Questionnaire for Students. 20 Demographic Questionnaire For Research DOC.

Demographic Questionnaire

The demographic questionnaire is a collection of demographic questions assigned to separate the respondents into similar subgroups based on socioeconomic data such as age, gender, education, religion, income, and family status. It allows surveyors and researchers to obtain background information from the respondents. A cluster of demographic questions forms a demographic questionnaire. So, the demographic questionnaire includes questions about the respondent’s age, gender, nationality, education, race, religion, experience, economic condition, and family status. It is an effective tool for market surveyors to conduct audience segmentation. It is also essential for researchers to collect qualitative and quantitative research information. Researchers utilize these questionnaires in order to gain data from respondents and informants.

Examples of Questionnaire in Research

Demographic Questionnaire For Research

The demographic questionnaire for research means a bundle of questions set by the researchers in order to obtain socio-demographic information from the respondents and informants. Informants denote participants in the qualitative analysis. In contrast, respondents indicate the participants in the quantitative survey research. Researchers utilize these questionnaires to gain participants’ background information in qualitative and quantitative studies.

Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF. Sample Demographics Questionnaire for Students. Demographic Questionnaire For Research DOC.
Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF

Questionnaire Introduction Example

The students and researchers add a questionnaire introduction before the demographic information in order to explain the study. The questionnaire introduction sample is as follows:

Dear Respondents,

My name is Kobi, and I am currently studying for a Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Business and Economics at the University Putra Malaysia. I am conducting the research entitled “Title of the Research.” This questionnaire includes 20 questions that might not take more than 10 minutes. However, all the information you provide in this questionnaire is intended to complete the study only. So, your info on this questionnaire will be preserved strictly confidential and used only for survey purposes. Thank you.

Demographic Questionnaire Example For Research

The 20 Demographic Questions For Survey

The following example of the demographic questionnaire for research includes 20 questions about the respondents.

SECTION A: Demographic Questions

(Instructions: Please complete this section by circling the following answers)
1. What is Your Age?
1. 15-20
2. 25-30
3. 30-35
4. Above 35

2. What is Your Gender?
1. Male
2. Female
3. Transgender
4. Others…(Please specify)
5. Prefer not to answer

3. What is Your Nationality?
1. Filipinos
2. Non-Filipinos
3. Others…(Please specify)

4. What is Your Race?
1. Black
2. White
3. Brown
4. Others

5. What is Your Current Location?
1. Manila
2. Quezon City
3. Davao City
4. Others…(Please specify)

6. What is Your Ethnicity?
1. Asian
2. Chinese
3. African
4. Others…(Please specify)

7. What is Your Education Level?
1. Foundation
2. Diploma
3. Undergraduate
4. Postgraduate

8. What is Your Religion?
1. Christianity
2. Muslim
3. Hinduism
4. Buddhism
5. Other… (Please specify)

9. What is Your Marital Status?
1. Single
2. Married
3. Divorced
4. Widowed
4. Others…(Please specify)

10. What is Your Employment Status?
1. Business-Owner
2. Self-Employed
2. Non-Employed
3. Others… (Please specify)

11. What is Your Economic Status?
1. High Income
2. Middle Income
3. Low Income

12. What is Your Job Experience?
1. New
2. Expert
4. Veteran
5. Others…(Please specify)

13. What Group Are You Associated With?
1. Sports Group
2. Civic Group
3. Social Working Group
4. Political Group
5. Others… (Please specify)

14. What is Your Family Status?

1. Extended Family
2. Nuclear Family
3. Others… (Please specify)

15. What is Your Living Status?
1. Owner
2. Tenant
3. Lease
4. Subtenant
3. Others…(Please specify)

16. What is Your Main Language?
1. English
2. Filipino
3. Malay
4. Hindi
5. Others…(Please specify)

17. What Is Sexual Orientation?
1. Heterosexual
2. Homosexual
3. Bisexual
4 Pansexual
5. Asexual
6. Lesbian
7. Gay

18. Where Do You Stay in Malaysia?
1. Kuala Lumpur
2. Petaling Jaya
3. Cyberjaya
4. Klang
5. Kajang
6. Puchong
7. Seri Kembangan
8. Others(Please Specify)

19. What is Your Political Affiliation?
1. Democratic
2. Republican
3. Independent
4. Others (Please Specify)

20. Are You Involved With Local or National Politics?
1. Yes
2. No
3. Prefer Not To Say

Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF

The author presents examples of demographic questionnaires in pdf format for students. So, this content assists students in obtaining knowledge on how to make a demographic questionnaire for research. So these are examples of the demographic questionnaire for college students. Additionally, the demographic questionnaire examples help researchers to develop survey questionnaires for research. Hence, they are also known as demographic questionnaires for researchers. The author has attached a pdf demographic questionnaire so students and researchers can download it.

Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF
Demographic Questionnaire For Research PDF- Demographic Questions Example PDF

This is the sample of the demographics questionnaire for students.

Demographic Questionnaire For Research DOC