Research Paper Abstract Example APA

Research Paper Abstract Example APA. Examples of an Abstract for a Research Paper in APA

APA-Style Abstract

The APA-style abstract of a research paper refers to the executive summary of the entire research project within 250 words including research background, procedures, aims, results, and significance. An APA-style abstract illustrates a summary of the study within 150 to 250 words. It is a concise paragraph of a complete research project. The APA style comprises 12 Times New Roman fonts using single-spaced and aligned to the left at the top of the page. An abstract is the most important part of the research paper or proposal to attract the leaders to read the entire article. The abstract of a research paper or proposal is known as an executive summary of the study.

The readers are lecturers, supervisors, co-supervisors, members of the supervisor panel, students, researchers, and practitioners. A good abstract attracts the readers to read the entire study. It outlines the key findings of the research topic before reading the full manuscripts.

Elements of a Research Paper Abstract APA

The five key elements of writing an APA-style abstract for a research paper or proposal are background, objective, method with tools, findings, and significance. The students or researchers must include these five components in the abstract to explain the executive summary of entire documents.

Background: It is a simple opening sentence that includes the background of the study and context. Sometimes, it also presents the problem statements of the thesis.

Objective: It illustrates the aim of the study within one or two sentences. It also demonstrates why this study is important.

Method(s) with Tools: It explains what type of method will be used to conduct the research within one or two sentences. Researchers must mention tools utilized for data analysis within one sentence. For example, SPSS, PLS-SEM, CB-SEM.

Findings: It demonstrates the results of studies indicating the accomplishment of research projects.

Significance: The concluding sentence highlights the positive consequences of the results within one sentence. It also indicates how the results will be used theoretically and practically.

Characteristics of a Good Abstract For Research Paper

A good abstract answers the following questions:

  1. Why do you want to conduct this study or research?
  2. How do you want to complete this study or research?
  3. What do you want to find from this study?
  4. Where do you want to use the findings of the study?
  5. Who are the respondents or participants of this research if necessary?

An ideal abstract follows an inverted pyramid style of writing that answers why, what, how, where, and who questions. The answers represent the six key elements of the research paper including background, objective, method(s), tools, findings, and conclusion. It is a bad idea to merely copy the sentences from the article or proposal and put them in the abstract section. The researchers must paraphrase the sentences and write accurate and concise information. Additionally, you have to proofread the manuscript to fix grammatical errors, spelling, and punctuation. Finally, you must follow the simple present and past tense when writing the abstract.

Example of abstract for research paper APA
Research Paper Abstract Example and Sample APA

How To Write an APA Abstract for a Research Paper or Proposal

Background:

Social media have been indispensable communication channels for sharing and consuming news. The evolution of social media platforms has boosted digital journalism practice globally.

Objective:

This study intends to examine factors influencing social media engagement to practice citizen journalism by adopting a prominent technology adoption model unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT).

Method(s) with Tools:

The researchers designed online survey questionnaires and distributed them among university students through Google Forms to collect data, where 301 valid samples were collected. The structural equation modeling (SEM- PLS) approach was utilized to ascertain the presented model based on the empirical data found from respondents.

Findings:

The findings show performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence significantly affect social media users’ practice of citizen journalism. The results indicate that social media engagement significantly influenced citizen journalism practice.

Significance:

This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially digital journalists, and content created. Emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research. People practice citizen journalism on social media sites to report real-time news, entertain friends, educate people, and shape public opinion.

Research Paper Abstract Writing Example APA

The following example assists readers in writing a good APA-style abstract for a research paper or proposal. The authors demonstrate a few examples of abstracts for research papers in APA style. These APA-style abstracts are collected from master in science by research and PhD students from the University of Putra Malaysia, the University of Malaysia, and the National University of Singapore.

Example of Abstract for Research Paper APA-1

Research Paper Title: Examination of the Relationship between Social Media Engagement and Citizen Journalism Practice.

Abstract
Social media have been indispensable communication channels for sharing and consuming news. The evolution of social media platforms has boosted digital journalism practice globally. This study intends to examine factors influencing social media engagement to practice citizen journalism by adopting a prominent technology adoption model unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The researchers designed online survey questionnaires and distributed them among university students through Google Forms to collect data, where 301 valid samples were collected. The structural equation modeling (SEM- PLS) approach was utilized to ascertain the presented model based on the empirical data found from respondents. The findings show performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence significantly affect social media users' practice of citizen journalism. The results indicate that social media engagement significantly influenced citizen journalism practice. This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially digital journalists, and content creator emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research.

Keywords: Social Media, Engagement, Citizen Journalism, UTAUT, Online news.

Sample Abstract for Research Paper APA

The author has collected the following abstract from an empirical article published in the Wiley Online Library. It is a perfect example to write a research paper abstract in APA style. The research title is: “Artificial intelligence adoption among Human Resource Professionals: Does market turbulence play a role?”

Apa Style Abstract Example
Abstract Writing Example Adopted From Wiley Online Library
Abstract

Background and Objective of the research

Drawing from the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Technology- Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigates the factors that influence the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) among human resource (HR) professionals in the tourism organizations of Malaysia.

Method(s) with Tools and Findings

Responses were collected from 389 HR employees working at tourism organizations. Based on a partial least squares-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) analysis, results revealed that perceived ease of use, usefulness, technology competency, top management support, and competitive pressure have significantly positive impacts on AI adoption in the tourism industry in Malaysia.

The study’s contribution to the TAM and TOE models is the inclusion of market turbulence as a moderating factor, which is a significant moderator as it enhances the understanding of HR practitioners and others regarding the factors most influential in AI adoption among HR employees in the tourism industry.

Significance of the Study

The model developed in this study highlights how market turbulence can foster the relationship between AI adoption and organizations. In addition to the managerial and theoretical implications, the study discusses its limitations and outlines directions for future research.

Research Paper Abstract Example APA-2

Research Title: Green Innovation and Firm Efficiency in China’s Automotive and Energy Sector: The Moderating Role of Environmental Governance

Abstract: This study examines the mediating role of environmental governance in the relationship between green innovation and firm efficiency, particularly technical efficiency, in the automotive and energy industries. With increasing pressures to adopt sustainable practices, industries are urged to innovate while also adhering to environmental policies. This research employs a quantitative methodology, analyzing data from prominent automotive and energy companies to assess how green innovation influences firm efficiency through environmental governance mechanisms. Preliminary analyses suggest a significant mediating role of environmental governance, which could guide companies in strategic planning and policy formulation. This study aims to contribute to both theoretical frameworks in environmental accounting and practical applications in industry governance.

Examples of an Abstract for a Research Paper in APA-3

Research Title: The influence of digitalization in supply chain management and Competitive advantages on the financial performance of E-commerce companies in Malaysia.

Abstract: Digital technology, has become an important tool for businesses to maintain viable partnerships and establish
significant value connections with other companies. The constantly emerging new digital technologies are affecting almost all business processes and activities every day. This study investigated the impact of digital supply chains on the performance of Malaysian e-commerce companies. This article further evaluates the mediating role of enterprise competitiveness between digital applications and e-commerce enterprise performance. These goals are achieved through quantitative research design. Researchers used stratified sampling technology to send 500 online survey questionnaires via email to Malaysian e-commerce companies engaged in online sales. The questionnaires were collected incomplete responses were deleted, and the TAM model was used to analyze the data.

Malaysian e-commerce companies can consider adopting DSC in their business processes to maintain reliability in a fiercely competitive market by providing good supply chain performance and optimal overall organizational performance. This study is of great significance to scholars and practitioners, especially supply chain management and Malaysian e-commerce companies. Emphasized limitations and suggestions for future research.

Example of an Abstract APA Research Paper-4

Research Title: Evaluating the Impact of Greenwashing on the Financial Performance and Market Reaction to Green Bonds in developing and developed countries.

Abstract: This study delves into the differential effects of green bonds on financial performance and market reactions across developing and developed countries, assessing the influence of greenwashing. It explores whether green bonds have greater financial benefits and stronger market reactions in developing countries and investigates how greenwashing impacts as a moderate variable. The findings offer significant insights for investors, policymakers, and financial institutions aiming to optimize the use of green bonds for promoting sustainable development. The results are expected to influence strategies and regulations, particularly highlighting the need for vigilant monitoring of greenwashing practices to safeguard the integrity and effectiveness of green finance, especially in emerging markets. The study contributes to an understanding of sustainable finance and green bonds as green projects proceed into different markets.

Example of a Dissertation Abstract- 5

Dissertation Title: FACTORS INFLUENCING ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION

This dissertation investigates the various factors influencing the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs), with a focus on economic, ecological, and public concern determinants. Firstly, the research employs quantitative methods to identify what factors may impact EV sales in different geographic areas. Additionally, this study utilizes text mining techniques to analyze the themes of public concern and acceptance levels of EVs expressed in online media and discussions in the emerging EV market. The goals are to:1. identify patterns and correlations between these factors and their influence on the rates of EV adoption. 2. By providing a detailed understanding of public concerns and acceptance, this research aims to offer valuable insights to policymakers and industry stakeholders to foster a more favorable environment for EV uptake.

Significance of this Article

Firstly, the researchers get a clear concept of how to write research papers and proposal abstracts in APA style. it will guide researchers to accept their abstract for conference presentation. This article will assist students who want to write and submit an executive summary of a research proposal for a seminar presentation.

Example of Problem Statement in Research

Example of Problem Statement in Research Proposal. Examples and Samples of Problem Statements in Quantitative Research.

Problem Statement in Research

A problem statement in research refers to a concise and precise synopsis of the research problems that the study intends to address concretely. It also identifies the knowledge gap that is the reason for the entire study to contribute to the body of knowledge.

The problem statement section analyzes what is known and unknown about the research problems and issues. The ‘known’ vs ‘unknown’ needs to be analyzed, synthesized, and defended rather than written descriptively. The arguments for the existence of the problem may be shown by highlighting any inconsistencies, controversies, conflicts, or contradictions in past studies.

It also proposes variables identifying the research gaps contributing to resolving the research problem. Additionally, the statement of the problem in research highlights what are the weaknesses of past findings. Moreover, it emphasizes the expected knowledge or what is required (still unknown) to enable you to contribute to the body of knowledge.

A good problem statement certainly answers the following questions: what issue needs to be addressed and why?

Does the research problem statement differ from quantitative and qualitative research?

The answer is no and there is no difference. The research problem statement writing style is similar for every research strategy. Consequently, the research candidates follow the same style for writing research problems for quantitative, qualitative, and other research approaches.

Examples of Problem Statement in Research

How To Write a Problem Statement for a Research Proposal

The problem statement contains these 4 elements: context, issue, relevance, and objective.

The context is the background of what is currently known and unknown about the research issue. The problem statement develops a context for the audience and defines the problem within the context. Issue refers to the problem of what we need to know more about it. Relevance means the justification of the study. It justifies why it is an important issue to research and the value of research. Finally, the objective is the aim of the study what you want to discover and clarify or confirm. It proposes the solution to the problem.

The author divides the process into three stages to define four elements.

The three stages of writing a research problem statement are:
  1. Review the Literature From Previous Findings
  2. Identifying the Problem With Research Gaps
  3. Contribute to the Body of Knowledge
Review the Literature From Previous Findings

Firstly, the researchers have to read industrial reports, government statistics reports, and newspaper articles to know more from read world context. They also read relevant research papers, review papers, and dissertations published previously to obtain more knowledge.  Many scholars suggest researchers review journal articles to enrich knowledge systematically. According to Mark Petticrew and Helen Roberts, the systematic literature review adheres closely to obtaining knowledge in a particular area. The PRISMA systematic literature review is the most common and well-accepted strategy to review the literature of past studies.

The literature review from Past findings has to answer the following question:

  1. What do we know about the problem from the real world and academic literature?  
Identifying the Problem With Research Gaps

Researchers have to identify the research gaps including inconsistencies, controversies, conflicts, or contradictions in past studies. Among the approaches to show research gaps, the most common research gaps are in concepts, perspectives, theory, methodology, methods, analysis, etc. Research gaps must be systematically identified as the basis for an investigation. So, the researchers need to state it specifically and exactly and be very clear about the type of research gaps they choose to study.

The 7 types of research gaps are: (1)Evidence gap, (2)Knowledge gap, (3)Practical knowledge gap, (4)Methodological gap, (5)Empirical gap, (6)Theoretical gap, and (7)Population gap.

The researchers have to identify important gaps, inconsistencies, and/or controversies in the literature to establish the need for additional research. Researchers can conduct any research based on only one or two or more than two research gaps. This section also defines the process and method of study to achieve the goals.

The Problem with research gaps must answer the following questions:

  1. What we do not know about the problem from the real world and academic literature?
  2. What does your research want to achieve by this study?
  3. How do we want to resolve the problems?
Contribute to the Body of Knowledge

Finally, the research problem includes the importance and significance of the study. It explains why and how it contributes to the body of knowledge. The empirical evidence contributes to the enrichment of the literature. It also highlights the theoretical and practical significance of the study to resolve the issues.

The section answers the following questions:

  1. Why do we need to know what we do not know about the problem?
  2. What might happen if the problem is not resolved?
  3. What are the future benefits of solving the problems including the impact on society, community, and people’s lives?

Examples of Problem Statement in Research

(Example of Problem Statement in Research Proposal. Examples of Statements of the Problem in Quantitative Research)

The author demonstrates samples of a problem statement in research based on the following research article published on sustainability.

Article Title: Effects of High‐Performance Work Systems (HPWS) on Hospitality Employees’ Outcomes Through Their Organizational Commitment, Motivation, and Job Satisfaction

 Review the Literature From Previous Findings

Less research has been done on how HPWSs affect employee outcomes, such as an employee’s health or job satisfaction which is crucial in the COVID-19 situation (Kloutsiniotis and Mihail, 2020a) (Adikaram et al., 2021).

Uncertain & highly stressful context has aggravated the problem of burnout (Ayachit & Chitta, 2021), which was customary among hotel employees even before the COVID-19 pandemic (Tsui, 2021; Wong et al., 2019).

Previous research has validated the direct impact of HPWS on employees’ social identity, confirming. Additionally, it has a mediating role in the HPWS –“psychological empowerment” relationship (Bartram et al., 2014; Mihail and Kloutsiniotis, 2016).

Identifying the Problem With Research Gaps

Due to the importance of HPWS in the hospitality and tourism industry scholars highlight the need for further investigation on the topic [27,28], especially in hotel settings[19]. Thus, in this research, we build on the identified gaps in the literature to seek ways of opening the so‐called black box between HPWS and outcomes, focusing on the hotel sector. Concretely, we investigate the mechanisms that relate employees’ perceptions of the use of HPWS to their well‐being. In addition, we empirically corroborate the relationship between workers’ well‐being and individual job performance.

Problem Statement in research examples and samples

Contribute to the Body of Knowledge

This research provides the field with manifold theoretical as well as managerial contributions. First, we answer recent calls in the literature remarking on the lack of empirical studies in the hospitality and tourism sector, analyzing the effects of HPWS on employees’ outcomes. In doing so, we contribute to the burgeoning research stream that supports the benefits of employees’ perceptions of HPWS on results such as QoL.

In conclusion,  the examples of the statement of the problem in research assist students in approving the research proposal. These samples show the way to conduct the qualitative and quantitative research.

Importance of a Strong Problem Statement

The statement of the problem stands as the most crucial part of getting the research proposal or project accepted. The candidates must identify research problems with knowledge gaps systematically to write a problem statement for a research proposal, project, dissertation, or thesis. The strong problem statement impresses examiners and reviewers to accept the proposal. It is the initial element to conduct any academic research.

The researcher sets the research objective, research question, and hypothesis based on the problem statement. Hence, candidates or students can not continue research without a strong problem statement. The research problem is an inevitable part of quantitative, qualitative, and other research. No research can be conducted without identifying the research problem.

A good research proposal must include a research problem statement to explore the weaknesses of the previous study. Accordingly, it provides empirical knowledge to enrich the literature. A strong problem statement must explain how to fulfill the research gaps.

The Ph.D. and Master of Science (by research) students go through a proposal defense session. In this presentation, examiners might ask the candidates what research problem they want to resolve. Thus, a concise and strong problem statement stands firmly to overcome proposal defense (PD).

Poorly Written Problem Statement of the Research Proposal

A research proposal can be rejected because of a poorly written problem statement of the research proposal. The authority might deny the research proposal for the following reasons:

  • A research proposal can be rejected if this section is poorly defined and discussed.
  • The research proposal also might get declined if the candidate merely states the Research Proposal without discussing critically why it is a problem.
  • The candidate did not successfully highlight the connections of constructs with the theory used to explain the framework.
  • How is the moderator supported by Contingency theory?
  • How does the theory support and justify the relationships in the framework?