Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence in Communication. Who and when establish Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence, Characteristic of New Media Audiences.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to the process of merging all communication outlets to adjust to the new technology. It is a new technology culture that has changed human lifestyles. For example, every mass medium merges together through the convergence process to become one medium. It is the process of merging communication outlets such as television, print, radio, and the internet through new media platforms. The Internet has changed the pattern and activity of the media outlet for example newspapers now offer video content, TV provides interactive comment options through social media, and radio has a webcam.

Who and when establish Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Example of Media Convergence 

A long time ago, people used to listen to Radio to get news, Television to watch drama, camera to capture the photo, and bookshelf to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfil all their needs.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the 6 types of convergence are technology convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economical convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Elements of Media Convergence

According to Flew (2020), the five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content all together that is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computer and smartphone have digitilized the content and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page and it provides breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has its both positive and negative impact on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease the way of human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular platform for communication that is also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating with each other. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge so everyone can watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet published printed newspapers and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expand their business interest and they merged with other companies. In the 1990s, the example of industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994), Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry through commenting on social media platforms. It is called the textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It not only brings the similarity between political parties but also policies inside the parties.

Characteristic of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do. For example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education as well as social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • They are the innovators

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability (Tapscott, 2008).
In Conclusion, If someone asks me do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

References

Flew, T. (2020). Media convergence – Transmedia storytelling. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/media-convergence/Transmedia-storytelling

Kobiruzaman, M. M., Waheed, M., Yaakup, H. S. B., & Osman, M. N. (2018). Impact of Social Media Towards Society, A Case Study on Teenagers. International Journal of Education and Knowledge Management (IJEKM) 1(3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.37227/IJEKM-03-2018-14

Tapscott, D. (2008). Grown up digital. Boston: McGraw-Hill Education.

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation- Hardball Tactics Definition & Examples

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation, Definition & Examples of Hardball Tactics. Example of Hardball Tactics in Negotiation. Top 8 Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are Good cop/bad cop, Lowball/Highball, Bogey, Nibble, Chicken, Intimidation, Aggressive behaviour, and Snow Job Example.

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation

Hardball Tactics in Negotiation refers to the typical method applied by negotiators to achieve the goal anyhow. Any part of the negotiation can use hardball tactics to gain an advantage. Hardball tactics are the deceptive way to gain the objective. The negotiator usually employs these tactics to get the benefit from the detriment of another party. People use these hardball tactics for personal, social, political, and business purposes. They adopt them to purchase a product, make an agreement, deal with others parties.

The Most Common Negotiation Tactics

The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation are:

  1. Good cop/bad cop
  2.  Lowball/Highball
  3.  Bogey
  4. The nibble
  5.  Chicken
  6. Intimidation
  7. Aggressive Behaviour
  8. Snow Job
Hardball Tactics Examples-The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
The 8 Typical Hardball Tactics in Negotiation
Hardball Tactics in Negotiation Definition & Example
Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic in Negotiation Definition

A good cop/ bad cop negotiation refers to tactical bargaining between two parties to benefit from the other party’s detriment. It occurs amid two parties’ negotiation when two people in the same party deal with the other party as a good and bad person.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-1

For example, in a police station, the police want to interrogate the prisoner some questions, but the prisoner would not want to say anything. So, two police officers plan to play a game, and one acts like a rude, devil person so that he can ask the question fiercely. On the other hand, another police officer interrogates the prisoner politely. After comparing the two policemen, the prisoner decisively told the information and admitted his fault to the gentle policeman.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-2

For example, A customer goes to a mask shop where the shop owner and his manager were selling products at the shop. The customer wants to buy a mask; therefore, he was negotiating with them. The shop owner is persuading the customer, saying that the facemask will protect you and your family from Coronavirus. It would be best if you bought it without focusing on only RM 5 per piece. On the other hand, the manager says to the customer that you have to pay RM 5 if you want to buy or not sell it less than RM5. The manager also intimidates the customer, saying that you can go now if you do not wish to pay RM 5. However, the owner is still trying to persuade the customer to buy the mask for RM5. The owner is dealing in a friendly manner, whereas the manager is threatening the customer. However, both (owner & manager) want to sell the product. This kind of negotiation is called a good cop/bad cop negotiation.

Good Cop/Bad Cop Tactic Example-3

When I was a secondary student, I had violated the school rules for being late to school. The school discipline teacher acted as the “Bad Cop” who commanded on punishing me according to the school rules and regulations. Meanwhile, the counselling teacher held an open-minded talk with me to understand why I was late and advised me patiently. Finally, I will never be late again in the next five years.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Definition

The negotiator applies a lowball/highball tactic to get the attention of the other party. They know that they will not be able to achieve it but offering. Actually, the lowball/highball tactic begins with an extremely low or high opening offer to the opposite party. The extreme proposal will stimulate the other party to re-evaluate their opening offer and move closer to or beyond their resistance point.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, your son does not want to go to school by bus because his friends come to school by private vehicle. Therefore, he decided not going school till buying a private car. You offer him to gift a new personal car by next month to make him happy. You know very well that you will not be able to buy a new private car by next month. It is a ridiculous offer that is called a lowball/highball tactic. Later, you manage to persuade him to go to school by bus for six more months, but you will buy a motorbike for him after six months.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, imagine that you want to buy a woody chair. Them negotiate with the seller, the set price is 100RM, you might think it is unacceptable price, so you say can I buy it in 20 RM, because it does not seem that high price, the seller might shock a while, after that the seller might say” 50RM, take it okay?” Finally, your goal has achieved.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, when my girlfriend (ELA) stopped talking to me because another girl likes my photos uploaded on Facebook. ELA is jealous of girls who like and comment on my Facebook photos. I offered him not to use Facebook anymore to continue our communication. She also knows that It is quite impossible to stop using Facebook. However, this tactic stimulates her to talk to me for bargaining.  We argue for an hour to finally agreed that I will block the girl so that she cannot follow me on Facebook. Finally, I managed to think to her that blocking is so much better when in fact it is a bad idea to stop using Facebook due to the girl.

Bogey Tactic in Negotiation

Bogey tactics in negotiation demonstrated when negotiators conceal their interest in front of the other party. Negotiators pretend that the issue is of very little importance to them the opposite party offering. The issue is significant for them, but they do not want to show their interest in front of the opposing party.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new Samsung mobile phone with the additional feature of a face lock feature. Now, the shop owner is showing you the latest Samsung mobile phone and indicting the new feature. You are glad to see the new feature on the phone. However, you are not showing interested in the face lock feature. You are concealing your interest in front of the shop owner. You think that shop owner can increase the price if you show more interest in the new feature. Therefore, you pretend that you have no interest in buying this new phone. Eventually, you buy a phone at a low price that has the new face-lock feature.

Lowball/Highball Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

This tactic is usually applied to the gambling situation. When I play mahjong with my family members, I maintain my poker face even though the mahjong I drew is good, and I will win the game. But, I stay calm to distract my opponents’ attention, not to sense my happiness. After that, I pretend that I want mahjong A, but my target is mahjong J. Then, I successfully won the game by misleading the other family members to discover my true intention.

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Definition

The nibble tactic refers to asking for a minor concession to make the deal final. Usually, negotiators use this tactic after a long time of negotiation between them. The negotiator needs to add a small item to complete the deal or agreement. 

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, the customer will purchase the secondhand iPhone now if the seller provides headphones and a charger along with it at the same price. It happens at the ending period of the negotiation when any party wants to close the deal.

Nibble Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, the tenant will rent the house if the house owner replaces the old refrigerator with a new one. Finally, the owner agrees to add a new refrigerator to complete the agreement.

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Definition

In a negotiation tactic, the negotiator uses a big bluff with a frightening action to force the other party to fulfill their demands. The negotiator forces another party to close the deal immediately. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, one party is threatening the other party with “If you do not sell this phone at RM 1000, I will buy the same phone from the next shop who is interested to sell at the same price. The owner believed the customer’s bluff and agreed to sell the phone at RM 1000. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, The customer said that he wants the furniture to be ready on the weekend or else he will find another shop. The shop owner became agree to deliver furniture before the due date believing the customer’s bluff. 

Chicken Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, after a long negotiation, both sides are not satisfied with each other. Then one side says, “if you really oppose accepting my ideal price, I will find another person who will provide my ideal price”.

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation

Intimidation tactics attempt to force the other party to agree by applying emotional appeal. They use emotion, anger, or fear to agree on the opposite party. The other side may deliberately use anger to show the seriousness of the position. 

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

Calvin is a small employee in a company. David is a well-known violent temper person in the organization. They are bargaining for various issues for a long time. Suddenly, David slapped the table and glared at Calvin, and said: Think about the difficulty of your job. Your wife and children at home are still waiting for dinner. Finally, Calvin accepted the conditions.

Intimidation Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, if someone bought a television, it did not work when he wants to open it at home. Still, it was nothing wrong when he checked the tv in the store, and then he asked the store to replace one for him, but the store refused to return it because it is available when he checked in the store. Finally, he said if you do not replace it for me today, I will post this thing on social media, nobody will come afterward.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation

Aggressive behavior refers to the strategy of being aggressive in pushing your position or attacking the other person’s position to gain advantages. It is similar to intimidation tactics, but negotiator uses their position to intimidate other psychologically. It includes asking for further concessions.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, one customer comes to buy a mobile phone in a formal manner and says: Let’s not waste time, what is the maximum price? Here, the customer wants to emphasize that his or her time is very important, so close the deal soon. 

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

For example, a sales manager offers RM 5000 for iPhone 12, but the customer still negotiating to reduce the price. Instantly, the owner gets angry at the manager and “how can you make such a low offer”. Do you know today I have sold three iPhone 12 at RM5500 within 30 minutes? You are really wasting our time. It stimulates the customer to buy it at RM5000.

Aggressive Behaviour Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

For example, a customer goes to buy a personal car in the showroom. The salesmen bargains with him regarding the price for a long time. Eventually, the customer brought out his identity card and show the salesmen said the ” I am also marketing manager so please do not apply the marketing policy on me”.  Here, the customer uses his position to win the negotiation. 

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Definition

Snow job tactic is demonstrated when negotiators surprise the other party with huge additional information. These additional make the opposite party confused about figuring out which facts are fundamental and essential. It occurs when negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information so the other party will get distracted.

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-1

For example, you want to buy a new mobile phone, and the seller provides you with so much information about the additional factors. He or she ensures that this phone is eco-friendly. It will not harm you. They also show you how many people are dying due to mobile blasts and so more. The use of many technical terms to confuse anyone who is not familiar with the topic.

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-2

The negotiator explains the deal in English, but Ahmad, a non-native English speaker, will see him as someone who is educated. To avoid embarrassment, Ahmad will say yes without asking many questions because the negotiator seems like someone very knowledgeable and more expert than him. 

Snow Job Tactic in Negotiation Example-3

Snow Job tactics are frequently used in government project tendering. When the government starts a new development project, they will publish massive information regarding the plan to hide the accurate worthy information behind the overwhelming information. This tactic is used to prevent the misuse of precious data for any illegal activity.