Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet

Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.  Also, 4 Theories of journalism and mass communication.

Four Theories of the Press

The four theories of the press are authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, communist soviet Theory. In 1956, three scholars, Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson, published the Four Theories of the Press Book. It is also known as the four theories of the Press by Wilbur Schramm 1956. The Four Theories of the Press Book describes precisely the four theories of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

Different Types of Journalism
What are the Four Theories of the Press?
The 4 Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory

four theories of the press

1. Authoritarian Theory of the Press

The authoritarian theory explains that the government authority directly controls the communication outlets. The government controls the press, information, and communication systems directly and indirectly (Siebert, Peterson, & Schramm, 1956). Sometimes, the government assigns authority to regulate the whole process of the information and communication system in the country. The agency controls the press thoroughly on behalf of the government. For example, the Korean Central News Agency controls the mass media outlets in North Korea.

The press cannot work independently. So, it publishes news and information that the government wants to know the public in the country.  The authority set the code of conduct for the news agencies. Therefore, the news publishing outlets must need to follow the rules and regulations set by the management. The authority also has the right to provide a license and cancel it when they want. Usually, they revoke the license when the media violate the policies imposed by the government. The media practitioners follow the government’s instructions thoroughly to publish the news.

Authoritarian Theory of the Press Example

In the second world war, Hitler controlled the news media in Germany; hence, no press could publish news without the authority’s permission.

authoritarian theory of the press example in Afghanistan in 2021 when Taliban Took over the power

For example, in 2021, the Taliban took over power in Afghanistan, and the management excessively controls all media. Similarly, in Myanmar, the army chief Min Aung Hlaing seized power in 2021.

For example, in North Korea, Myanmar, and Afghanistan

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory refers to the freedom of the press to disseminate information (Siebert et al., 1956). Therefore, it is also known as the normative theory of mass communication. The mass media outlets are entirely free to publish any ethical news and information. The press works as the watchdog of the community and society in the country.

John Milter was the first introducer of the libertarian press concept. Firstly, In the 1700s, authorities applied the libertarian theory of the press in the USA. After that, and in the 1900s in Europe accepted it. As per the Libertarian press, human beings have the right to know the accurate information published by mass media outlets. The press should disseminate the actual news for society’s people.

Sometimes Wiki leaks platform publishes confidential documents for the public. Therefore, the government of many countries around the world does not allow to practice libertarian press system. It can impact the political parties to form the government.

Libertarian Theory of the Press Examples

Firstly, mass media and communication systems are free from the government to publish news. The government does not control the Press when they disseminate information even though they criticize its activities. Therefore, journalists and media practitioners manage the press directly.

For example, Canada, Switzerland, and New zealand

3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory explains that the press media do not need to take permission from the government to distribute news and information; however, they think about society when publishing news. Therefore, the social responsibility theory of the press has linked the libertarian and authoritarian theories. It lies between those two theories. The media are somewhat free from the government but controlled by the people from the country’s society.

Social Responsibility Theory of the Press Example

In mid 20th century, many countries applied the social responsibility theory incorporating “the Commission of the Freedom of Press” in the United States in 1949. Anyone can express their opinion through mass media. Additionally, mass media play an essential role in raising a voice against discrimination and corruption.

For example, In the USA, UK, and India

4. Communist Soviet Theory

Communist Soviet Theory describes that the ministry of the respective government controls the press media, but they are free to work for the society. The government regulates and guides the mass media outlets for the benefit of the people. They can publish any news without taking permission from the authority, but the government agency controls the entire system at the end of the day.

Communist Soviet Theory Example

The Soviet Union was reconstructed with the new norms based on the Marxist-Leninist beliefs in the 1917th revolution. Communist Soviet Theory is also known as Soviet Media Theory.

This theory is generated from authoritarian theory but contradicted by the libertarian theory. The government agency owns the press media, but they are free to work for society. Finally, the government set official media to deliver the information to society.

For example, In Russia, China, and Cuba

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, September 11). Four Theories of the Press- Authoritarian, Libertarian, Social Responsibility & Communist Soviet. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/four-theories-of-the-press-authoritarian-libertarian-social-responsibility-theory/
Reference
Siebert, F., Peterson, T. B., & Schramm, W. (1956). Four theories of the press: The authoritarian, libertarian, social responsibility, and soviet communist concepts of what the press should be and do (Vol. 10). University of Illinois Press.

 

Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence. Media Convergence in Journalism. Who and when establish Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence. Characteristics of New Media Audiences.

Convergence

Convergence means converging multiple items united things to get benefits.  It is the process of forming a unique thing by utilizing two or more things. The convergence has been happening in all sectors to meet people’s demands. This world is very famous in the medical discipline. As per the technological revolution, technological and media convergence have been trends that are impossible to reverse.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the 6 types of convergence are technological convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economic convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to the process of merging different types of media outlets to promote the program and media content. The traditional and new media have been merged to adjust to new technology. There are many types of convergence, such as technological convergence and cultural convergence. The new technology and culture have changed human lifestyles. Additionally, technological and cultural convergence forces the mass media to converge with other mainstream and new media.

Media Convergence Example

Example of Media Convergence 

For example, the Indian most popular reality TV show name is “Indian Idol.” It is a singing competition Television series. Sony Entertainment Television telecasts the full episodes. Firstly, the candidates need to download the Sony liv app for registration. Sony Television has its social media pages to promote the programs. The TV authority uses social media platforms to promote upcoming episodes as most people access new media sites more than traditional media. They also request their audiences to vote for their favorite contestants via smartphones. The audiences can provide their opinions via social media platforms, for example, Facebook and Instagram. Sometimes, they use FM and traditional radio to advertise the program. In sum, the program authority merges Sony Television, smartphones, radio, Facebook, and YouTube channel to promote the program successfully. It is an example of media convergence in the digital era.

Media Convergence in Journalism

Media convergence in journalism means mutually utilizing the print, broadcast, and online media to promote the news. Journalists use many media to spread the news among the maximum number of people locally and internationally. Media convergence in journalism appears as a significant step to survive in the new media age. There are two types of media convergence in journalism: (1) media convergence in collecting news and (2) media convergence in reporting the news. Firstly, journalists collect information from other media, and they cite the source name when publishing information. Television channels disseminate news from other channels such as radio, TV, newspapers, and social media.

Secondly, media authority uses multiple media to publish the the news. People prefer to read online newspapers from social media sites rather than printed papers. Therefore, journalists publish the news via a printed newspaper and website portal and share them on social media platforms to reach more audiences.

Example of Media Convergence in Journalism

For example, The Star is the most popular newspaper outlet in Malaysia. A journalist of “The Star” has collected information from Malaysiakini. The Star has published the news via printed newspapers and online portals. They have also shared the news link via Facebook page to reach the news among social media users. The authority has converged few media to spread the news among a maximum number of audiences.

Technology Convergence

A long time ago, people used to listen to Radio to get news, Television to watch drama, camera to capture the photo, and bookshelf to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfill all their needs.

Who and when establish Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Elements of Media Convergence

The five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political convergence.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content all together that is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computer and smartphones have digitilized the content, and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page, providing breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has its both positive and negative impact on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular communication platform, also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge so everyone can watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet published printed newspapers, and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expanded their business interest and merged with other companies. In the 1990s, industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994), Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices, also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry through commenting on social media platforms. It is called textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It not only brings the similarity between political parties but also policies inside the parties.

Characteristic of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do—for example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education as well as social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • Audiences are the innovators.

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability.
In Conclusion, If someone asks me, do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/media-convergence-example-elements-of-media-convergence-in-communication/