Models of Communication: 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive & Transactional

 Models of Communication- 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive, and Transactional in 2021. Also, Linear Model of Communication, Interactive model of communication and Transactional model of communication.

Models of Communication

Communication models refer to the conceptual frameworks or theories that explain the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication between the sender and the receiver. The communication model tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions; for example, what is it? Who is involved in this process? When does it happen? Where does it take place? Why does it occur? And finally, How does it happen?

Additionally, communication models explain the elements of the communication process, for example, context, sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, feedback, and noise. These are the nine components of communication that describe the entire process of communication. However, some communication models do not have all these elements or features. For example, the linear model of communication does not have feedback. The communication model also explains the factors that prevent effective communication, known as barriers or noise in communication. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

 Types of Communication Models
The Three Types of Communication Models are:
  1. Linear Models of Communication
  2. Interactive Models of Communication
  3. Transactional Models of Communication

The three types of communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A list of the best communication models, including the established year, has been outlined below to obtain more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also been discussed in the communication model table.

Models of communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive and Transactional
Figure 1: Communication Models: Linear, Interactive and Transactional Model of Communication

1. Linear Models of Communication

The linear model of communication is a one-way interaction where feedback is not present. Linear is the primary communication model; whereas, the transactional model is formed based on the linear model. The sender communicates with the receiver without receiving feedback. It also represents the one-way process of communication.

Many scholars have established linear communication models, such as Aristotle’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, Lasswell’s, and Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.

Linear Model of Communication Example
Communication Models Year
Aristotle Model of Communication. 300BC
Lasswell’s Model of Communication. 1948
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication. 1949
Also, Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication. 1960

2. Interactive Models of Communication

The interactive model of communication refers to the two-way method of communication with feedback. However, feedback is not simultaneous, so it provides slow and indirect feedback. Sometimes, the communication can be linear if receivers do not reply to senders. The interactive model of communication indicates mediated and internet-based communication.

For example, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication and Westley and Maclean’s Communication Model are interactive communication models.

Interactive Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957

3. Transactional Models of Communication

The transitional model of communication seems like a two-way process of communication with immediate feedback. Simultaneous feedback is the essential component of the transitional models of communication. So, the communication process will not become transactional if there is no feedback. The feedback is direct and very fast. The receiver is compelled to provide instant feedback. The major difference between the interactive and transactional models is indirect and direct feedback.

For example, Wilbur Schramm’s model of communication, Barnlund’s transactional model of communication, Dance’s Helical model of communication, Eugene white’s communication model are transitional communication models.

Transactional Model of Communication Example

Eugene White’s Model of Communication 1960
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication 1967
Also, Barnlund’s Transactional Model 1970
Different Types of Communication Models

The best communication models are Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, Shannon–Weaver’s Model of Communication, Berlo’s Model of Communication, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication, Barnlund’s Transactional Model, Eugene White’s Model, and also, Dance’s Helical Model of Communication.

Linear Models of Communication

1. Aristotle Model of Communication

Aristotle’s communication model refers to the communication model with the elements of speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear communication model that mainly focuses on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is also known as the first model of communication. Aristotle’s model of communication consists of five elements of the primary communication process, for example, Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience, and Effect. The speaker plays a crucial role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. However, the speech of the speaker is a message that might vary on occasion.

Aristotle's model of communication
Aristotle Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) delivers a speech to persuade voters to vote for him. The political leader is the most important person here who is providing the message or information. The speech is the message that the leader delivers to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion, and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. A political leader might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters whether they are motivated to cast a vote for him or not.

2. Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model of communication was introduced by political scientist and professor Harold Lasswell in 1948. It is a linear model of communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s model explains the communication process by answering the following questions; who says what in which channel to whom, with what effect?

Laswell's model of linear communication model
Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s communication model and the example, firstly, the answer to “Who” is the news presenter of the BBC News Channel. Secondly, Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the question of “In which Channel” indicates the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people who are watching this channel. Finally, With what effect shows the awareness.

3. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars Shannon and Weaver, in 1949. The Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models. Initially, Shannon and Weaver did not include feedback therefore it is a linear communication model. However, Norbert Weiner added feedback to the model in responding to the criticism.  At first, this model was designed to articulate the process of technical communication. Later, it has been used to discuss all types of communication. The Shannon-Weaver model represents the essential six communication elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback; therefore, it is a linear model of communication. Later, this model was criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is a vital element to create the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
4. Berlo’s Model of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication means the SMCR model that includes the element of Source-Message-Channel-Receiver. David Berlo developed Source-Message-Channel-Receiver in 1960. It is also known as the David Berlo SMCR model of communication. However, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). The four elements of David Berlo’s SMCR Model of communication are the source, message, channel, and receiver. Berlo focuses on both verbal and non verbal communication elements to convey information.

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication
David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

Transactional Models of Communication

5. Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

Osgood-Schramm Model provides a two-way form of communication. However, Wilbur Schramm adopted the concept from the theory of another scientist Charles Egerton Osgood. Osgood proposed that the communication process is circular rather than linear. So, the person plays a role as the sender and receiver of the message simultaneously. The person receives the message and interprets it to provide feedback. Therefore, it is known as the Osgood-Schramm Model of communication.

The elements of the Osgood-Schramm Model are Interpreter, Encode, Decode, and Message.

Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
6. Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Westley and Maclean’s model is an interactive model of communication that examines the communication process between sender and receiver. Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean Jr. established the model in 1957. Westley and Maclean’s communication model was adapted from Newcomb’s communication and Lewin’s change management model. It represents the two-way process of communication; so, feedback is subsisted in this model. It also explains interpersonal and mass communication. The feedback is indirect and slow in mass communication; whereas, feedback is direct and fast in interpersonal communication. According to Westley and Maclean’s model,  A represents sender, B represents receiver, and C represents mass media. The interactive communication process is more effective than linear communication.

Westley and Maclean Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Transactional Models of Communication

7. Eugene White’s Model of Communication

Eugene White’s model is one of the crucial transactional models of communication that was introduced in 1960. According to Eugene White’s model, communication is a circular process interaction between senders and receivers. The most important element of this communication model is feedback. The feedback continues the communication process; therefore, it is a transactional model of communication.

Eugene White’s Model of Communication
Eugene White’s Model of Communication

There are eight stages of the oral communication process: thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, feedbacking, also monitoring. So, communication is a sequential process of interaction. However, it is unable to determine the active role of the receiver in the continuous communication process.

8. Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

In 1967, Frank Dance introduced the transactional communication model called the Helical model of communication. The author initially named Dance’s Helix communication model. Frank Dance used helix to develop the model that describes the complex process of communication. The word helical has come from helix, meaning spiral staircase. Communication gets more extended when it grows up like a helix. Communication is an evolutionary and dynamic process with feedback.

Dance’s Helical Model of Communication
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

Any communication starts from a small circle when the communicators share little information about themselves. Communication expands boundaries when people share more personal information. Finally, the relationship grows up gradually to reach the top level.

9. Barnlund’s Transactional Model

In 1970, Dean Barnlund introduced the transactional communication model. The author formed this model based on the public, private, and also behavior cues. Barnlund’s transactional model refers to the multi-layered communication process with feedback. The sender and receiver exchange their role for conducting effective communication. Therefore, the sending and receiving message occurs reciprocally between sender and receiver. The eight elements of Barnlund’s communication model are person, encoding, decoding, public cues, private cues, verbal, behavioral cues, nonverbal behavioral cues, and message.

 Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication
Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication
Importance of Models of Communication

Communication models are essential tools to understand the communication processes. Communication models present detailed information regarding the communication process as well as illustrate the flow of information. Therefore, they have a tremendous positive impact on the research by introducing many conceptual frameworks of communication processes. Additionally, the model introduces the elements of the communication process. Furthermore, the model of communication provides tips on how communicators can communicate effectively. They represent the barrier or noise that obstacle the process of communication. They also explain the complexities of the communication system. Finally, the model proposes to bring improvement in the communication process to avoid conflict.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the best nine models of communication are Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication, Lasswell’sModel of Communication, Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean’s Communication Model, Wilbur Schramm’s model of communication, Barnlund’s transactional model of communication, Dance’s Helical model of communication, and Eugene white’s communication model.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Models of Communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive & Transactional. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/3-types-of-communication-models-linear-interactive-transactional/

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