Models of Communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive & Transactional

Models of communication- 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive and Transactional. Also, Linear Model of Communication, Interactive model of communication and Transactional model of communication.

Models of Communication

Communication models refer to the conceptual frameworks or theories that explain the way of human communication. It also represents the entire process of communication between the sender and the receiver. The communication model tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions; for example, what is it? Who is involved in this process? When does it happen? Where does it take place? Why does it occur? And finally, How does it happen?

Additionally, communication models explain the element of the communication process, for example, context, sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, feedback, and noise. These are the nine components of communication that describe the entire process of communication. However, some communication models do not have all these elements or features. For example, the linear model of communication does not have feedback. The communication model also explains the factors that prevent effective communication, known as barriers or noise in communication. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

 Types of Communication Models

The three types of communication models are;

  1. Linear Models of Communication
  2. Interactive Models of Communication
  3. Transactional Models of Communication

The three types of communication models are the Linear Models of Communication, the Interactive Models of Communication, and the Transactional Models of Communication. A list of the best communication models, including the established year, has been outlined below to obtain more knowledge as well as better understanding. The types of communication models have also been discussed in the communication model’s table.

Models of communication, 3 Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive and Transactional.
Figure 1: Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive and Transactional.
1. Linear Models of Communication

The linear model of communication is a one-way interaction where feedback is not present. Linear is the primary communication model; whereas, the transactional model is formed based on the linear model. The sender communicates with the receiver without receiving feedback. It also represents the one-way process of communication.

Many scholars have established linear communication models, such as Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication, etc.

Linear Model of Communication Example
Communication Models Year
Aristotle Model of Communication. 300BC
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication. 1948
Lasswell’s Model of Communication. 1948
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication. 1960
2. Interactive Model of Communication

The interactive model of communication refers to the two-way method of communication with feedback. However, feedback is not simultaneous, so it provides slow and indirect feedback. Sometimes, the communication can be linear if receivers do not reply to senders. The interactive model of communication indicates mediated and internet-based communication. For example, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication and Westley and Maclean’s Communication Model are interactive communication models.

Interactive Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication 1954
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication 1957

3. Transactional Model of Communication

The transitional model of communication seems like a two-way process of communication with immediate feedback. Simultaneous feedback is the essential component of the transitional models of communication. Additionally, the feedback is direct and very fast. The receiver is compelled to provide feedback. Examples of transitional communication models are Wilbur Schramm’s model of communication, Barnlund’s transactional model of communication, Dance’s Helical model of communication, Eugene white’s communication model and so more.

Transactional Model of Communication Example

Wilbur Schramm Model 1954
Barnlund’s Transactional Model 1957
Eugene White’s Model 1960
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication 1967
Different Models of Communication Process

The author will outline and discuss the different types of models in communication; for example, Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, Shannon–Weaver’s Model of Communication, Berlo’s Model of Communication.

Aristotle Model of Communication

Aristotle’s model of communication refers to the communication model with the elements of speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear communication model that mainly focuses on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is the first model of communication. Aristotle’s model of communication consists of five elements of the primary communication process, for example, Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience, and Effect. The speaker plays a crucial role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. However, the speech of the speaker is a message that might vary on occasion.

Aristotle's model of communication
Figure 2: Aristotle Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) delivers a speech to persuade the voter to vote for him in the election. The political leader is the most important person here who is providing the message or information. The speech is the message that the leader delivers to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion, and the speech or message of the speaker is set based on the occasion. A political leader might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters whether they are motivated to cast a vote for him or not.

Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model of communication was introduced by political scientist and professor Harold Lasswell in 1948. It is a linear model of communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s explains the process of communication by answering the following questions;

  • Who?
  • Says What?
  • In Which Channel?
  • To Whom?
  • With What Effect?
Models of Communication- Lasswel's model of linear communication model
Figure 3: Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s communication model and the example, firstly, the answer to “Who” is the news presenter of the BBC News Channel. Secondly, Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the question of “In which Channel” indicates the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people who are watching this channel. Finally, With what effect shows the awareness.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver model of communication was established by two American scholars Shannon and Weaver, in 1948. The Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models; although, it is a linear communication model.  At first, this model was designed to articulate the process of technical communication. Later, it discusses the process of effective communication. The Shannon-Weaver model represents the essential six communication elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback; therefore, it is a linear model of communication. Later, this model has been criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is a vital element to create the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Figure 4: Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example

What is the established date of the Shannon-Weaver model?

The Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948. Although there is conversely regarding the establishment year of the Shannon-Weaver model, in 1948, it was introduced by Claude Shannon through his article name Mathematical Theory of Communication. In 1949, Warren Weaver reprinted the previous article adding more information. So, it is safe to say that the Shannon-Weaver model was introduced in 1948.

Berlo’s Model of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication means the SMCR model that includes the element of Source-Message-Channel-Receiver. David Berlo developed Source-Message-Channel-Receiver in 1960. It is also known as the David Berlo SMCR model of communication. However, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949).

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication
Figure 5: David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

Osgood-Schramm Model provides a two-way form of communication. Osgood proposed that the communication process is circular rather than linear. So, the person plays a role as the sender and receiver of the message simultaneously. The person receives the message and interprets it to provide feedback. However, Wilbur Schramm adopted the concept from the theory of another scientist Charles Egerton Osgood. Therefore, it is known as the Osgood-Schramm Model of communication.

The elements of the Osgood-Schramm Model are Interpreter, Encode, Decode, and Message.

Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
Figure 6: Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Westley and Maclean’s model is an interactive model of communication that examines the communication process between sender and receiver. Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean Jr. established the model in 1957. Westley and Maclean’s model of communication was adapted from Newcomb’s model of communication and Lewin’s change model. It represents the two-way process of communication; so, feedback involves in this model. It also explains interpersonal and mass communication. The feedback is indirect and slow in mass communication; whereas, feedback is direct and fast in interpersonal communication. According to Westley and Maclean’s model,  A represents sender, B represents receiver and C represents mass media.

Importance of Models of Communication

Communication models are essential tools to understand the communication processes. Communication models present detailed information regarding the communication process as well as illustrate the flow of information. Therefore, they have a tremendous positive impact on the research because of introducing many conceptual frameworks of communication processes. Additionally, the model introduces the elements of the communication process. Furthermore, the model of communication provides tips on how communicators can communicate effectively. They also represent the barrier or noise that obstacle the process of communication. They also explain the complexities of the communication system. Finally, the model proposes to bring improvement in the communication process to avoid conflict.

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