Lasswell Model of Communication 1948 Examples & Components

Lasswell Model of Communication

Lasswell’s model is a linear communication model consisting of five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. American psychologist and sociologist Harold Lasswell introduced a linear communication model in 1948. It is also known as Action Model in communication. Harold Lasswell’s model describes the communication process with five questions; “Who? Says what? In which channel? To whom, and with what effect?” These are the five fundamental components of the Lasswell model. The researcher did not explain the feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. It was a significant model for explaining the verbal communication process.

Lasswell Model of Communication

Example of Lasswell Model of Communication

A news reporter disseminates news regarding the negative impact of social media on BBC television to inform the general public.

Lasswell Model of Communication Components

The 5 components of Lasswell’s model are:
  1. Who
  2. Says What
  3. In Which Channel
  4. To Whom
  5. With What Effect
1. Who

Who refers to the sender of the message who initiates the communication. It also indicates the speaker and writer of the communication process. For example, the message’s sender is the news presenter, journalist, or political speaker.

Says What

Says What refers to the message of the communication. The question “Says What” is intended to identify the sender’s statement. For example, a news presenter delivers a FIFA world cup 2022 news update.

In Which Channel

In Which Channel describes the message transmitting pathway. It shows how the information reaches target audiences. The channel of communication differs based on the communication way. For example, Television, radio and newspapers are communication channels in mass media communication. In contrast, hearing, seeing, smelling,  and touching are message-transmitting channels in face-to-face communication. In non-verbal communication, the communication channels are “Physical Appearance, Paralinguistics, Body Movement, Gestures, Posture, Facial Expression, Eye Contact, Proxemics, Haptics, Chronemics, Artifacts, and Environment”.

To Whom

To Whom describes the individuals to whom the message is delivered; it is also known as the receiver of the communication process. The receiver is the audience who receives the information. The sender disseminates the message through a particular channel to reach receivers (To Whom). For example, the news reporter conveys information to the audience who listens to them.

With What Effect

With What Effect illustrates the output of the message. It also validates whether the receivers comprehend the message or not. Sometimes, the sender cannot persuade the audience due to communication noise, faulty channels and lack of speaker’s capability.

According to Lasswell’s communication model, there three functions of communication are Surveillance of the surroundings, Correlation of elements of society, and Cultural integration between generations. 
Lasswell Model of Communication  Examples

1. For example, if a news presenter broadcasts the FIFA World cup information to inform Football lovers, we can relate the Lasswell communication model to this event. It analyzes who is disseminating information (News Presenter), What is saying (FIFA World cup information), Which channel the news presenter is using to disseminate information (Television), and “Effect” is the objective of the news.

2. Another Lasswell communication model example of a situation is the advertisement in newspapers. We can see that the organization promotes its products via newspaper channels to inform customers.

3. Politicians address speeches on radion to motivate voters to vote for their parties.

4. Lecturers send assignment instructions to students via email to get their information.

6. An organization send appointment letters to candidates through postal and courier services.

7. Students submit assignments to the lecturer on an A4 paper sheet.

8. The HR manager posts recent company rules and regulations on the notice board to inform all employees. 

9. A writer publishes his latest book series for readers.

10. A motivational speaker gives a speech through a YouTube channel on how to lead a happy life with limited wealth. 

Advantages and disadvantages of the Lasswell model of communication

Advantages of the Lasswell model

Firstly, the Lasswell model explains the information-transmitting process by throwing five questions to the readers. The answer to these questions indeed describes the whole communication process.

Secondly, the model is suitable for all verbal communication processes, including human communication.

In addition, this model has excellent heuristic significance, and the concept has been utilized in several types of research.

Disadvantages of the Lasswell model

Firstly, the Lasswell model does not indicate the feedback clearly to this model; hence, it is suitable to explain only one-way conversation but not transactional communication like face-to-face interaction.

In addition, the Lasswell model does not appropriately explain the nonverbal communication process since it mentions the “Who Say” component. In the nonverbal communication context, senders convey messages without spoken words.

Moreover, the Lasswell model cannot explain effective communication adequately, such as the interaction between two individuals. In face-to-face communication, both the sender and receiver provide feedback simultaneously. There is no feedback in the Lasswell model that can explain interpersonal and group interaction.

Furthermore, Lasswell’s model completely ignores the communication noise barriers to effective communication.

Finally, it is a propaganda-based linear model. This model focused on describing social and political propaganda.

Lasswell’s Communication  Model Explanation

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Who and when establishes the Lasswell communication model?

Harold Dwight Lasswell’s short name (Harold Lasswell) established the Lasswell communication model in 1948.

What type of model is it?

Lasswell’s communication model explains a one-way communication process; therefore, it is a linear communication model like Aristotle’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, and Berlo’s Model of Communication.

Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence. Media Convergence in Journalism. Who and when established the Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence. Characteristics of New Media Audiences.

Convergence

Convergence means converging multiple items united things to get benefits.  It is the process of forming a unique thing by utilizing two or more things. The convergence has been happening in all sectors to meet people’s demands. This world is very famous in the medical discipline. As per the technological revolution, technological and media convergence has been impossible to reverse trends.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the six types of convergence are technological convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economic convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to merging diverse media outlets, including traditional and new media, to promote the program and media content. The traditional and new media have been merged to adjust to new technology. There are many types of convergence, such as technological convergence and cultural convergence. The new technology and culture have changed human lifestyles. The revolution of technology stimulates media convergence. Technology adoption theories and models explain why and how people accept new technology excessively. Additionally, technological and cultural convergence forces the mass media to converge with other mainstream and new media.

Media Convergence Example

Example of Media Convergence 

For example, the Indian most popular reality TV show name is “Indian Idol.” It is a singing competition Television series. Sony Entertainment Television telecasts the full episodes. Firstly, the candidates need to download the Sony liv app for registration. Sony Television has its social media pages to promote the programs. The TV authority uses social media platforms to promote upcoming episodes as most people access new media sites more than traditional media. They also request their audiences to vote for their favorite contestants via smartphones. The audiences can provide their opinions via social media platforms, for example, Facebook and Instagram. Sometimes, they use FM and traditional radio to advertise the program. In sum, the program authority merges Sony Television, smartphones, radio, Facebook, and YouTube channel to promote the program successfully. It is an example of media convergence in the digital era.

Media Convergence in Journalism

Media convergence in journalism means mutually utilizing the print, broadcast, and online media to promote the news. Journalists use many media to spread the news among the maximum number of people locally and internationally. Media convergence in journalism appears as a significant step to survive in the new media age. There are two types of media convergence in journalism: (1) media convergence in collecting news and (2) media convergence in reporting the news. Firstly, journalists collect information from other media, and they cite the source name when publishing information. Television channels disseminate news from other channels such as radio, TV, newspapers, and social media.

Secondly, media authority uses multiple media to publish the news. People prefer to read online newspapers from social media sites rather than printed papers. Therefore, journalists publish the news via a printed newspaper and website portal and share them on social media platforms to reach more audiences.

Example of Media Convergence in Journalism

For example, The Star is the most popular newspaper outlet in Malaysia. A journalist of “The Star” has collected information from Malaysiakini. The Star has published the news via printed newspapers and online portals. They have also shared the news link via Facebook page to reach the news among social media users. The authority has converged a few media to spread the news among a maximum number of audiences.

Technology Convergence

A long time ago, people used to listen to the radio to get news, Television to watch drama, cameras to capture photos, and bookshelves to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfill all their needs.

Who and when established Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Elements of Media Convergence

The five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political convergence.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content together, which is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computers and smartphones have digitilized the content, and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now, every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page, providing breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has both positive and negative impacts on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular communication platform, also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge, so everyone could watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet publishes printed newspapers, and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expanded their business interest and merged with other companies. In the 1990s, industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994) and Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices, also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry by commenting on social media platforms. It is called textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows for making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It brings the similarity between political parties and policies inside the parties.

Characteristics of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do—for example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education, and social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • Audiences are the innovators.

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability.
In Conclusion, If someone asks me do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022). Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/media-convergence-example-elements-of-media-convergence-in-communication/