5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality- Servqual Gaps Model or 5 Gaps Model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap. Examples of the 5 Gaps of service quality.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality

What is the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model?

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality means Servqual gaps model that describes the customer experiences and service quality provided by the organization. It articulates the gap between customers’ expectations and the service provided to them in different stages of the service providing process.  The service quality will be high when the customers’ perception meets the expectation but the quality is low when the customer’s perception cannot meet the expectation. The Servqual model is also known as the 5 gap model that represents a customer-satisfaction framework.

5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual gaps model. The 5 Gaps of Service Quality are 1. Knowledge Gap, 2. Policy Gap, 3. Communication Gap, 4. Delivery Gap, and 5. Customer Gap.
Figure 1: 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality or Servqual Gaps Model
5 Gaps of Service Quality
  1. Knowledge Gap
  2. Policy Gap
  3. Communication Gap
  4. Delivery Gap
  5. Customer Gap
Gap 1: Knowledge Gap

The knowledge gap refers to the difference between the company’s perception of what the customer expects from the industry and the exact expectation of the customers. This gap can grow if management doesn’t focus on the customer’s expectations thoroughly.

There are many reasons that can increase the knowledge gap, for example:

  • Not focusing on what customers expect.
  • Lack of upward communication.
  • Insufficient market analysis.
  • Less focus on relationships.
  • Failure to understand customer complaints.
  • Lack of interaction between management and customer.
Example of the Knowledge Gap

The user of Netflix wants to see the upcoming movie trailers on the website. So, Netflix would suffer this gap if it did not provide the upcoming movie list.

Gap 2: Policy Gap

The policy gap is the difference between management perceptions of the customer needs and the translation of those perceptions into service delivery policies and standards. This gap occurs because of the dissimilarity of what the customer wants and what the management provides for the customers.

There are many reasons that can grow the policy gap, for instance:

  • First of all, Insufficient commitment to service quality
  • Additionally, Lack of task standardization
  • Moreover, Lack of goal setting
  • Further, Shortness of customer service standards.
  • Also, Inadequately described service levels.
  • Finally, Failure to continually update service level standards.
Example of the Policy Gap

Netflix will suffer from the policy gap if it uploads the upcoming movie trailers after releasing the movie. People want to watch the movie trailer before releasing the movie.

Gap 3: Delivery Gap

The delivery gap is the dissimilarity between the standard of the service delivery policies of the company and the actual delivery of the service. This problem may occur because of the communication gap, poor technology, and inappropriate supervisory on productions in the industry.

This gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry, for example;

  • Firstly, Lack of teamwork to deliver service or product
  • Secondly, the lack of knowledge of the employee about the product or service
  • Thirdly, Insufficient human resources.
  • In addition, the Service performance gap.
  • Further, the Role ambiguity and role conflict – unsure of what your remit is and how it fits with others.
  • Moreover, the Poor employee or technology fit – the wrong person or system for the job.
  • Also, the Inappropriate supervisory control or lack of perceived control – too much or too little control.
Example of Delivery Gap

Netflix may experience this gap if it uploads the lower video quality movie.

Gap 4: Communication Gap

The communication gap refers to is the gap between what the company advertises about the products and what exactly the customer gets delivered. It occurs when the company cannot provide services or products according to the commitment.  It is a very important dimension because it may lead to customer disappointment.

This communication gap occurs because of many reasons in the industry including;

  • Over-commitment.
  • Lack of integration between communication and production department.
  • Inadequate communications between the advertising teams and the operations department.
Example of Communication Gap

Netflix may suffer this gap if it is unable to telecast the HD video that promised to offer.

Gap 5: Customer Gap

The customer gap is the difference between customer perceptions of the experience and customer expectations of the service.  Many organizations are not conscious of this gap; therefore, they are losing a big number of customers overnight.

In conclusion, the 5 Gaps Model of Service Quality is also known as the Gap model that intended to analyze gaps and problems between organizations and customers. Finally, the customer gratification will come out through the model that is a very important factor for continual improvement as well as the business.

Speech Critique Sample: How to Critique a Speech Example- Lisa Kamal

Speech Critique Sample, How to Critique a Speech Example. Lisa Kamal’s Speech Critique Sample. Sample of How to Critique Speech. Speech Critiquing Sample For Student’s Assignment.

Speech Critique Sample

A Complete Speech Critique Sample of Lisa Kamal’s Speech has been presented below for students.

Introduction 

Lisa Nurmarini Mohd Kamal has delivered an impressive graduation speech during the University of Wisconsin Madison winter commencement in 2019. She is a Malaysian and completed her graduation as an academy award nominee. Liza has delivered an amazing speech in front of 7000 people including 1200 graduates with family members (Hassandarvish, 2019). This speech earned huge praise after the video clip went viral on social media. Liza’s video has been viewed over 2.2 million times on Youtube platforms (DEAN EQUAL, 2019).

Any effective speech must include three basic elements such as vocal delivery, physical appearance or body language, and language (Grice & Skinner, 2000). Based on my observation; she has delivered an outstanding speech including clear vocal delivery and meaningful body language, using little filler words, a high level of confidence, and delivered her speech in the English language.

Speech Critique Sample, Speech Critique Sample, How to Critique a Speech Example. Lisa Kamal's Speech Critique Sample. Sample of How to Critique Speech. Speech Critiquing Sample For Student's Assignment. Speaker: Lisa Nurmarini Mohd Kamal Title: Graduation speech Venue: University of Wisconsin Madison Winter Commencement. Time: 2019 Notable Elements: Best inspirational graduation speech.
Figure 1: Lisa Nurmarini Mohd Kamal Graduation speech at University of Wisconsin Madison.
Speaker: Lisa Nurmarini Mohd Kamal

Title: Graduation speech

Venue: University of Wisconsin Madison Winter Commencement.

Time: 2019

Notable Elements: Best inspirational graduation speech.

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4pal32M3sE

Verbal Communication Elements

A perfect clear vocal delivery includes rate and pause, volume, pitch, inflection, voice quality, articulation, and pronunciation (Viswanathan & Viswanathan, 2005).

Firstly, at the commencing of her speech, she expressed gratefulness and thankfulness to the audience. “Thank You Provost rolls for that kind introduction, Thank You, Chancellor, blank senior class officers for this incredible honor”, (Camus Alpha, 2019). The speaker took a deep breath after that, she sang a few lines from “The Story of Tonight” song to attract audiences.

“Raise a glass to freedom, raise a glass to all of us, telling the story of today”, (Camus Alpha, 2019).

Rate and Pause

Lisa has used a perfect combination of the rate and pause during delivering her speech. Lisa smiled and took a few moments of silence to start her speech again. It is called a pause of speech that can allow the audience time to focus on the speaker. She did not talk too fast or too slow, therefore it has been a comprehensive speech to audiences. Sometimes she spoke a little faster than the normal rate to increase the persuasiveness by carrying exactly what she wants to say.

In addition to that, the volume of Lisa’s speech very appropriate; it was not too loud or too slow, hence the audience can hear clearly.

Pitch and Inflection

Furthermore, the pitch and inflection of the speech are very comfortable incorporating the audience to perceive the message concisely. Pitch refers to the highness and lowness of the speaker’s voice and inflection defines the patterns of variation in the speaker’s pitch level during delivering the speech. The variation of the pitch level has been identified when she uttered “Soundtrack became my coping mechanism”, the combination of the pitch and inflection made this speech more melodious.

“In my junior year of college listening to Hamilton, Soundtrack became the coping mechanism that would get me through the day”, (Camus Alpha, 2019).

Articulation

Moreover, Lisa has flexible voice quality and timbre therefore audience enjoys her speech and feeling to listen again and again. Finally, the most important element of a melodious speech is articulation and pronunciation. Based on my observation, Lisa has used the perfect combination of articulation and pronunciation during delivering her speech. She stressed many words to convey her message to the audience clearly when need to do so. For example, she stressed the word “Prestigious” when talking about how she came to study at the University of Wisconsin-madison.

“I came here on a scholarship a long way from my home in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia this opportunity to be here at the prestigious University of Wisconsin-madison did not come easy or cost little for any of us”, (Camus Alpha, 2019).

Non-Verbal Communication Elements

Body languages are the most important part of any public speaking because the audience will focus more on your body language rather than vocal words. According to Azeez & Azeez (2018), people use only 7 percent verbal and the rest of 97 percent non-verbal cues. They also said that the nonverbal elements are made of 38 percent tone of voice and 55 percent body language. The most basic nonverbal communication cues are physical appearance, facial expression, posture, eye contact, movement, and gesture.

Physical Appearance

First of all, physical appearance describes the physical features of the speaker including dress and grooming. Lisa had worn a graduation gown with a hijab scarf that represents her as a Muslim speaker. The audience can easily understand that she is a Muslim girl because of her dress, so our appearance always represents a great message about ourselves. The proverb says that the first expression is the best information.

Posture

Secondly, the speaker maintained a good posture cue during delivering her speech. She was enough confident, comfortable, and prepared to speak in front of the 7000 audiences. Posture refers to the position of the body of the speaker while delivering the speech. Lisa was moving her body to the left, right sides too rather than only standing like a robot. It is very clear that her body language was impressive to attract the audience to listen carefully. She was smiling while delivering the speech; it also made the speech melodious to the audience.

Eye Contact

Also, the speaker maintained good eye contact with the audience that made her more enthusiastic, sincere, confident, and interested. She aligned her eyes with body language, for example, she was maintaining eye contact with all audiences included left, right, and front side’s audiences. For instance, she was looking down too while uttering the words “14-hour time difference”.

“We juggle our studies relationships with friends and family and in most, in my case, most of them were abroad separated by a 14 hour time difference”, (Camus Alpha, 2019).

Gesture

Apart from eye contact, gesture describes the movement of the speaker’s arms, hands, and head while delivering the speech. Based on my observation, Lisa used her gesture perfectly. Deaf communication is based on only sigh language so it is sensed that how important is a gesture in conducting effective communication. The speaker strengthened her arms so many times for delivering an effective speech. For example, she extended her both hands and fingers a little bit while uttering the words Broadway musical, coursework, graduated, and so more.

“I sang like my life was a Tony award-winning Broadway musical and believe me you did not throw away your shot because if you graduate it having completed most of your coursework from the comfort of your own bed staring into your laptop you made it I see you if you graduated having spent all hours of the day in the library or evenings in coffee shops you made it”, (Camus Alpha, 2019).

At the end of the speech, she congratulated the graduated by singing a line of a song. “We’re gonna teach him had goodbye say goodbye one last time congratulations Badgers” (Camus Alpha, 2019).

Conclusion

Nevertheless, despite the many positive aspects of the speech, Lisa was a little bit nervous while delivering the speech. It has been articulated from her trembling voice while addressing her speech. However, based on my observation, Lisa delivered an outstanding speech including appropriate verbal and nonverbal elements. So, it is very easy to perceive the message of the speech. She has managed to implement all elements of effective communication such as clear articulation, pronunciation, posture, eye contact, gesture, and so more. Therefore, we can conclude that Lisa has delivered an effective, perfect, and memorable speech in the convocation ceremony.

Lisa Kamal’s Speech Critique Sample Download Link- PDF Download Here

References

DEAN EQUAL. (2019, December 18). Lisa Nur Marini Mohd Kamal Gemparkan Amerika!!! | Nyanyi Broadway di Graduasi (Dgn Sarikata BM). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2EZQSgd2udw

Hassandarvish, M. (2019, December 17). Malaysian student shares inspiring story to a crowd of 7,000 people at US graduation (VIDEO). Life | Malay Mail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/life/2019/12/17/malaysian-student-shares-inspiring-story-to-a-crowd-of-7000-people-at-us-gr/1820057

Viswanathan, M., & Viswanathan, M. (2005). Measuring speech quality for text-to-speech systems: development and assessment of a modified mean opinion score (MOS) scale. Computer Speech & Language19(1), 55-83.

Camus Alpha. (2019, December 16). Lisa Kamal’s Graduation Keynote Speech – University of Wisconsin-Madison Winter Commencement 2019. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_cuqEmomnlU

Grice, G. L., & Skinner, J. F. (2000). Mastering public speaking. Allyn & Bacon.

Azeez, R. A., & Azeez, P. Z. (2018). Incorporating Body Language into EFL Teaching. Koya University Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences1(1), 36-45.