Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine & Book Anatomy and Space 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.

Four Theories of the Press

Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson introduced the Four Theories of the Press book in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press: Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

The Four Theories of the Press are:
  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory
    1. Authoritarian Theory

The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.

The government has the right to filter any news published by the press.

If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.

John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900.  According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.

For example,

  • The press must free from the government.
  • Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
  • Press controlled by journalists and media.
    3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but is controlled by society’s people.

Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.

From this theory-  that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.

4. Communist Soviet Theory

The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.

  • Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
  • Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
  • Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?

The newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon, and sports events.

Newspaper Anatomy

Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy

Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Figure 1: Newspaper Anatomy- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Newspaper Space
Front Page  Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.
Local Section News about where you live is located.
National News about national information.
International News about international information.
Business stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market).
Sports stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories.
Entertainment Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.
Opinions & Editorials. This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.
Advertisement Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.
What Is Magazine?

Magazines are periodical publications ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.

Magazines Anatomy
Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Figure 2: Magazine Anatomy- Anatomy of Magazines
Magazine Space
Cover Story refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.
Editorial Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.
Features Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places, and events.
Columns opinion pieces represent the strong, informed, and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance.
Reviews critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions, or a newly published book.

 

What Is a Book?

Books are written publication, printed, and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tool to keep the record of information in written and image form.

Books Anatomy
Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy
Figure 3: Books Anatomy- Malaysian Book Anatomy

Books Space

PRELIM half-title
Title
copyright
content
foreword
preface
acknowledgments
TEXTS New chapter
END MATTERS Appendix
Reference
Index
Different Types of Content in Newspaper
  1. NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening.
  2. FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation, or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
  3. EDITORIAL: This space specializes in editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
  4. COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) to discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
  5. READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
  6. Advertisement
  7. Cartoon
Four Category of Readers
  1. HEAVY READERS
  • Read the newspaper for more than 2 hours.
  • Read front page, editorial, and columnist.
  • Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
  1. SPORADIC READERS

Read the newspaper for more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.

  1. SCANNER READERS
  • Read less than 15 minutes.
  • Just scan the information.
  1. APATHETIC READERS
  • Apathetic readers are less interested in reading the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.
ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT
  1. Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict and so more.
  2. Education- Educated people formally and informally.
  3. As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
  4. Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.

Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence in Communication. Who and when establish Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence, Characteristic of New Media Audiences.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to the process of merging all communication outlets to adjust to the new technology. It is a new technology culture that has changed human lifestyles. For example, every mass medium merges together through the convergence process to become one medium. It is the process of merging communication outlets such as television, print, radio, and the internet through new media platforms. The Internet has changed the pattern and activity of the media outlet; for example, newspapers now offer video content, TV provides interactive comment options through social media, and radio has a webcam.

Who and when establish Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Example of Media Convergence 

A long time ago, people used to listen to Radio to get news, Television to watch drama, camera to capture the photo, and bookshelf to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfil all their needs.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the 6 types of convergence are technology convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economical convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Elements of Media Convergence

According to Flew (2020), the five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content all together that is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computer and smartphone have digitilized the content, and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page, and it provides breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has its both positive and negative impact on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease the way of human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular platform for communication that is also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating with each other. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge so everyone can watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet published printed newspapers, and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expand their business interest, and they merged with other companies. In the 1990s, the example of industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994), Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices, also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry through commenting on social media platforms. It is called textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It not only brings the similarity between political parties but also policies inside the parties.

Characteristic of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do—for example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education as well as social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • They are the innovators.

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability (Tapscott, 2008).
In Conclusion, If someone asks me, do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

References

Flew, T. (2020). Media convergence – Transmedia storytelling. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/media-convergence/Transmedia-storytelling

Kobiruzaman, M. M., Waheed, M., Yaakup, H. S. B., & Osman, M. N. (2018). Impact of Social Media Towards Society, A Case Study on Teenagers. International Journal of Education and Knowledge Management (IJEKM) 1(3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.37227/IJEKM-03-2018-14

Tapscott, D. (2008). Grown up digital. Boston: McGraw-Hill Education.