Total quality management (TQM): Eight Principles and Practices of TQM

Total quality management (TQM) strategy. The Principles and Practices of Total Quality Management (TQM). The advantages of TQM. Total Quality Management Tools.

Total quality management (TQM) strategy

Yang (2012) proposed that the Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to the management process that includes the commitment and dedication of every employee in the organization to maintain a high-level quality in every sector, and attention to the customer gratifications. He also said that the employees of the company have to be informed about the strategy before implementing it in the organization. In the mid-1980s, the total quality management (TQM) was introduced based on Company-Wide Quality Control (CWQC) and benchmarking process. Later, many scholars, such as Juran, Deming, and Ishikawa gave their contributions to the practices and improve the content of TQM. The most important contributions of the TQM are Deming 14 points, Juran quality trilogy, and Ishikawa’s Fishbone diagram and CWQC (Yang, 2012).

Total quality management (TQM)

Figure-1: The Definition of TQM in Total Quality Management.

The example of the company that practices the Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy:

  • Ford Motor Company
  • Phillips Semiconductor
  • SGL Carbon
  • Motorola and
  • Toyota Motor Company.

The Eight Principles and Practices of Total Quality Management (TQM)

In the mid-1990s, the eight basic principle or elements of the total quality management (TQM) was proposed by some well-known philosophers (Carson, 2019). These eight principles entirely work together to develop the process and to yield satisfaction for the customers.

The Eight Principles and Practices of Total Quality Management (TQM)

Figure-2: The Definition of TQM in Total Quality Management.

Principle-1: Customer focus

The first and prime principle of total quality management (TQM) is to focus on the customers who are buying the products and services as well as potential customers. Customers are the people who justify the quality of the products and services. Customers will feel that they have spent their money on a quality product if the product can last long to fulfill demands. You can exceed customer satisfaction only when you will know their demands, so align company objectives with the client’s demands (“Total Quality Management Principles to Improve Processes,” 2019, October 2).

Principle-2: Leadership

Leadership is an important role to maintain unity among employees to achieve the interdependent goal (Evans, 2013). Although there are mainly three types of leadership in the industry, the democratic leadership style is the best to perform well. Leaders can form a convenient environment to work effectively inside the organization, in which all employees work to achieve the organization’s goal.

Principle-3: Involvement of people

People from every level in the organization give their all-out efforts, dedication to the organization’s profits. The total employee commitment enables the industry to develop productivity, process, and raise sales growth. So, all the employees in the organization have to well-trained, committed, and dedicated to achieving an interdependent goal on time. The industry needs to create a responsive environment where every employee will be motivated to complete the task properly. The activeness, motivation, and retention of the employees can yield customer gratifications. The involvement of people can produce effective teamwork. According to Evans (2013), there are three types of teamwork such as vertical, horizontal, and inter-organization.

Principle-4: Processes approach

The company needs to improve the process consistently to yield good output. A good output of the business from the processes approach can bring customer satisfaction. Hence, TQM focus on the process approach strongly to assure the quality of the product or service.

Principle-5: System approach to management

The total quality management (TQM) highlights executing the strategy in a systematic approach. The industry makes a proper plan of implementation, and they collect data during applying those processes.

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) describes this principle as:

“Identifying, understanding, and managing interrelated processes as a system contributes to the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency in achieving its objectives.”

Principle-6: Continual improvement

Continual improvement of the process is an important step for every industry to make their customer satisfied. TQM assists the company to keep watching the continual improvement of the system to improve the service and product of the industry.

Principle-7: Factual approach to decision-making

It eases the way of taking the decision based on the information collected from data. Making a decision based on the actual fact is an effective way to customer satisfaction. This principal uses the actual method to collect and analyze data.

Principle-8: Mutual beneficial supplier relationship

Usually, a business is conducted by combined multiple departments, and each of the departments is assigned with the individual tasks. The function of these departments is interconnected. The total quality management process helps all sections work combined to achieve an interdependent objective. The company uses visual aids and flowcharts to understand employees on how to perform perfectly. The execution of the total quality management (TQM) properly is not an easy task; TQM represents a big cultural shift so the company needs to implement it slowly and accurately (Carson, 2019).

In addition to the eight principles, effective communication is the key principle to conduct business successfully. Everybody of the company has to be conscious about the plan, method, and strategy to achieve a goal. The risk of failure can increase due to the communication gap. Make sure that every employee is aware of their duty and involve them in the decision-making session. It will motivate the employees letting them know that they are contributing to the industry. Effective communication reduces silos and increases coordination and cooperation.

The advantages of TQM

At first, Japan identified the advantages of total quality management (TQM) in the mid-1950s. After a few decades, the benefit of the TQM had been disclosed all over the world. The most important benefits of the TQM are:

  • Develop the quality of products and services to satisfy customers.
  • Motivate employees morally.
  • Boost productivity in the organization.
  • Reduce production costs and faults.
  • Raise profits margin.
  • Make processes more efficient and reliable.
  • Involves employees.
  • Improves the condition of the work environment.
  • Improve the communication process
Total Quality Management Tools

There are many tools of the TQM that help the industry to operate smoothly with profit. These tools can help the industry in many approaches. The most important approaches are:

  • Identify difficulties with quality.
  • Analyze data.
  • Collect information.
  • Identify the main causes of the problems.
  • Assess the results.
References:

Carson, S. (2019, September 19). ISO 9001:2015 and the 8 Quality Management Principles to Take You… Pilgrim Quality Solutions Blog | Quality Management Blog. https://www.pilgrimquality.com/blog/iso90012015-quality-mgmt-principles/

Evans, J. R. (2013). Quality & performance excellence. Cengage Learning.

Total Quality Management Principles to Improve Processes. (2019, October 2). Lucidchart. https://www.lucidchart.com/blog/8-total-quality-management-principles/

Yang, C. C. (2012). The integration of TQM and Six-Sigma. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, 219.

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example

Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example. Examples of Symbolic such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Table of contents:

  1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?
  3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory.
  4. History, and Example 

1. What is Symbolic Convergence Theory?

According to Symbolic Convergence Theory,  People share common fantasies and visions and these collections of individuals are merged into a cohesive group. SCT presents an explanation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Symbolic Convergence Theory consists of three words such as symbolic, convergence, and theory. Group members cooperatively create and sustain a shared consciousness including shared meaning through interaction.

1.1 What is Symbolic?

Symbolic is serving as a symbol that represents or expresses something else such as an idea, an action, quality without using words such as Code Words, Phrases, Slogans, and Gestures.

Example of Symbolic:

Code Words: What does FF: AC stands for?

FF: AC stands for “Final Fantasy: Advent Children”. Final Fantasy VII: Advent Children is a 2005 Japanese computer-animated science fantasy action drama film.

For example,  K.L = Kuala Lumpur, K.G= Kilogram, A.C= Air Conditioner

Phrases: Friday becomes a cool, wet afternoon.

Slogans: Think different is an advertising slogan used from 1997 to 2002 by Apple Computer, Inc.

Gestures: The common thumb up sign represents something approved and accepted.

Symbolic Convergence Theory (SCT)- Code Words Phrases Slogans Gestures

1.2 What is Convergence?

Convergence means forming a new unified whole or evolving into one through coming together two or more things. Convergence comes from the prefix con- and verb verge. Here, prefix con means together, and the verb verge, that means to turn toward. We can use convergence to explain things that are in the process of coming together, like the slow convergence of your opinions with those of your mother, or for things that have already come together. For example, a crowd of mass people all move together into a group.

1.3 What is Theory?

Theory is a set of principles on which the practice of an activity is based. It is a formal concept or set of ideas that is aimed to explain something. For example, the Tw0-step flow of communication theory, Groupthink Muted Group Theory, SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY,  Tubb’s Theory- Small Group Communication, and so on.

Symbolic convergence: When 2 or more private symbol worlds incline toward each other, come closer, or overlap, it is called a symbolic convergence. 

2. History of the Symbolic Convergence Theory?

Ernest Bormann established Symbolic Convergence Theory in 1972. SCT was first proposed by Ernest Bormann in the Quarterly Journal of Speech in 1972. Bormann and his colleagues at the University of Minnesota introduced SCT as a framework for discovering, describing, and explaining the dynamic process by which humans come to share symbolic reality.

SCT is a communication-related theory introduced by Ernest Bormann who is a Professor at the University of Minnesota in the United States. American communication theorist best known as the originator of symbolic convergence theory (SCT) and its attendant method, fantasy theme analysis, which both explore how the sharing of narratives or “fantasies” can create and sustain group consciousness.  He argued that group consciousness can occur at any level of communication, from within small groups to mass media. Thus, he identified symbolic convergence as a general theory of communication.

3. Description of Symbolic Convergence Theory

Symbolic Convergence Theory offers an elucidation for the appearance of a group’s cohesiveness, consisting of shared emotions, motives, and meanings. Through SCT, members of the group can build a community or a group consciousness which grows stronger if they share a cluster of fantasy themes. Although this theory allows theorists and practitioners to anticipate or predict what did happen and what will happen but it does not allow for control of human communication.

It attempts to explain how communication can create and sustain group consciousness through the sharing of narratives or fantasies. To foster this cohesiveness, dramatizing or using fantasy stories are significant types of communication involved in SCT. SCT explains that meanings, emotions, values, and motives for action are in the communication contexts by people trying to make sense out of a common experience. It is a process through which collectives create and share a consciousness and develop a common symbolic reality.

Continue reading “Symbolic Convergence Theory: History, Description, Structure, & Example”

Tuckman’s Model Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory

Tuckman’s Model: Five Stages of Group and Team Development Theory. Tuckman’s Theory: Five Stages of Group and Team Development theory- Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model. Theory of Tuckman: Team and Group Development Stages. Bruce Tuckman’s Stages of Group Development. Tuckman’s Stages: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Teamwork Model: 5 Stages of Team and Group Development.

Table of Content:

  1. Tuckman’s Model Five Stages.
  2. Tuckman’s Group Development Stages.
  3. Advantages and Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Model.

1. Tuckman’s Model

Bruce Tuckman introduced his group and team development model in 1965. In the 1970s, he added the fifth stage adjourning to his model. According to Tuckman’s model, the five stages are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. It is one of the appropriate theories for explaining the behavior of group members with dynamic characteristics. A perfect theory to describe how to group and team members adjust and adapt in a group.

Tuckman’s Model
 Tuckman’s Model of the five stages of group development
2. Group Development Stages of Tuckman’s Model

Although, in 1965 Tuckman proposed four-stage of group development model but later he added the fifth stage called adjourning. This model implies not only group and team development theory but also group facilitation theory. Tuckman’s group and team development model consists of five important stages that facilitate group formation and development, for example, forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.

1. Tuckman’s Model-Forming Stage:(Orientation)
  • Members carefully explore both personal and group goals.
  • Tentatively feel uncomfortable about working with a group of strangers or unfamiliar colleagues try to understand and test personal relationships.
  • Orient itself to itself.
Primary Tension of the forming stage
  • Social unease and stiffness that accompanies the getting-acquainted stage in a new group
  • To be overly polite with one another
  • Members don’t interrupt one another
  • Often speak softly and avoid expressing strong opinions
  • Talk less and provide little in the way of content

How to Solve the Tension?

  • Firstly, Be positive and energetic.
  • In addition, Smile and Laugh
  • Further, Nod in agreement and Exhibit enthusiasm
  • Furthermore, Be patient and open-minded knowing that certainly, the primary tension will decrease with time.
  • Finally, Be prepared and informed before your first meeting so you can help the group focus on its task.
2. Tuckman’s Model-Storming Stage: (Power Struggle)
  • Conflict ⇒ cohesion dialectic.
  • Leadership ⇒ follower ship dialectic.
  • Group members become argumentative also emotional.
  • The most confident members begin to compete for both social acceptance and leadership.
  • Many groups try to skip this stage in order to avoid competition and conflict
  • Conflict is necessary to establish a climate in which members understand the value of disagreeing with one another.
Secondary Tension
  • Frustrations and personality conflicts experienced by group members as they compete for acceptance and achievement within a group.
  • Members have gained enough confidence to become assertive and even aggressive as they pursue positions of power and influence.
  • High level of energy and agitation
  • The group is noisier, more dynamic, and physically active
  • Members speak in louder voices, interrupting and overlapping one another so that two or three people may be speaking at the same time.
  • Members sit up straight, lean forward, or squirm in their seats
  • Everyone is alert and listening intently.
How to Solve the Tension?
  • Making jokes.
  • Work outside the group setting to discuss the personal difficulties and anxieties of group members.
3. Tuckman’s Model-Norming Stage: (Cooperation and Integration)
  • Members start learning to work as a cohesive team and task-oriented.
  • Start developing “rules of engagement”.
  • Feel more comfortable with one another and are willing to disagree and express opinions – communication becomes open.
  • Finally, a feeling of trust and clear goals emerge.
4. Tuckman’s Model-Performing Stage: (Synergy)
  • Members are fully engaged and eager to work at this stage.
  • Adjust and adapt, Members start solving critical problems.
  • Group identity, loyalty, and morale are generally high.
  • Disagreements do occur, but members usually resolved intelligently and amicably.
  • “Interaction patterns reflect virtually no tension; rather, the members are jovial, loud, boisterous, laughing and verbally backslapping each other”.
5. Tuckman’s Model-Adjourning Stage: (Closure)
  • Members have usually achieved their common goal and may begin to disband.
  • Disband = confront relational issues (For example, how to retain friendships with other members).
  • They are happy for what they have achieved but feel a sense of loss when the group dissolves.
Advantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model
  • Firstly, this model clarifies the specific stages of any group and team for instance forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
  • In addition to that, learning more about primary tension and secondary tension also how to solve it.
  • Finally, Tuckman’s group developing model shows the perfect way of solving group uncertainty issues.
Disadvantages of Tuckman’s Theory or Model

 

  • Tuckman’s Theory consists of five important stages that really difficult to maintain one by one. Group members need to follow different instructions at every stage to maintain effective communication and good relationship with group members. Additionally, there is no specific solution that can solve all conflicts in group communication although suggested some recommendations to reduce conflicts.