Media Convergence Definition, Example Types & Elements

Media Convergence Example- Example of Media Convergence in Communication. Who and when establish Media convergence theory? Also, Example and Elements of Media Convergence, Characteristic of New Media Audiences.

Media Convergence

Media convergence refers to the process of merging all communication outlets to adjust to the new technology. It is a new technology culture that has changed human lifestyles. For example, every mass medium merges together through the convergence process to become one medium. It is the process of merging communication outlets such as television, print, radio, and the internet through new media platforms. The Internet has changed the pattern and activity of the media outlet; for example, newspapers now offer video content, TV provides interactive comment options through social media, and radio has a webcam.

Who and when establish Media convergence theory?

Henry Jenkins introduced media convergence theory in 2006 via his book Convergence Culture: Where Old and new media collide.

Example of Media Convergence 

A long time ago, people used to listen to Radio to get news, Television to watch drama, camera to capture the photo, and bookshelf to keep books. Nowadays, people use only smartphones and computers to fulfil all their needs.

Types of Convergence

According to Henry Jenkins, the 6 types of convergence are technology convergence, media convergence, global convergence, economical convergence, cultural convergence, and organic convergence.

Elements of Media Convergence

According to Flew (2020), the five important elements of media convergence are technological, social, industrial, textual, also political.

Technological Convergence

Technology convergence has brought computer, communication, and content all together that is called 3 C. Here, 3 C refers to a computer, communication, and content. Computer and smartphone have digitilized the content, and digital content has changed the process of communication. The revolution of new technology and media convergence has changed the way of generating content and distribution. It has influenced the news production and distribution process totally. For example, now every newspaper outlet has its own social media fan page, and it provides breaking news. Technology has allowed these outlets to operate live video programs that provide very authentic news for audiences.  Therefore, subscribers are getting instant news through new technology convergence. It is definitely a positive impact of convergence in communication outlets.

Social Convergence

Social media convergence has its both positive and negative impact on society. It is called the double edge sword for the communication sector in society.  Social media are a computer and application-based networking system that ease the way of human communication through the internet (Kobiruzzaman, Waheed, Yaakup & Osman, 2018). Social media have emerged as the most convenient and popular platform for communication that is also known as new media. People are adopting social media for entertaining, imparting knowledge, sharing information, and communicating with each other. There are many types of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, WhatsApp, WeChat, Instagram, Zoom, Google meet, TikTok, QQ, Douyin, Sina Weibo, QZone, Snapchat, Reddit, Pinterest, and so more. Social media convergence made the news free of charge so everyone can watch the news easily.

Many traditional media outlets disseminate the news through social media. For example, a newspaper outlet published printed newspapers, and it updates the same news on social media platforms. Thus, anyone can consume news from social media platforms without buying a printed copy of the newspaper. Social media convergence eases the way of reporting news for news reporters and editors. It has enabled news reporters and editors to collect news within a short time and disseminate them. Many journalists share their content on social media so that everyone can know who is the content writer.

Industrial Convergence

A lot of big industries have been merged into one giant company to dominate the sector. For example, in the 1990s and 2000s, many media companies expand their business interest, and they merged with other companies. In the 1990s, the example of industrial convergence is the  Viacom-Paramount (1994), Disney-ABC (1995). In the 2000s, the example of the biggest company merger is America On-Line (AOL) and Time Warner, Viacom-CBS (2000), NBC-Universal (2004). They took over the company to expand business in the media sector.

Textual Convergence

Textual convergence refers to the merging of printed media into online news media. For example, books and newspapers have been converted into social media-based writing and reading practices, also known as citizen journalism. Now anyone can contribute to the media industry through commenting on social media platforms. It is called textual convergence in media. Journalists are earning knowledge and improving themselves through convergence. Now journalists can view others’ content easily because of convergence. They are getting ideas and improving themselves. It allows them to learn more about the rule and regulations of generating media content. Media convergence creates a new way to interact between media practitioners and audiences. Readers comment to express their opinion. So, it allows making interactive communication atmosphere.

Political Convergence

Convergence has managed to increase the similarity between political parties all over the world. It not only brings the similarity between political parties but also policies inside the parties.

Characteristic of New Media

Audiences According to Don Tapscott (2008), new media audiences have the following characteristics:

  • New media audiences want liberty in everything they do—for example, freedom of choice to freedom of expression.
  • New media audiences love to customize, scrutinize, and personalize.
  • They look for corporate integrity and openness when deciding what to buy and where to work.
  • New media audiences want entertainment and play in their work, education as well as social life.
  • They are collaborative and relationship generation.
  • They are the innovators.

The characteristic of new media audiences has been formed because of social media availability (Tapscott, 2008).
In Conclusion, If someone asks me, do I think convergence is important or not? I will answer: Yes, I think change is always good. Change is part of the natural adoption process that drives the communication industry. The problem will occur when we avoid change. So, we cannot avoid the pace of change.

References

Flew, T. (2020). Media convergence – Transmedia storytelling. Encyclopedia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/media-convergence/Transmedia-storytelling

Kobiruzaman, M. M., Waheed, M., Yaakup, H. S. B., & Osman, M. N. (2018). Impact of Social Media Towards Society, A Case Study on Teenagers. International Journal of Education and Knowledge Management (IJEKM) 1(3), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.37227/IJEKM-03-2018-14

Tapscott, D. (2008). Grown up digital. Boston: McGraw-Hill Education.

Cyberbullying in Bangladesh Case Study- How to Prevent Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying in Bangladesh Case Study- How to Prevent Cyberbullying. Cyberbully Case Study on Bangladeshi Girl. How to Prevent Cyberbullying in Bangladesh.

Cyberbullying in Bangladesh

What is Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying refers to a bullying event occurring online platform. It is a new phenomenon in the network era. This phenomenon also occurs in adolescents and minors, especially in adults. With the popularity of social networking sites, “online bullying” has begun to evolve into a global wave and become a severe social problem. This phenomenon will cause tremendous psychological harm to people and affect their healthy development and growth. Cyberbullying (also known as malicious sabotage) refers to the act of attacking others on the Internet.

Cyberbullying Case study in Bangladesh

The Internet is becoming more popular in Bangladesh day by day. According to many surveys, teenagers are more into social media while using the internet. According to Google, the number of active internet users is now four crores with 35% active users every day, and it will be nine crores within the year 2020. In Bangladesh, almost 49% of students have reported being a victim of cyberbullying.

The students are either being bullied or disturbed online or bullied by the same person online and offline. This study has concluded that 49.5% of Bangladeshi teenagers had been victims of cyberbullying until 2016. This study indicates that 61% of students in Bangladesh would not send explicit messages online, which known as “sexting”. Around 38% of students expressed positive opinions about consult with their parents. This study covered 1,510 pupils in Bangladesh. Basically, in Bangladesh, girls are being bullied more than boys. This is one of the major reasons behind suicides.

The rate of suicide among young girls is increasing day by day.  According to the increasing number of internet users worldwide, the negative impacts of the internet are visible day by day. In recent years Bangladesh has experienced an outstanding development in the communication technology sector. According to the Bangladesh Road Transport Corporation (BRTC) report in 2016, more than 10 million people use smartphones and 66.8 million internet subscribers, which has increased by 22% by 2016. After launching the 3G service by the telco company, the number of internet users increased tremendously.  The population of Bangladesh is around 160 million+, where 10 million people use mobile phones and 23 million Facebook users.

The government of Bangladesh has taken some initiatives in recent years to develop Bangladesh technologically and economically. Technology is a blessing for us when we enjoy technology opportunities, but we feel unfortunate when experiencing the negative impact of technology. In the recent era, social media has become one of the most popular media among people for communication, sharing knowledge, information, data and building relationship, and online marketing.

According to a statistic report in 2018, there are more than 800 social media globally, including Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Imo, Viber, Instagram, Linked In, and so on. The amount of these social media users is more than 2.8 billion all over the world. The media and communication technology such as social media, especially Facebook, positively and negatively impact human being. Facebook is the most popular social media as per the statistic report in 2018, and the amount of users is 2.23 billion. Facebook has brought opportunity into communication from the perspective of Bangladesh.

Most teenagers possess at least one Facebook account conducted by themselves. Apart from the positive impacts of these social media, especially Facebook, on the young generation. After all, many girls are committed to suicide because of cyberbullying on social media.

Cyberbullying Case study on Bangladeshi Girl Afrin Laboni

We want to talk about a girl’s story who has been affected by cyberbullying.  Afrin Laboni a Bangladeshi girl who studies at a renowned public university in the capital named Jagannath university abbreviation is JnU. She is a brilliant student in the accounting and information system department of Jagannath University. Afrin was born in a very remote area in Bangladesh, and her father was a school teacher who already passed away three years ago, and her mother is a housewife. They are two siblings, and both are very educated students at the same university. She was also an activist of Bangladesh’s ruling government’s student wing Bangladesh student league organisation. She is acting role as an organising secretary at the Bangladesh student league of Jagannath University.

Although Her hometown was a very remote area in Bangladesh, she is a very sophisticated and enthusiastic girl. Now she is 27 years old, and her height is approximately 5.7 inches. She is a brilliant and beautiful girl. They have a pleasant family, and the days are going very well. She is an activist of Bangladesh ruling government student wings named Bangladesh Chhatra League. In 2017, her mother got sick and admitted to Dhaka medical hospital, and just after one month of her mother’s illness, she could know her mother is affected by chronic kidney disease. Always she was staying with her mother to serve her.

In the meantime, she applied for contesting miss world Bangladesh 2018. Miss World Bangladesh is the very popular national beauty pageant of Bangladesh. This solemn event was created to give beautiful Bangladeshi girls the opportunity to participate in the “Miss World” pageant. Antar Showbiz created Miss World Bangladesh to be the country’s first nationwide pageant. The event’s mission is to support the empowerment of women and the opportunity to represent Bangladesh at an international level. With her great efforts and endeavours, she secured her position as the top ten beauty contestant and became the best behaviour of the miss world Bangladesh 2018.

In a short time, she achieved huge popularity among the young generation. She came under the limelight once again for her weird answer to the judges. It turns out Afrin had been lying about her marital status since she joined the pageant. According to the investigative report of India Times, she had a court marriage with her ex-husband Ataur Rahman Atik in the Jamalpur Court back on August 18, 2014. They divorced on May 17, 2016, and Atik later filed a case against her accusing her of theft. The case is still ongoing. Her husband, Ataur Rahman Atik, published some of their intimate photos on social media to humiliate her.

The photos went viral on social media, especially on Facebook, within a short time. According to the rules of miss world Bangladesh, no one can participate in this contest who is married; therefore, she got kicked out from miss world competition 2018. However, her husband could not prove that she was married, but she got viral on Facebook. Thus, she had been affected by cyberbullying. A rumour went viral on social media that she lied about miss the world competition.

Thousands of peoples misunderstood as well as humiliated her on social media through timeline status and comments. Many descent and vogues comments made her depressed and sad. She never knew that something is waiting for her in this kind of situation. Her mother succumbed to injury at that time, and she thought this cyberbullying lead her mother to lead to get death soon. She decided to commit suicide when she got kicked out of the miss world competition and lost her mother.

At that time, most people threw bad comments against her, such as she is a foolish girl, liar, thief, and so on. They used very indecent words during comment against her. she also filed a defamation case against Atikur Rahman, who pretended to her husband. The case was filed with the police station, and it is still an ongoing process. Now everyone knows that it was a false and fabricated conspiracy against her to kick out of the miss world competition. She also believed that she had been suffered unimaginable damage in her life only for the misuse of social media.

In her opinion, all of the bad things in her life have come from a lack of awareness. She also acknowledged that she should have become more conscious about her personal life and capturing photos and videos. She went to a psychologist for getting relief from all of these problems. Now she is leading a normal life like other girls in Bangladesh but still could not forget the crucial times that triggered her to commit suicide.

How to Prevent Cyberbullying in Bangladesh

          Cyberbullying is one of the major concerns for parents all over the world. In the era of media communication, it isn’t easy to control or observe internet usage when it comes to children. That’s why the government should take responsibility to stop or at least control cyberbullying. Though the internet was introduced very late in Bangladesh compared to other countries, it has become popular within a blink of an eye. Most people are using the internet in day to day life. And for school-going children, their favourite pastime has become using social networking sites, for example, Facebook and WhatsApp.

Sexual predators or simply older people are using social media as a platform for blackmailing or bullying. Most of the time, teenagers, especially girls, are being victimized for this. As they are vulnerable and young, people tend to use social media to bully them or force them to do things according to their will. Most of the time, for the socio-cultural norms, children are terrified to seek help from their parents or take necessary security steps while they were being bullied. And as a whole, it affects the mental health of teenagers in a very negative way, sometimes leads to clinical depression and sometimes suicide.

The Bangladeshi government has taken action to stop cyberbullying. A new ICT act has been introduced, and under these acts, to reveal the person who is bullying or take legal steps against that person has become very easy. Not only these, but the government is also promoting mental health care for the victims. Many organizations are holding awareness seminars, programs, and dramas to create awareness regarding cyberbullying. Still, the rate of bullying is increasing day by day, affecting the socio-cultural condition in Bangladesh greatly. In Bangladesh, with the development of the internet, social media, mobile phones, Cyberbullying is happening more and more.

The means of cyberbullying are getting higher and higher. Cyberbullying is everywhere. It has affected our lives and affected by society. Cyberbullying rises exponentially. The continued occurrence of this phenomenon will affect the sustainable development of society. From all aspects of life, we must find some feasible ways to reduce the occurrence of cyberbullying.

According to where cyberbullying commonly occurs, we can divide it into two areas, source and receiver. These two areas are the main factors of cyberbullying. The sources refer to some communication in the network area that disseminates information or are senders of information. So, these sources could be the advertisement on the website, the link from the shopping application, the poster on YouTube, Facebook. The receiver refers to some user who is using some platform or carriers on the Internet. The receiver could be a person of different ages or a group and company committed to a certain field.

In general, a good combination of two factors will greatly reduce the occurrence of cyberbullying. From the source factor, different media have different characteristics. But these different media are attracting victims by using the spread of false information. This false information uses the victim’s curiosity to expose the victim’s information and thereby control the victim. Another source of causes of bullying is the freedom of speech on the Internet. So based on these circumstances, Bangladesh should strengthen the control and guidance of the network media, formulate relevant laws and regulations, and strengthen the legal system. And control the media and personal speech. Once there are unfair remarks and endanger social security and people’s property security—the act of giving serious treatment according to law.

The Bangladeshi government should establish the principle of network access and control the advertising and information issued by the company to prevent the harm of false information to the people. Improve the construction of laws and regulations for young people. Severely crackdown on the practice of cybercrime against young people, give them a heavy sentence and let them dare not carry out such illegal activities. Establishing the principle of network access, restricting groups of young people who are less educated and less able to identify, limiting their access time, and restricting access to individual websites Raise awareness of this incident and deal with cyberbullying cases positively and efficiently Promote the dangers of cyberbullying in campus social families Improve the awareness of self-protection among members of social family schools Establish an active and healthy network environment.

The most important fact is we should improve our own quality and Improve our safety awareness. Additionally, improve the identification of cyber bullying methods. After all, you should ask someone in your hand for help if you can’t distinguish your situation well. However, Protect your information and not disclose your personal information to anyone.