Eugene White’s Model of Communication Example With Pros and Cons

Eugene White’s Model of Communication Example, Explanation, Types, Components, Advantages, and Disadvantages. Examples of Eugene White’s Model of Communication.

Eugene White’s Model of Communication

In 1960, scientist Eugene White introduced a transactional communication model with eight elements including feedback. Therefore, it is known as Eugene White’s transactional model of communication. White’s model explains oral communication between senders and receivers. Consequently, it is known as  Eugene White’s model of oral communication or verbal discussion. The most important component of Eugene White’s model is feedback to make it a transactional model of communication.

According to Eugene White’s model, the communication process is circular, not linear. Feedback is the most important component of oral discussion.

Eugene White’s model shows communication occurs in two directions. It also indicates communication is a circular, not a linear process. The discussion occurs between two people, and it is reciprocal.

According to Eugene White’s model (1960), people think to symbolize the speech; they then speak to send the message to receivers. The receivers decode the message to provide feedback to senders. The sender and receiver monitor the context to continue the conversation. It is the best communication mode to describe a talk show and debating program.

Examples of Eugene White’s Model of Communication

The five examples of Eugene White’s model are the talk-show program, debating, bargaining between buyer and seller, small group discussion, and interview session discussion.

Talk-show program

The talk show program is an example situation of Eugene White’s stages of oral communication. In talk show programs, the speaker and host follow eight stages of communication, including thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, feedbacking, and monitoring the context.

Debating among Student

Debating among students is another example of White’s communication model. The speaker and receiver follow a cyclical communication process in this context. Sometimes, the senders play the role of receiver. Consequently, the receivers play the role of the sender. They speak and listen simultaneously.

Negotiation Between Buyer and Seller

The bargaining between buyers and sellers is an example situation of Eugene White’s model. In hardball negotiation, a circular conversation occurs reciprocally.

Group Discussion

In addition, small group discussion is an example situation of White’s model of communication. Many people converse recurrently. The group members monitor the discussion and provide their thoughts.

Interview Session

Finally, the interview session is an example situation for White’s communication model. The interviewer asks several questions to assess the applicant. Sometimes, the applicants follow the STAR interview questions and answer samples to reply to the interviewer. The communication process is circular and both parties provide feedback.

Eugene White's Model of Communication Example, Explanation, Elements and Advantages, and Disadvantages. Eugene White's Model 1960
Eugene White’s Model
Eugene White’s Model of Communication Explanation

The eight elements of White’s model of oral communication are:

  1. Thinking
  2. Symbolizing
  3. Expressing
  4. Transmitting
  5. Receiving
  6. Decoding
  7. Feedbacking
  8. Monitoring

Eugene White’s model describes the face-to-face communication process with eight communication components: thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, feedbacking, and also monitoring. Communication is a recurring process in which the sender and receiver work simultaneously.


Thinking is the sender’s thoughts and perceptions. The sender thinks to organize and deliver messages to receivers. Thinking is the initial stage of the communication process.


Symbolizing means representing something to express thoughts. People symbolize words and utter them to communicate. For example, every word of a speech is a symbol of communication. In written communication, letters are the symbol of communication.


Expressing is the process of articulating thoughts and messages to receivers. People express ideas by symbolizing them. For example, a physician delivers his speech to stop people from smoking. He expresses a persuasive speech to influence people.


Transmitting is the process of conveying messages or thoughts from senders to listeners. In face-to-face communication, the sender transmits the message directly to the receiver without a channel. In mass communication, the sender uses TV, radio, or newspaper to transmit the message.


Receiving is the process of receiving messages from the receivers. The receiver accepts ideas and decodes them to provide feedback. Usually, listeners receive messages from senders and they respond to deliver opinions.


Decoding is the way of interpreting an encoded symbol into intelligible language. It is an invisible process that we can not see.

It involves extracting the intended message from the symbols, words, or signals transmitted by the sender and making sense of it based on one’s knowledge, experiences, and cultural background.

In the communication process, decoding occurs after the receiver has received the message through the chosen channel


Feedback is the process of responding to the sender’s message. It validates the communication process is transactional, not linear. Feedback ensures that the communication is transactional and both parties respond.  It also validates that Eugene’s communication model is the transactional model of communication.

In the verbal communication process, the sender and receiver respond orally for feedback. In the non-verbal communication process, communicators provide feedback with a smile, yawn, nod, posture, gesture, sweating, and covert behavior like a fast heartbeat.


Speakers try to understand whether the listener accomplishes the message or not. It is all about observation. The speaker observes how the message impacts the audience. A good speaker should have monitoring skills to persuade his or her listeners. This skill assists them in staying away from providing stereotyping, prejudice, and discriminating speech.

Eugene White’s Model Advantages and Disadvantages
White’s Model of Communication Advantages

Firstly, White’s communication model can explain the transaction communication process with feedback. It is the perfect model to explain oral communication.

Additionally, this model shows how two-way communication occurs, like debating and talk shows.

Moreover,  White’s model suits effective communication processes; therefore, organizations use this model to communicate with clients.  For example, the marketing team discusses with clients over smartphones to motivate them.

White’s Model of Communication Disadvantages
Unable To Explain One-Way Communication

Firstly, the White model cannot describe the one-way communication process; because it is a transactional model with feedback. Whereas, the linear communication models can explain the linear or one-way communication process. For example, it cannot explain communication with radio, television, books, newspapers, and no-reply email.


Eugene White’s model presents a complex framework compared to linear models such as Aristotle’s model of communication with five elements. White’s model is difficult to understand and apply in real-life communication because of its multiple stages.

Overemphasis on Feedback

White’s model highlights feedback that is not compulsory for one-way communication like print media and no-reply email.

Lack of Contextual Sensitivity

Eugene White’s model avoids communication contexts such as intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and mass communication. This model does not explain the setting in which communication occurs.

Ignores Non-Verbal Communication

Eugene White’s model does not highlight nonverbal communication cues including facial expressions, smiles, posture, and gestures. However, feedback can be part of nonverbal cues.


In conclusion, Eugene White’s model is a transactional communication theory with feedback. It is one of the significant models to describe the two-way communication process with eight elements (Thinking, Symbolizing,  Expressing, Transmitting, Receiving, Decoding, Feedbacking, and Monitoring).

Linear Communication Model Examples With Pros and Cons

Linear Communication Model Example Situation. Advantages and Disadvantages of Linear Model of Communication.

Linear Communication

Linear communication refers to one-way communication like reading books or newspapers, watching television, listening radio, and receiving no-reply emails. It is a particular type of communication that excludes receiver feedback. In this context, senders convey messages without expecting feedback from audiences. The receiver cannot respond to the sender immediately. For example, a company publishes a recruitment circular in a newspaper describing the application process. The authority wants to convey messages to applicants without expecting feedback.

Linear Communication Model

The linear communication model refers to the framework that explains the one-way communication process. Many communication systems are one-way directed, including disseminating news through radio. For example, print media spreads emergency news to readers; but readers cannot respond instantly or provide feedback to the authority. Conveying information through the radio, TV, newspaper, and book is an appropriate example of one-way communication. Therefore, many scientists designed linear communication models to explain these one-way communication processes. Linear means one way.

A linear model excludes Feedback, which is a mandatory element for transactional communication. In a communication process, senders transmit info to receivers. Similarly, receivers respond to senders, which is called Feedback. Effective communication occurs when both senders and receivers respond simultaneously. Feedback is an essential element of the communication process. Therefore, linear communication models have both advantages and disadvantages.

Different Between Linear and Transaction Models

The primary difference between the transactional and linear models is- the transactional model includes Feedback, but the linear model excludes it.

Additionally, the transactional theory can explain two-way communication, including face-to-face interaction. In contrast, the linear model can describe only one-way communication, like reading newspapers.

Finally, transactional models are developed from the linear model. The linear models are older than the transactional model.

Linear Communication Model Example Situation

Linear Model of Communication Example

The Four Examples of Linear Communication Models are:

  1. Aristotle Communication Model- 300BC
  2. Lasswell’s Communication Model- 1948
  3. Shannon-Weaver Communication Model-1949
  4. Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model in 1960
Aristotle Communication Model– 300BC

Aristotle’s communication model is a well-known example of a linear model of communication. Greek Scientist Aristotle introduced a linear communication model in 300 BC. He designed the model to explain how to provide political and social speech for audiences. The model is focused on the message and audience or receiver mainly. The five critical components of Aristotle’s communication model are speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect. This theory does not mention Feedback; hence, it is a linear communication theory.

Aristotle's Model of Communication

Lasswell’s Communication Model

In 1948, Harold Lasswell described a linear communication model with five elements: who says what, in which channel, to whom with what effect. It is another prominent model to illustrate one-way communication.

Lasswell Linear Model of Communication Explanation Image or Photo

Shannon-Weaver Communication Model

The Shannon-Weaver model is the most notable theory in the communication arena for representing communication noise. It is known as the mother of all communication models. In 1949, Shannon and Weaver published this model to explain how signals are transmitted through channels. The six components of the Shannon-Weaver model are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source.

Shannon and Weaver's Model of Communication Example

Berlo’s SMCR Communication Model

In 1960, David Berlo developed another linear communication model with four key elements Source, Message, Channel, and Receiver. Therefore, it is known as the SMCR communication model. Berlo describes five more elements under every critical component. For example, Source includes Communication Skills, Attitude, Knowledge, Social Systems, and Culture. Additionally, the message comprises Content, Elements, Treatment, Structure, and Code. Moreover, the channel contains hearing, seeing, touching, smelling, and tasting. The receiver includes the same elements as the message sender.

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Linear Communication Examples

The five examples of linear communication are: (1) Reading books and Newspapers, (2) Watching Television, (3) Listening Radio, (4)  Receiving no-reply emails, and (5) Reading Brochures.

Linear Communication Example Situation-1

Reading newspapers is another example of a one-way communication process. The readers can receive the information but cannot respond.

Linear Communication Example Situation-2

For example, Joe Biden, the 46th U.S. president, delivers a speech on CNN after returning from Ukraine. People are watching television to hear the president’s statement. He announces $500 million for military support in Ukraine. The speaker is the message’s sender, and the audiences are the receiver. The message has been transmitted through the CNN television channel. However, audiences can not respond to the speech instantly. The feedback is not presented in this type of communication; hence, it is a one-way communication process.

Linear Communication Example Situation-3

Listening radio is an example of linear communication because the audience cannot respond. The audience can listen to news, music, and advertisement.

Linear Communication Example Situation-4

A no-reply email is also an example of a linear communication process. The receiver receives the messages in email but cannot reply to them. A no-reply is sent from the company domain email that doesn’t receive feedback.

Linear Communication Model Advantages and Disadvantages

The author explains the strengths and weaknesses of the linear model of communication. The linear model has pros and cons for the theoretical and practical implications.

Advantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, the linear communication model is easy to understand and describes the entire process thoroughly. The communication is straightforward and targeted to specific audiences.

Additionally, the linear model of communication was the initial theory that explains the communication process. The interactive and transactional communication models are designed based on linear models.

Moreover, a linear communication model is inevitable to explain the communication process through print media, TV, letter, Fax, and no-reply email.

Disadvantages of the Linear Model of Communication

Firstly, linear models do not represent Feedback; therefore, these models are incomplete. It can explain only the one-way communication process, but not two-way interactions. However, feedback is a significant component of interactive and transactional communication.

In addition, linear communication models cannot describe face-to-face communication as the most effective interaction. Nowadays, people prefer transaction communication systems like face-to-face, phone conversations, video conferences, and more. However, linear theories like Aristotle’s, Lasswell’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, and David Berlo’s SMCR communication model are unable to explain interactive communication.

Moreover, linear communication is inappropriate for problem-solving, bargaining, and dealing. One-way communication creates miscommunication between sender and receiver, sometimes disseminating misleading information.  Linear models are designed to explain the inappropriate communication process that might create misconceptions about the message delivered by senders.

Furthermore, the Linear model distinguishes the sender and receiver in which the sender always send, and the receiver only receives messages. Naturally, in the communication process, senders work as sender and receiver, and receivers also work as receivers and senders of the message.