Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process

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Communication Elements, the 9 Elements of Communication are Context, Sender, Encoder,  Messages, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise. Additionally, Examples of the 9 Components of Communication.

Communication Elements

Communication elements refer to essential tools of communication on which the communication process is conducted. Elements of communication initiate and regulate the entire cycle of sharing information between the sender and receiver. Therefore, elements of communication are essential and interconnected parts of the communication process. The nine elements of communication (Context, Sender, Encoder,  Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver,  Feedback, and Noise) are essential tools or components for effective communication between sender and receiver. Communication elements are also known as the components of communication.

Communication Process

The communication process refers to the way of sharing information verbally or non-verbally between the sender and receiver. Verbal communication means communication through spoken words. Nonverbal communication refers to nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, facial expression, movement, eye contact, body language, and so more. Communication means conveying the message via written text, speech, signals, visuals, or behavior. It is also a process of exchanging opinions and imparting knowledge between speaker and audience through communication elements.

Elements of Communication

 The 9 elements of the communication process are

  1. Context
  2. Sender
  3. Encoder
  4. Message
  5. Channel
  6. Decoder
  7. Receiver
  8. Feedback
  9. Noise
Communication Elements, 9 elements of communication process
Figure 1: The 9 Elements of the Communication Process
 Examples of Communication Elements 

Ela requested her husband deposit $100 for the electricity bill while talking to her husband on a smartphone. At the same time, her son watched a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high. Therefore, her husband could not understand exactly how much needs to pay for the electricity bill. So, she repeated the same words to confirm him. Consequently, her husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill, and she replied that today was the last date to pay the electricity bill without penalty. In the meantime, she showed her angry face to her son to reduce TV volume. Instantly, her son reduced the volume.

Based on the example, the context is the social context. Ela is the sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. In similar, her husband is also a sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Turning the thought into the message is the act of encoding. In contrast, transferring the message into thought is the process of decoding. The smartphone is the medium or channel of the communication process. TV volume is the environmental noise that bars the communication process.

1. Context in Communication

Context refers to the environment of communication in which the interaction happens or takes place. Communication context is the prime element of every communication process that controls the communication process among senders and receivers. This context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you may feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues. You will not speak to an unknown person as you talk to your wife. So, the context of communication sets the environment of the communication process.

Example of Context in Communication

For example, Ela is talking to her husband informally, so she feels very comfortable. Therefore, the social context has been designed from this communication process. The context will be physical-context if they communicate face to face.

2.  Sender in Communication

A sender is a person who sends the message to the receiver. The sender is also known as the encoder of the message. The sender initiates the communication process and starts the procedure by sending a message or information. Therefore, the sender is a significant element of the communication process. A sender makes and uses symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. Therefore, a sender is a speaker, writer, or person who provides the information to share opinions, ideas, and messages.

Example of Sender in Communication

For example, Ela is the sender and encoder who sends messages to communicate with her husband. The sender is the person who sends the message to share with others. So, Ela is the sender also an element of the communication process.

3. Encoding in Communication

Encoding means transforming abstract opinions and ideas into symbols such as words, pictures, signs, and marks. A symbol might represent or indicate opinions, statements, and actions. In contrast, decoding is the process of transforming the symbol into an idea or thought. Encoding is the process of transformation of the subject into symbols. The encoding process is related to the sender and receiver.

The message of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.

Example of Encoding in Communication

For example, Ela has converted his thought into words to convey the message to her husband called encoding. Here, converting thought into words is the process of encoding. Words serve as the spoken communication symbol. She called her husband and uttered some words to share an opinion as well as send the message.

4. Message in Communication

The message refers to the information, ideas, feelings, opinion, thought, attitude, and view that the sender wants to deliver to the receiver.  The message seems like a key element of any communication process. Any communication conveys the message, also known as sharing ideas, opinions, thoughts, and information. Always, the sender wants to convey the message to communicate with the receiver. So, senders need to ensure that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable.

Messages may convey through verbal and nonverbal cues. Verbal cues are the spoken language of the speaker, for instance, spoken words.

On the other hand, the most common types of nonverbal communication are facial expression, eye contact, physical appearance, posture, gesture, etc.

Example of Message in Communication

For example, Ela was speaking to convey a message that indicates verbal communication.  She also showed her angry face to her son to reduce the volume of TV called non-verbal communication. In this regard, spoken words and facial expressions are examples of messages in communication. The most common examples of messages in the communication process are spoken words, written words, facial expressions, eye contact, phone call, video, email, and text messages.

5.  Channel in Communicaion

Channel is the way or tool of transmitting the message. It is also known as a medium in communication that conveys the message from sender to receiver.  Communicators use different channels to communicate in a distinct context of communication. In face-to-face communication, the sender’s senses, such as hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and tasting, are the channel of transferring the information. It is also one of the crucial elements of the communication process.

On the other hand, organizations use Television, Newspapers, Radio as a channel to disseminate information. People use the computer and mobile phone to communicate with a person who lives far away from each other. Nowadays, many people use online meeting platforms to conduct virtual group meetings. Sometimes, people choose a written medium, such as a letter, to convey the message, while others prefer an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient.

Example of Channel in Communication

For example, Ela has transmitted the message through a smartphone, so the smartphone is the channel of the communication process. She uses technology to convey messages; therefore, it is called mediated communication. The most common example of communication channels is TV, Radio, Newspapers, Social media, and five human senses.

6. Decoding in Communication

Decoding is “the process of” translating an encoded symbol into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. In this process, the receiver converts the symbols into thoughts received from the sender.  Decoding is the opposite process of encoding to get the meaning of the message.

Example of Decoding in Communication

For example, Ela has transformed his thought into words to convey the message to her husband called encoding. At the same time, her husband converts those words into thought to understand the message that is the process of decoding.

7. Receiver in Communication

A receiver is a person for whom the message is targeted in contrast to the sender. Therefore, the receiver is the audience of the communication process that decodes the message to perceive the meaning. The sender surely sends a message aimed at the receiver. Receivers can be one person or a group of people or a big amount of population. The degree to which the decoder understands the message depends on various factors such as knowledge of the recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.

Example of Receiver in Communication

For example, Ela has sent the message targeted at her husband to whom she wants to communicate. Hence, her husband is the receiver in this context of the communication.

8.  Feedback in Communication

Feedback in communication refers to the response of the receiver or audience. It is one of the main elements of the effective communication process as it allows the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message. It also helps the sender in confirming the correct interpretation of the message by the decoder. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.).  It may take written form also in the form of memos, reports, etc. Feedback is also one of the important elements of the transactional communication process.

Feedback differentiates the linear and transitional models of communication. Linear means one-way communication and transactional denotes two-way communication. The communication model is linear if there is no feedback in the communication process, for example, Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, and Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.

On the other hand, the communication model will be identified as an interactive and transitional communication model if the feedback is presented, for example, the Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication, and Helical Model of Communication.

Example of Feedback in Communication

For example, Ela’s husband asked about the due date of paying the electricity bill. Additionally, feedback is demonstrated when the students reply lecturer’s questions.

9. Noise in Communication

Noise refers to the communication barrier or obstacles to effective communication. It is also known as communication noise or noise in communication. Noise is an unwanted element of the communication process that communicators always want to avoid during the interaction.

Noise in communication is any barrier that obstacles the effectiveness of the communication process. Actually, noise exists in all kinds of communication, such as face-to-face communication, group communication, mediated communication, etc. Communication will be more effective and interactive if there is no noise. Noises are unnecessary elements of communication that distract receivers from receiving the message.

Example of Noise in Communication

For example, Ela’s son watches a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high when talking to her husband. The sound of the cartoon video bars Ela from listening to her husband’s speech, so it is an example of a communication barrier or communication noise, or communication distraction.

The five types of noise in communication are Physical noise, Physiological noise, Psychological noise, Semantic noise, and Cultural noise.

Conclusion

In conclusion, these nine elements of the communication process are context, sender, encoder,  message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise. These components are essential in the transactional communication process. The communication process might get faulty without any of these elements except noise because noise is the unwanted communication element. This article has presented the nine elements of the communication process with examples.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process.Newsmoor – Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/communication-elements-9-components-of-basic-communication-process/

 

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