Communication Elements- 9 Elements of the Communication process are Context, Sender, Encoder, Messages, Channel, Decoder, Receiver, Feedback, and Noise. Additionally, Examples of the 9 Components of Communication.
Communication elements refer to essential communication tools for conducting the communication process. They are also known as communication components. Communication elements initiate and regulate the entire cycle of sharing information between the sender and receiver. Therefore, communication elements are essential and interconnected parts of the communication process. The nine elements of communication (Context, Sender, Encoder, Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver, Feedback, and Noise) are essential tools or components for effective communication between sender and receiver. Communication elements are also known as the components of communication.
The communication process refers to sharing information verbally or non-verbally between the sender and receiver. Verbal communication means communication among people through spoken words. Nonverbal communication refers to interaction among humans through nonverbal cues such as tone of voice, facial expression, movement, body language, eye contact- nonverbal communication, and so more. Communication means conveying a message via written text, speech, signals, visuals, or behavior. It is also a process of exchanging opinions and imparting knowledge between speaker and audience through communication elements.
Elements of Communication
The 9 Elements of Communication are;
Examples of Communication Elements
Emu requested her husband deposit $100 for the electricity bill while talking to her husband on a smartphone. At the same time, her son watched a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high. Therefore, her husband could not understand exactly how much he needed to pay for the electricity bill. So, she repeated the exact words to confirm him. Consequently, her husband asked about the due date for paying the electricity bill, and she replied that today was the last date to pay the electricity bill without penalty. In the meantime, she showed her angry face to her son to reduce the TV volume. Instantly, her son reduced the volume.
Based on the example, the context is the social context. Emu is the sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Similarly, her husband is also a sender and encoder at the same time receiver and decoder. Turning the thought into a message is the act of encoding. In contrast, transferring the message into view is the process of decoding. The smartphone is the medium or channel of the communication process, and TV volume is the environmental noise that bars the communication process.
1. Context in Communication
Context refers to the environment of communication in which the interaction happens or takes place. Communication context is the circumstance and prime element of every communication process that controls the communication process among senders and receivers. The most common five communication contexts are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication settings. Additionally, this context may be physical, historical, psychological, social, chronological, or cultural. For example, you may feel comfortable sharing your personal information with close friends rather than colleagues, and you will not speak to an unknown person as you talk to your wife. So, the context of communication sets the environment of the communication process.
Types of Communication Context
The most common five types of communication contexts are intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, public, and mass communication.
Example of Context in Communication
For example, Emu talks to her husband informally and feels very comfortable. Therefore, the social context has been designed from this communication process, and it is also an interpersonal context as they communicate face to face.
2. Sender in Communication
A sender is a person who sends a message to the receiver. The sender is also known as the encoder of the message. The sender initiates the communication process and starts the procedure by sending a message or information. Therefore, the sender is a significant element of the communication process. A sender makes and uses symbols (words or graphic or visual aids) to convey the message and produce the required response. Therefore, a sender is a speaker, writer, or person who provides the information to share opinions, ideas, and messages.
Example of Sender in Communication
For example, Emu is the sender and encoder who sends messages to communicate with her husband, and the sender is the person who sends the message to share with others. So, Emu is the sender and an element of the communication process.
3. Encoding in Communication
Encoding means transforming abstract opinions and ideas into symbols such as words, pictures, signs, and marks. A symbol might represent or indicate opinions, statements, and actions. In contrast, decoding is the process of transforming the symbol into an idea or thought. Encoding is the process of transformation of the subject into symbols. The encoding process is related to the sender and receiver.
The message of any communication is always abstract and intangible. Transmission of the message requires the use of certain symbols.
Example of Encoding in Communication
For example, Emu has converted his thoughts into words to convey the message to her husband, which is called encoding. Here, converting ideas into words is the process of encoding. Words serve as the spoken communication symbol. She called her husband and uttered some words to share an opinion as well as send a message.
4. Message in Communication
The message refers to the information, ideas, feelings, opinions, thoughts, attitudes, and views the sender wants to deliver to the receiver. The message seems like a vital element of any communication process. Any communication conveys a message, also known as sharing ideas, opinions, thoughts, and information. Invariably, the sender wants to convey the message to communicate with the receiver. So, senders need to ensure that the main objective of the message is clear and understandable.
Messages may convey through verbal and nonverbal cues. Verbal cues are the spoken language of the speaker, for instance, spoken words.
On the other hand, the most common types of nonverbal communication are facial expression, eye contact, physical appearance, posture, gesture, etc.
Example of Message in Communication
For example, Emu was speaking to convey a message that indicates verbal communication. She also showed her angry face to her son to reduce the TV volume, which is called non-verbal communication. In this regard, spoken words and facial expressions are examples of messages in communication. The most common examples of messages in communication are spoken words, written words, facial expressions, eye contact, phone call, video, email, and text messages.
5. Channel in Communication
Channel is the way or tool of transmitting the message. It is also known as a medium of communication that conveys the message from sender to receiver. Communicators use different channels to communicate in a distinct context of communication. In face-to-face communication, the sender’s senses, such as hearing, seeing, smelling, touching, and tasting, are the channel for transferring the information. It is also one of the crucial elements of the communication process.
On the other hand, organizations use Television, Newspapers, and radio to disseminate information. People use computers and mobile phones to communicate with people who live far away from each other. Many people use virtual meeting platforms to conduct group discussions. Sometimes, people choose a written medium, such as a letter, to convey the message, while others prefer an oral medium when spontaneous feedback is required from the recipient.
Example of Channel in Communication
For example, Emu has transmitted the message through a smartphone, so the smartphone is the channel of the communication process. She uses technology to convey messages, which is called mediated communication. The most common example of communication channels is TV, Radio, Newspapers, Social media, and the five human senses. For instance, Global Assistant is a renowned education consultant in Asia that communicates with potential customers via official websites and social media platforms. So, websites and social media sites are channels of communication.
6. Decoding in Communication
Decoding is “the process of” translating an encoded symbol into the ordinary understandable language in contrast to the encoder. In this process, the receiver converts the symbols into thoughts received from the sender. Decoding is the opposite process of encoding to get the message’s meaning.
Example of Decoding in Communication
For example, Emu has transformed his thought into words to convey the message to her husband called encoding. At the same time, her husband converts those words into thoughts to understand the message, which is the process of decoding.
7. Receiver in Communication
Unlike the sender, a receiver is a person for whom the message is targeted. Therefore, the receiver is the audience of the communication process that decodes the message to perceive the meaning. The sender indeed sends a message aimed at the receiver. Receivers can be one person, a group of people, or an enormous population. The degree to which the decoder understands the message depends on various factors, such as the recipient’s knowledge, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of the encoder on the decoder.
Example of Receiver in Communication
For example, Emu sent a message targeting her husband, with whom she wanted to communicate. Hence, her husband is the receiver in this context of communication.
8. Feedback in Communication
Feedback in communication refers to the response of the receiver or audience. It is one of the main elements of the effective communication process that differentiates the communication models into linear and transactional. Feedback is an inevitable component of the transactional model. Feedback may be verbal (through words) or non-verbal (in the form of smiles, sighs, etc.). It may take written form and also in the form of memos, reports, etc. Feedback is also one of the essential elements of the transactional communication process.
Feedback differentiates the linear and transitional models of communication. Linear means one-way communication, and transactional denotes two-way communication. The communication model is linear if there is no feedback in the communication process, for example, Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Shannon and Weaver’s model of communication, Lasswell’s Communication Model, and Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.
On the other hand, the communication model will be identified as an interactive and transitional communication model if the feedback is presented, for example, the Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean Model of Communication, and the Helical Model of Communication.
Example of Feedback in Communication
For example, Emu’s husband asked about paying the electricity bill’s due date. Additionally, feedback is demonstrated when the students reply lecturer’s questions.
Noise refers to the communication barrier or obstacles to effective communication. It is also known as communication noise or communication barrier. Noise is an unwanted element of communication that communicators always want to avoid during the interaction.
It is the barrier that obstacles the effectiveness of the communication process. Noise exists in all kinds of communication, such as face-to-face, group, mediated, etc. Communication will be more effective and interactive if there is no noise. Noises are unnecessary elements of communication that distract receivers from receiving the message.
Example of Noise in Communication
For example, Emu’s son watches a cartoon video on Television with the volume on high when talking to her husband. The sound of the cartoon video bars Emu from listening to her husband’s speech, so it is an example of a communication barrier or communication noise or communication distraction.
The five types of noise in communication are Physical noise, Physiological noise, Psychological noise, Semantic noise, and Cultural noise.
In conclusion, the nine elements of the communication process are context, sender, encoder, message, channel, decoder, receiver, feedback, and noise. These components are essential in the transactional communication process. The communication process might get faulty without any elements except noise because noise is the unwanted communication element. This article has presented the nine elements of the communication process with examples.
Citation For This Article(APA-7th & MLA-9th Edition)
|Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2023, March 25). Communication Elements- 9 Elements of Communication Process. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/communication-elements-9-components-of-basic-communication-process/