Linear Interactive and Transactional Models of Communication Examples

Linear interactive and transactional models of communication. Three Types of Communication Models are Linear, Interactive, and Transactional.

Communication Models

Communication models refer to the conceptual frameworks or theories that explain the way of human communication. It also represents the entire communication process between the sender and the receiver. The communication model tries to answer the 5Ws and 1H questions regarding the communication process; for example, what is communication? Who is involved in this process? When does it happen? Where does it take place? Why does it occur? And finally, How does the communication happen?

Additionally, communication models contribute to the development of many other theories and models. For example, the communication models are the basis of the mediated communication technology adoption models.

Furthermore, communication models explain the elements of the communication process, for example, context, sender, receiver, encoding, decoding, channel, message, feedback, and noise. These are the components of communication that describe the entire process of communication. However, some communication models do not have all these elements or features. For example, the linear model of communication does not have feedback. The communication model also explains the factors that prevent effective communication, known as barriers or noise. Communication barriers or communication noises bar effective communication processes.

Linear Interactive and Transactional Models of Communication

Three Types of Communication Models are:
  1. Linear Models of Communication
  2. Interactive Models of Communication
  3. Transactional Models of Communication

The three types of communication models are linear, interactive, and transactional. The examples of linear, interactive and transactional communication models have been illustrated including the established year and elements.

Three Types of Communication Models Linear, Interactive & Transactional.

1. Linear Models of Communication

The linear communication model is a one-way interaction where feedback is not present. Linear is the primary communication model, whereas the transactional model is formed based on the linear model. The sender communicates with the receiver without receiving feedback. It also represents the one-way process of communication.

Many scholars have established linear communication models, such as Aristotle’s, Shannon-Weaver’s, Lasswell’s, and Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.

Linear Model of Communication Example
Communication ModelsYear
Aristotle Model of Communication.300BC
Lasswell’s Model of Communication.1948
Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication.1949
Also, Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication.1960
List of Linear Model of Communication

2. Interactive Models of Communication

The interactive communication model refers to the two-way method of communication with feedback. However, feedback is not simultaneous, providing slow and indirect feedback. Sometimes, the communication can be linear if receivers do not reply to senders. The interactive model of communication indicates mediated and internet-based communication.

For example, Osgood-Schramm, Westley, and Maclean’s are interactive communication models.

Interactive Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication1954
Westley and Maclean’s Model of Communication1957
List of Interactive Model of Communication

3. Transactional Models of Communication

The transitional communication model seems like a two-way communication process with immediate feedback. Simultaneous feedback is the essential component of the transitional models of communication. So, the communication process will not become transactional without feedback. The feedback is direct and very fast. The receiver is compelled to provide instant feedback. The major difference between the interactive and transactional models is indirect and direct feedback.

For example, Wilbur Schramm’s model of communication, Barnlund’s transactional model of communication, Dance’s Helical model of communication, and Eugene White’s communication model are transitional communication models.

Transactional Model of Communication Example

Eugene White’s Model of Communication1960
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication1967
Also, Barnlund’s Transactional Model1970
List of Transactional Model of Communication
Examples of Three Types of Communication Models

The examples of linear, interactive and transactional communication models are Aristotle’s Model of Communication, Lasswell’s Model of Communication, Shannon–Weaver’s Model of Communication, Berlo’s Model of Communication, Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication, Westley and Maclean’s Model of Communication, Barnlund’s Transactional Model, Eugene White’s Model, and also, Dance’s Helical Model of Communication.

Linear Models of Communication

1. Aristotle’s Model of Communication

Aristotle’s communication model refers to the communication model with the speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and effect elements. In 300 BC, Aristotle developed a linear communication model focusing mainly on the speaker and messages. Controversially, it is also known as the first model of communication. Aristotle’s communication model comprises five primary communication elements: speaker, speech, occasion, audience, and Effect. The speaker plays a crucial role in communication because the speaker sets the message to deliver. However, the speaker’s speech is a message that might depend on the occasion.

Aristotle's Linear Model-linear interactive and transactional model
Aristotle’s Model of Communication

For example, a political leader (speaker/sender) delivers a speech to persuade voters to vote for him. The political leader is the most crucial person who provides the message or information. The speech is the leader’s message to influence the voters to vote for him. The election is the occasion, and the speech or message of the speaker differs based on the event. Political leaders might not deliver the same kind of speech before and after the election. Finally, the effect refers to the level of motivation of the voters, whether they are motivated to vote for him or not.

2. Lasswell’s Model of Communication

Political scientist and professor Harold Lasswell introduced Lasswell’s communication model in 1948. It is a linear model of communication that also represents the style of one-way communication or interaction. Lasswell’s model explains the communication process by answering the following questions; who says what, in which channel to whom, and with what effect?Lasswell Model of Communication- linear interactive and transactional model

Example of Lasswell’s Model of Communication

For example, the BBC News channel has telecasted news regarding the negative impact of social media in spreading fake and misleading information. It also shows how social media can affect people physically and mentally. Finally, they recommend some tips on how to stop spreading fake and disinformation via social media. Based on the set of questions outlined by Lasswell’s communication model and the example, firstly, the answer to “Who” is the BBC News Channel news presenter. Secondly, it Says What indicates that people use social media to spread fake and misleading information. Thirdly, the answer to the “In which Channel” question means the BBC News Channel. Additionally, “To Whom” refers to the people watching this channel. Finally, With what effect shows the awareness have?

3. Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication

Shannon-Weaver’s communication model was established by two American scholars, Shannon and Weaver, in 1949. The Shannon-Weaver model is called the mother of all communication models. Shannon and Weaver did not include feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. However, Norbert Weiner added Feedback to the model in responding to the criticism. At first, this model was designed to articulate the technical communication process. Later, it was used to discuss all types of communication. The Shannon-Weaver model represents six essential communication elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, destination, and noise source. This model does not represent feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model. Later, this model was criticized by many other scholars for not having feedback. Feedback is vital in making the communication process more interactive and effective. However, Norbert Weiner added the Feedback element to the model.

Shannon–Weaver Model of Communication Example
Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication-
Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication
4. Berlo’s Model of Communication

Berlo’s Model of Communication is the SMCR model that includes the element of Source-Message-Channel-Receiver. David Berlo developed Source-Message-Channel-Receiver in 1960. It is also known as the David Berlo SMCR model of communication. However, Berlo invented this model based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model (1949). The four elements of David Berlo’s SMCR communication model are the source, message, channel, and receiver. Berlo focuses on both verbal and nonverbal communication elements to convey information.

David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication Example
Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication
David Berlo’s SMCR Model of Communication

Transactional Models of Communication

5. Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication

Osgood-Schramm Model provides a two-way form of communication. However, Wilbur Schramm adopted the concept from the theory of another scientist Charles Egerton Osgood. Osgood proposed that the communication process is circular rather than linear. So, the person simultaneously plays a role as the sender and receiver of the message. The person receives the message and interprets it to provide feedback. Therefore, it is known as the Osgood-Schramm Model of communication.

The elements of the Osgood-Schramm Model are Interpreter, Encode, Decode, and Message.

Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication Example
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
Osgood-Schramm Model of Communication
6. Westley and Maclean Model of Communication

Westley and Maclean’s interactive communication model examines the communication process between sender and receiver. Bruce Westley and Malcolm S. MacLean Jr. established the model in 1957. Westley and Maclean’s communication model was adapted from Newcomb’s communication and Lewin’s change management model. It represents the two-way communication process, so feedback is subsisted in this model. It also explains interpersonal and mass communication. The feedback is indirect and slow in mass communication, whereas feedback is direct and fast in interpersonal communication. According to Westley and Maclean’s model,  A represents the sender, B represents the receiver, and C represents mass media. The interactive communication process is more effective than linear communication.

Westley and Maclean Model of Communication
Westley and Maclean’s Model of Communication
7. Eugene White’s Model of Communication

There are eight stages of the oral communication process: thinking, symbolizing, expressing, transmitting, receiving, decoding, feedbacking, also monitoring. So, communication is a sequential interaction process; however, it cannot determine the receiver’s active role in the continuous communication process.

Eugene White's Model of Communication
Eugene White’s Model of Communication
8. Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

In 1967, Frank Dance introduced the transactional communication model called the Helical communication model. The author initially named Dance’s Helix communication model. Frank Dance used helix to develop the complex communication process model. The word helical has come from the

Dance's Helical Model of Communication
Dance’s Helical Model of Communication

helix, meaning spiral staircase. Communication gets more extended when it grows up like a helix. Communication is an evolutionary and dynamic process with feedback.

Any communication starts from a small circle when the communicators share little information about themselves. Communication expands boundaries when people share more personal information. Finally, the relationship grows up gradually to reach the top level.

9. Barnlund’s Transactional Model

In 1970, Dean Barnlund introduced the transactional communication model. The author formed this model based on public, private, and behavioral cues. Barnlund’s transactional model refers to the multi-layered communication process with feedback. The sender and receiver exchange their role for effective communication; therefore, the sending and receiving of messages occur reciprocally between sender and receiver. The eight elements of Barnlund’s communication model are person, encoding, decoding, public cues, private cues, verbal, behavioral cues, nonverbal behavioral cues, and message.

 Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication-linear interactive and transactional model
Barnlund’s Transactional Model of Communication
Importance of Models of Communication

Communication models are essential tools for understanding communication processes. It presents detailed information regarding the communication process and illustrates the flow of information. Therefore, they have a tremendous positive impact on the research by introducing many conceptual frameworks of communication processes. Additionally, the model introduces the elements of the communication process. Furthermore, the communication model provides tips on how communicators can communicate effectively. They represent the barrier or noise that obstacles the process of communication. They also explain the complexities of the communication system. Finally, these 3 types of communication models propose improving the communication process to avoid conflict.

Linear Interactive and Transactional Models of Communication
  1. Linear Model: The linear model of communication simplifies the process into a one-way flow from sender to receiver. Here, the sender encodes a message, which is then transmitted through a channel to the receiver, who decodes it. Feedback is minimal, if present at all, and there’s little room for interaction or dialogue. This model is akin to a broadcast, where information is sent without much expectation of response or engagement.
  2. Interactive Model: Expanding upon the linear model, the interactive model introduces feedback and two-way interaction. It acknowledges that communication is a dynamic process involving encoding, decoding, and response from both parties. Feedback becomes essential for clarification, validation, and adjustment of messages. Communication is viewed as a reciprocal exchange, allowing for engagement and dialogue between sender and receiver.
  3. Transactional Model: The transactional model sees communication as a complex, ongoing process influenced by various factors. Here, communication is simultaneous, with both parties acting as sender and receiver. Messages are not merely transmitted but co-created through interaction and negotiation. Context, culture, and personal experiences shape the meaning of messages, which are subject to interpretation and reinterpretation based on the perspectives of both parties.

In conclusion, the most common linear interactive and transactional communication models are Aristotle’s Model, Shannon-Weaver Model, Lasswell’s Model, Berlo’s SMCR Model, Osgood-Schramm Model, Westley, and Maclean’s Model, Wilbur Schramm’s model, Barnlund’s Transactional Model, Dance’s Helical Model, and Eugene White’s Model of Communication. The 3 types of communication models are linear, interactive, and transactional.

These models provide different perspectives on how communication occurs, from the linear transmission of information to the interactive exchange of meaning and the transactional co-creation of messages. Each model offers insights into the dynamics of communication and highlights the importance of feedback, interaction, and context in the process.

Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Linear Interactive and Transactional Models of Communication. Newsmoor.