Lead Writing- Types of Leads Writing in Journalism News Lead Examples

Lead Writing, Types of Leads Writing in Journalism- News Lead. Types of Leads in Journalism. Types of Leads in News Writing.

Lead Writing- News Lead Writing
What is News Lead?

News lead is the first and second paragraph of a news article. Usually, a good lead attracts readers to read the body of the feature by highlighting the main issue of news.

How to become a Good News Writer?

A good news writer always follows the 5W and 1H of report writing strategy in journalism to cover all issues related to the news headlines.

Good Lead Examples

A Good Lead must have the follow the 5W and 1H rules of news writing.

FORMULA WHO does WHAT,  WHEN, WHERE, WHY and HOW
Who = subject, people name, organization name
What = name of activity and event
When = day, yesterday, tomorrow
Where = location name
Why = background of event, purpose, cause
How = process, detail of the event, audiences
What is the Long of Sentence for Lead Writing?

According to Mansor (2010), The length of a sentence should not exceed 25 words. On the other hand, according to Mencher (2010), The length of a sentence should not exceed 35 words.

Types of Leads in Journalism

The two types of leads in Journalism are:

  1. Alternative Lead (Narative/Contras/Staccato/ Question/also Citation).
  2. Traditional Lead (5W1H).

Lead Writing types in journalism

Traditional Lead

The traditional Lead is Also known as the basic lead. It is constructed from 6 elements for example, who, what, when, where, why and how. But, usually, the journalist will start with Who and What.  However, Can start and end with any of the 6 elements.

Who Lead News Example
Headline Myanmar ties the Young Tigers
Lead 1 The country’s under-22 squad (B-22) showed a lacklustre performance in the opening match of Group A of the 2019 SEA Games when they only won a 1-1 draw against Myanmar, just now.
Lead 2 The Young Tigers looked shaky early in the first half as they struggled to adapt on the surface of a synthetic pitch at the Rizal Memorial Stadium, Philippines.
What Lead News Example
Headline Additional subjects follow the inclinations of the students
Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR-The Secondary School Standard Curriculum (KSSM) (Upper Secondary) which will come into effect next January aims to improve the flow of Science and Literature in the existing education system.
Lead 2 Deputy Director-General of Education (Policy and Curriculum Sector), Dr Habibah Abdul Rahman said, Form Four students can choose four packages containing a combination of core and elective subjects in the new school term.
Alternative Lead

Alternative Lead starts with staccato, question, narrative or descriptive, contras, and citation in the news feature.

  1. Staccato
  2. Question
  3. Narrative/ Descriptive
  4. Contrast
  5. Citation
1. STACCATO
  • It a dot sign in music
  • It’s mean- separately read
  • Its like dot meaning end of the sentence
 Example of Staccato
Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: There is no Raya shirt or any celebration. This year’s festival doesn’t seem to mean anything to them. For the past two months, this hospital has been their second home.
Lead 2 “Every day, we just shed tears thinking of Raef who risked his life because his health condition is often uncertain,” said Noraini Jaafar, 37, mother of four -year -old Raef Uqael Mohd Rosli.
2. QUESTION
  • Write in question sentence (like the question to the audience)
  • However, the audience did not necessarily prepare the answer.
Lead 1 Kuala Lumpur: Are you willing to wait as early as 8 am to buy various items at a discount of more than 70 per cent in preparation for Aidilfitri even though most Sogo shopping malls in the capital are only open at 10 am?
Lead 2 Should we bring the family shopping in the capital in the morning?
3. NARRATIVE/DESCRIPTIVE

The situation/picture of the event

Example of NARRATIVE/DESCRIPTIVE
Lead 1 Seremban: The suspicious actions of two women in black hijab rushing out of a supermarket were answered when they were caught on suspicion of stealing various sets of dishes at a supermarket in Seremban 2, here, yesterday.
Lead 2 The act of the two suspects in their 30s stealing the set of dishes was sniffed by security guards before arresting them.
4. CONTRAS

Opposite with the actor and event

Example of Contrast

Lead 1 KUALA LUMPUR, July 26-The illegal gambling activities that have seemed ‘silent’ in recent months in public business premises are still happening in exclusive places including luxury bungalows, condominiums and private clubs.
Lead 2 President of the Malaysian Consumer Protection Association, Datuk Mohd. Firdaus Abdullah said the activity was difficult to detect by the authorities because it used a closed location and only involved invitations.
 5. CITATION
  • Statement from the sources (talk/seminar/press conference)
  • Starting with the “  ”  symbol.

For example, the lead starts with a quotation mark.

Lead 1 Kuala Terengganu: “He told me to take care of myself and educate my children well before he ‘left’,” said Salihana Zawawi, 29, wife of Mohd Zawawi Seman, 36, who was found floating in the waters of Pulau Kapas, Marang after disappearing at sea together. three other brothers in Kuala Kemaman on June 21.
Lead 2 Mohd Zawawi’s body was found floating by fishermen at 5 pm yesterday before his body was taken by the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement (APMM) to the Pulau Kambing jetty and handed over to the Sultanah Nur Zahirah Hospital (HSNZ) Forensic Unit.

 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine & Book Anatomy and Space 

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space. The Four Theories of the Press are Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory, Authoritarian Theory.

Four Theories of the Press

The Four Theories of the Press book was introduced by Schramm, Siebert, and Peterson in 1956. This book explains the four types of the press; for example, Authoritarian Theory, Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory, Communist Soviet Theory.

The Four Theories of the Press are:

  1. Authoritarian Theory
  2. Libertarian Theory
  3. Social Responsibility Theory
  4. Communist Soviet Theory
    1. Authoritarian Theory

The press and communication system is controlled by the government nominated authority or agency. Press is responsible for explaining to society what is actually the government want to know the society. Press confirm the truth of the news provided by the government.

The government have the right to filter any news published by the press.

If any news goes against the laws, the press license will pull back by the government.

 

2. Libertarian Theory

Libertarian theory is also part of the normative theories of mass communication. The press is absolutely free to disseminate any news that is ethical to publish. Actually, newspapers play a role as the watchdog of society.

John Milter was the pioneer of the libertarian concept of mass communication that started end of 1700, developed in the US and Europe in 1900.  According to the Libertarian concept, the human a rational individual to know the truth.

For example,

  • The press must free from the government.
  • Press not depend on the government and free to speak.
  • Press controlled by journalist and media.
    3. Social Responsibility Theory

Social responsibility theory allows the press to publish news without taking permission from the government, but at the same time, they need to liaise with society. So, social responsibility theory lies between libertarian and authoritarian theory. It frees the media from the government but controlled by the society people.

Assumption of this theory- the power of monopoly media effect from Libertarian theory.

From this theory-  that have ownership of the media, they will decide what they should expose to the audience.

4. Communist Soviet Theory

The government controls the press and communication system to serve the benefits of the people.

  • Developed from authoritarian theory- opposed the libertarian theory
  • Press as a tool for the government. Owned by government
  • Information and ideas decided by the government will be delivered to the society through an official medium
What Is Newspaper?

Newspaper is a daily publication that includes local and international news, advertisement, cartoon and sports events.

Newspaper Anatomy

Example of a Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy

Four Theories of the Press- Malaysian Newspaper Anatomy
Newspaper Space

 

Front Page  Most newsworthy stories (local, national, and international) are placed.
Local Section News about where you live is located.
National News about national information
International News about international information
Business stories about businesses (money, investing, and the stock market.
Sports stories about high school, semi-professional, and professional stories
Entertainment Features stories about book, movie, and play reviews, upcoming entertainment events.
Opinions & Editorials. This is where editors publish their columns and where people can read Letters to the Editor.
Advertisement Printed notice of something for sale paid for by the advertiser.
What Is Magazine?

Magazines are periodical publication  ( weekly or monthly). It usually includes the essay, stories, poem also articles.

Magazines Anatomy

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space 

Magazine Space
Cover Story refer to a story in a magazine whose subject matter appears on its front cover.
Editorial Magazine editorials give opinions on important contemporary social, political, economic, or legal issues and intend to persuade readers to agree to a particular perspective.
Features Feature stories are articles that have human interest and focus on particular people, places and events.
Columns opinion pieces represent the strong, informed and focused opinion of the writer on an issue of relevance
Reviews critical assessment, factual information like film, drama, musical productions or a newly published book
What Is a Book?

Books are written publication, printed and combined in a few Booklet. It is the most traditional tools to keep the record of information in written and image form.

Books Anatomy

Four Theories of the Press, Newspaper, Magazine and Book Anatomy and Space 

Books Space

PRELIM half-title
Title
copyright
content
foreword
preface
acknowledgements
TEXTS New chapter
END MATTERS Appendix
Reference
Index
 Different Types of Content in Newspaper
  1. NEWS: News is a facts report ( including fact), new and interesting to attract people to reading and listening
  2. FEATURE: Feature is writing or essay including information, explanation or storytelling about the issue based on the real facts.
  3. EDITORIAL: This space specialized for editorial or chief editor. They will discuss the current issues and express their personal opinion.
  4. COLUMNIST: This space specialized for economist/politician) for discuss the issues permanently in the newspaper.
  5. READERS: For question, criticize and opinion
  6. Advertisement
  7. Cartoon
Four Category of Readers
  1. HEAVY READERS
  • Read newspaper for more than 2 hours.
  • Read front page, editorial and columnist.
  • Assume newspaper content more complete than television.
  1. SPORADIC READERS

Read newspaper more than 1 minute to 16 minutes.

  1. SCANNER READERS
  • Read less than 15 minutes.
  • Just scan the information
  1. APATHETIC READERS
  • Apathetic readers are less interested to read the newspaper because they always assume the newspaper didn’t have information and not interesting.

ROLE OF NEWSPAPER TOWARDS DEVELOPMENT

  1. Distribute the Information– Current issues such as sports/ crime/entertainment/ Conflict
  2. Education- Educated people formally and informally.
  3. As References– As references for teaching and learning because of the credibility and Trusted sources.
  1. Medium of Express the Opinion: For example, people can use newspaper space as a tool to express their opinion and problem to the government.