Minutes of Meeting Example, Elements, Types & Importance

Minutes of Meeting Example, Sample, Elements, Types & Advantages. Elements of Meeting Minutes Example. Also, The Sample of Meeting Minutes and the Importance of Meeting Minutes.

Minutes of Meeting

Meeting Minute is a written record of the meeting’s activities conducted by the company, organization, and a group of people. It is also known as the meeting notes.  Meeting minutes take note of whatever happened during a meeting. Additionally, It keeps a record of decisions taken from the discussion. Furthermore, the employee can revisit the important issue discussed in the conference. Finally, the purpose of minutes is to take notes elaborately during meeting time regarding attendance, discussion, who is responsible for which task, how to solve the problems, vision, mission, and so more. Therefore, taking minutes of meetings with specific notes is an essential part of every formal meeting discussion.

Minutes of Meeting Types

The two types of minute meetings are Physical meeting minutes or minutes of meeting and Online meeting minutes. Physical meeting minutes include the location and venue of the meeting where it is held. On the other hand, virtual meeting minutes include virtual meeting platforms, such as Google Meet, Zoom Meeting,  Microsoft Teams, and more. The physical meeting minutes are also known as minutes.

Minutes of Meeting Example

Meeting Minutes Template, Sample, Example, and Format
Meeting Minutes Template and Sample

On the other hand, Online meeting minutes include the online meeting platforms in which the meeting has been conducted. Many organizations, educational institutes, and social worker groups are conducting online meetings due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. The physical and virtual meeting minutes example has been discussed here for better understanding.

Elements of Meeting Minutes

The 12 elements of meeting minutes are- 1. Company or organization name, 2. Date, Time & Location, 3. Opening, 4. List of attendees and Absent, 5. Agenda, 6. Discussion, 7. Note, 8. Action Items, 9. Adjournment, 10. Submitted by, 11, approved by, also 12. Documents.

Minutes of the Meeting need specific components that make them more meaningful. It is also known as the feature of meeting minutes. The

1. Company or Organization Name

The company name is the essential element of meeting minutes. Every minute of the meeting needs to have an exact organization name at the top of the letter and add a logo if you have one.

2. Date, Time & Location- The precise date, time, and location are the prime components of minutes to express the profound meaning of discussion meetings.

3. Opening- For example, The regular weekly meeting of the Demigods Bullies group was called to order on 24 June 2024, 4:00 PM in room 202 in the Faculty of Modern Language and Communication.

4. List of attendees- For example, the members who participated in the meeting. List of absent- For example, the members who did not join the meeting discussion. It also updates and reminds members who are absent from the meeting.

5. Agenda- It seems like the main plan list of activities.

6. Discussion- In similar to the agenda but a brief discussion of the main point of the agenda.

7. Note- Take a record of who will do which task later. The note here implies a list of people assigned specific tasks.

8. Action Items- (For example, how many decisions have been taken throughout the meeting discussion).

9. Adjournment- (Written evidence of when and how the meeting was dismissed).

10. Submitted by-

11. Approved by

12. Documents- (For example, photo, word files, and pdf files)

In conclusion, you can add some extra elements if necessary, but they should be more specific and meaningful. Above all, these components of meeting minutes will make your minutes of meeting more significant.

Minutes of Meeting Elements
Elements of Minutes of Meeting, Simple Minutes of Meeting Format. Components of meeting minutes or Parts of minutes of the meeting. elements of meeting minutes. Meeting Minutes Example. simple meeting minutes template.
The 12 Elements of Minutes of Meeting

Minutes of Meeting Example

The following meeting minutes are designed by University students. The author wrote these minutes of meetings based on group meetings to complete an assignment. It was not a business meeting. However, it represents how to write business minutes.

Demigod Anti-Bullying Students Group
Minutes of Meeting
24 June 2024/ 4:00 PM

The regular weekly meeting of Demigods Bullies was called to order on 24 June 2024, 4:00 PM at, room 202, Faculty of Modern Language and Communication in University Putra Malaysia.

Attendees List

Absent List

Capturing photos and Making video
Active on Social media
Planning for drama and talk show program.


Firstly, we must create some photos and videos to view the negative impact of bullying and cyberbullying. These photos and videos will represent our activeness with diverse creativity.
In addition, all group members must emphasize social media activities such as uploading photos and videos regarding bullying and cyberbullying.
Finally, we must prepare ourselves enough to perform effectively for the final program at Dewan Za’ba. Every group member will rehearse according to the script.

Kobiruzzaman will be responsible for booking the Dewan Za’ba hall room for our final program by next week.
Additionally, Joshua will print out all posters with proposals.
Samuel and Jiven will go to the departmental office to take signatures to approve these posters to hang on boards.

Action Items
Dividing group members’ duties for the social campaign based on the negative impact of bullying and cyberbullying will be held on 29 November 2019.
Finalized the dress code, food, and also beverages for the program.
The member has approved the program budget; therefore, everyone must deposit payment before the due date.

The meeting was adjourned at 6 PM by the anonymous decision of group members. Hence, the group leader declared the adjournment loudly.

Next Meeting
According to today’s meeting decision, our next meeting will be held on Tuesday, 5th November 2019, at 3 pm in the same venue.

Submitted by
The person who creates the meeting minutes. For example, M M Kobiruzzaman

Approved by
For example, the group leader’s name.

Importance of Meeting Minutes

Firstly, the meeting minutes record the exact date, time, location, and meeting activities. It is one kind of formal evidence that narrates your whereabouts. Also, it keeps clear evidence of attendees who attended and didn’t attend the meeting.

Further, it elaborates on the agenda and discussion topics, who will take responsibility, and how to solve the problem or achieve goals. Usually, group discussion doesn’t have a long attention span. Also, members tend to be indulged in sidetracked. So, minutes help to divert from side-tracked and facilitate keeping on track.

Furthermore, minutes represent the list of action items, and adjourning time means when the meeting was dismissed. Typically, the action list indicates members’ consciousness about performing respective duties on time properly.

Finally, the minutes of the meeting state information regarding upcoming schedules with specific times and dates and carry the names who submitted and approved them. It is an alarming directive for group members to prepare for a new meeting.

Online meeting minutes download link- PDF Download.
Virtual Meeting Minutes Sample

Communication Noise- 5 Types of Noises in Communication

Types of Noise in Communication are Physical, Factual, Physiological, Psychological, Semantic, and Cultural.

Communication Noise

Communication noise means any barrier to the effective communication process. Noises bar the effective communication process between senders and receivers. The different types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, and cultural. These noises distract the sender and receiver of the communication process from listening to the message effectively. Noise bars the effectiveness of the communication process; therefore, it is also known as a barrier to communication. Noise is one of the communication elements, followed by Context, Sender, Encoder,  Message, Channel, Decoder, Receiver, and Feedback.

Communication noises are presented in all communication contexts, such as face-to-face, group, organizational, and mediated communication. The researchers have mentioned the noise in the three communication models, for example, linear, interactive, and transactional communication models.

Shannon and Weaver’s communication model introduced noise initially in the linear communication model in 1949. Later, many researchers include the noise in their model. A comprehensive communication model certainly includes noise to explain the communication process.

The communication process will be more effective, productive, and interactive if there are no noises present. Many scholars are researching to find out the solution to overcome noise in communication. Researchers have identified that in the U.S.A., business organizations are losing billions of dollars due to noise in communication.

Example of noises in communication

Ela is very sick, and she is taking a rest at home. She calls her husband to bring some medicines, and they interact on a mobile phone. At the same time, her daughter Elon is watching television at a high volume. Therefore, Ela could not understand what her husband said to her precisely. So, she asks her husband again to be confirmed.

Television sounds are physical noise, and her sickness is an example of physiological noise.

5 Types of Noise in Communication

The five types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, and cultural noises. However, some additional noises in the communication process include syntactic, emotional, medium, encoding, decoding noises, etc. 

Types of Noise in Communication

Types of Noise in Communication

Five Types of noises in communication are:
  1. Physical Noise
  2. Physiological Noise
  3. Psychological Noise
  4. Syntactical Noise
  5. Cultural Noise

1. Physical Noise in Communication

Physical noise is the external and unnecessary sound that is an obstacle to effective communication. It is also a communication disturbance created by the environment. Therefore, physical noise is also known as environmental or factual noise in communication. Factual noise comes from ambient background noise in the environment.

Example of Physical Noise

For example, rain, thunderstorms, horns, outside building sounds, and sounds from fans, lights, and windows are the best examples of physical or environmental noise. Besides loud music, barking dogs, and noisy conflict nearby, vehicle sounds are examples of physical noise. These are also examples of factual noise in communication. 

Factual Noise Example

“During the city council meeting discussing zoning regulations, the council members tried to focus on proposed changes to residential zoning laws. However, the meeting room was filled with factual noise as attendees raised unrelated issues about parking violations, noise complaints, and streetlight repairs. Despite the council’s efforts to steer the discussion back to the agenda, the factual noise persisted, hindering productive dialogue and delaying decision-making on the crucial zoning matters.”

2. Physiological Noise in Communication

Physiological noise is a barrier created by the communicator’s physical condition. Usually, physical illness and weakness usually produce physical noise, which is an obstacle to effective communication. 

Example of Physiological Noise

For example, Ela is having headaches; therefore, she can not concentrate in class. Here, a headache is a physical illness that hinders the listening process of communication.  Also, deafness and blindness are physical weaknesses or physiological noises that hinder listening. Talking too fast or slow and the high or low temperature in the room also generate physiological noise. 

3. Psychological Noise in Communication

Psychological noise is a communication barrier created by the communicator’s psychological factors, for example, values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. This type of noise interrupts our minds from concentrating on listening. People don’t like to listen or talk about those topics that make them down or not enjoyable. 

Example of Psychological Noise

For example, Ela is a Muslim girl who does not like to listen to any criticism of Islam. Therefore, she became distracted when her lecturer was talking about anti-Islam issues. Any sensitive issues like religious, ethnic, and political are examples of psychological noise. Apart from that, financial crisis, missing a beloved person, and an exhausting schedule may originate psychological noise. 

4. Semantic Noise in Communication

Semantic noise is a communication barrier created by confusion over the meaning of words. It comes from complex, technical, autochthonous, or grammatical errors in communication. Semantic noise occurs because of different message definitions between the sender and receiver. It also refers to the wrong grammatical sentence that makes the receiver unable to understand the meaning. Scholars term it as a syntactical barrier or noise.

Syntactical noise is a grammatically wrong sentence in which the receiver cannot accomplish the proper meaning. Using complex language during computer programming is an example of syntactical noise. It is also in contrast to syntactic sugar.

Example of Semantic Noise

Ela is an international student who studies at the University of Putra Malaysia. She is listening to lectures from her Malaysian lecturer. In the meantime, her lecturer says, ” I believe SEMUA understand this topic.” SEMUA is a Malaysian word that means everyone. Ela does not understand the meaning of SEMUA as she is not a Malaysian student. It is an example of semantic noise.

Similarly, a lecturer says the natural causes of climate change and global warming are different facts. However, a few students are confused about the lecturer’s statement. The confusion has come from semantic noise. These students believe that climate change and global warming are the same phenomena. Finally, the lecturer describes global warming as raising the environment’s temperature. On the other hand, climate change points to both increasing and decreasing the global temperature. It is also an example of semantic noise.

Additionally, jargon words, mispronunciations, unique words, and grammatically wrong sentences are Semantic Noise examples.

Five Examples of Semantic Noise
  1. Jargon or Technical Language: When specialized terminology or technical language is used, it may be difficult for individuals who are not familiar with the field to understand the message. For example, a scientist discussing complex biochemical processes may use terms that are incomprehensible to someone without a background in science, leading to miscommunication.
  2. Ambiguity: Ambiguous language or vague expressions can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. For instance, if someone says, “I’ll see you soon,” without specifying a timeframe, the interpretation of “soon” may vary among individuals, causing uncertainty about when the meeting will occur.
  3. Cultural Differences: Cultural differences in language and communication norms can result in semantic noise. Certain words or phrases may have different meanings or connotations in different cultures. For example, the phrase “thumbs up” may signal approval in some cultures but be considered offensive in others.
  4. Slang or Colloquialisms: The use of slang or colloquial expressions may hinder communication, particularly when interacting with individuals from different age groups or regions. Slang terms may not be universally understood or may carry different meanings depending on the context. For instance, the word “sick” can mean “cool” or “awesome” in youth slang, which may be confusing to older generations.
  5. Misinterpretation of Nonverbal Cues: Nonverbal cues, such as gestures, facial expressions, and body language, can add meaning to verbal communication. However, misinterpretation of these cues can lead to semantic noise. For example, a person may misinterpret a smile as indicating friendliness when it signifies discomfort or nervousness.

In summary, semantic noise arises from various factors that impede the accurate transmission and interpretation of meaning in communication. Awareness of these potential sources of semantic noise can help individuals communicate more effectively by striving for clarity, avoiding ambiguity, and considering the context and audience when conveying messages.

5. Cultural Noise in Communication

Cultural noise is a communication barrier created by incorrectly explaining another person’s behaviors. This noise is produced due to the wrong meaning of messages; therefore, it is a little similar to semantic noise. Especially cultural noise is created from the nonverbal communication of people from different cultural backgrounds. The basic kinds of nonverbal communication cues are posture, gesture, eye contact, space, touch, and dress-up. The meaning of nonverbal cues is not the same in every culture and society. The conflicting message in communication is one of the cultural noises. 

Apart from that, ethnocentrism, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination are also examples of cultural noises. These factors bar effective communication in a group or team. The four noises in group communication are ethnocentrism, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination.

Example of Cultural Noise

Jon is a Russian citizen who is studying at the University of Putra Malaysia. He offers his Malaysian woman friend to handshake, but she denies it. It makes Jon feel very embarrassed. Later, he understood that women do not like to handshake men in Malaysia, which is a cultural norm.

Cultural noise can manifest in various forms, including:
  1. Language Barriers: Variances in language proficiency and understanding can obstruct effective communication. Differences in vocabulary, grammar, and syntax may lead to misinterpretation of messages, particularly when idiomatic expressions or cultural nuances are involved.
  2. Nonverbal Communication: Gestures, body language, and facial expressions can carry different meanings across cultures. Misinterpretation of nonverbal cues may occur when individuals are unfamiliar with or misinterpret cultural norms related to personal space, eye contact, or touch.
  3. Cultural Stereotypes: Preconceived notions or stereotypes about certain cultural groups can influence perceptions and judgments, leading to biased interpretations of messages. Stereotypes may lead individuals to make assumptions about others based on cultural stereotypes rather than on the actual content of the message.
  4. Cultural Norms and Values: Differences in cultural norms and values can affect communication styles and preferences. For instance, cultures vary in terms of directness, politeness, and expression of emotions. Failure to recognize and adapt to these differences can result in communication barriers and misunderstandings.
  5. Contextual Differences: Cultural contexts shape the interpretation and meaning of messages. What may be acceptable or appropriate communication in one cultural context may be perceived differently or even negatively in another context. Without awareness of cultural norms and contextual differences, messages may be misinterpreted or ineffective.
Additional Noises in Communication Process

Apart from these five basic types of noises, the additional noises in the communication process are technical noise including shot and thermal noise, organizational noise, and noise in group conversation.

Electrical Noise (Shot and Thermal Noise)

Shot noise originates from the audio output of receivers. Thermal noise is generated from the random movement of electrons in the electronic device. 

 Organizational Noise

Organizational noise refers to encoding-decoding noises and transmitting noises. The encoding-decoding noises in corporate communication lack sensitivity to the receiver, basic communication skills, insufficient knowledge of the subject, information overload, emotional interference, etc. Additionally, the transmitting noises in organizational communication are the faulty connection of transmitting lines and channel barriers. 

Noise in Group Communication

Barriers to Group Communication are disturbances that hinder interactive communication among group members. The barrier in group communication usually hinders understanding other members of the group or team. The four types of barriers in group communication are Ethnocentrism, Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination. The group discussion has many stages, tensions, conflicts, etc. According to Tuckman’s Theory, the five stages of group discussion are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning. Members must overcome all these stages to achieve the independent and interdependent goal.

Difference Between Noise and Barrier

Noise and Barriers in conversation denote the same meaning, although people use them in different interaction contexts. For example, people use the word noise when encountering face-to-face or group communication obstacles. On the other hand, people use the word barrier when facing corporate communication or mediated communication obstacles. Noise refers to the hindrance during the interaction between sender and receiver. However, many people, including scholars, described them as noise barriers. People also term them a distraction, distortion, disturbance, etc.

In conclusion, communicators need to reduce noise as much as possible to make communication more effective, productive, and efficient. These communication noises are prevalent in every context of the communication process, such as barriers in face-to-face communication, mediated communication, corporate communication, and group communication. Noise is an unwanted element of the communication process.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Communication Noise
Advantages of Communication Noise 

Communication noise, despite its negative connotation, can sometimes offer advantages in certain contexts. The following strengths of communication noise are adopted from ChatGPT.

  1. Enhanced Creativity: Noise in communication can lead to creative thinking and problem-solving. When individuals encounter obstacles or disruptions in their communication channels, they may be prompted to think outside the box and explore alternative approaches to convey their message effectively.
  2. Improved Critical Thinking: Dealing with communication noise requires individuals to critically evaluate information, discern relevant details from distractions, and adapt their communication strategies accordingly. This process can sharpen their critical thinking skills and enhance their ability to analyze complex situations.
  3. Increased Resilience: Exposure to communication noise can build resilience in individuals and organizations. Learning to navigate through noise, whether it’s in the form of technical glitches, language barriers, or environmental distractions, can strengthen one’s adaptability and ability to persevere in challenging circumstances.
  4. Heightened Awareness: Noise in communication channels can draw attention to underlying issues or areas for improvement. By identifying sources of noise and addressing them proactively, individuals and organizations can enhance their communication effectiveness and minimize misunderstandings in the future.
  5. Facilitation of Innovation: Sometimes, communication noise can spark innovation by prompting individuals to question existing processes, experiment with new tools or techniques, and seek innovative solutions to overcome communication barriers. This spirit of innovation can drive continuous improvement and foster a culture of creativity within organizations.
  6. Opportunities for Learning: Dealing with communication noise can provide valuable learning experiences for individuals and teams. Whether it’s learning how to troubleshoot technical issues, adapting communication styles to different audiences, or honing active listening skills in noisy environments, these challenges offer opportunities for growth and development.
Disadvantages of Communication Noise

Firstly, noises make people exhausted, tense, angry, and sick. Babies and ill people cannot sleep due to environmental noise. People can become deaf if they stay with a loud noise for a long time. Noise above 70 dB damages the eardrum. Noise hampers organizations financially by reducing employees’ productivity. The workers cannot concentrate appropriately due to noise. The organizational noise occurs due to a faulty communication channel. In 2022, researchers at HARVARD Medical School identified that people encounter autonomic stress reactions when they wake up from a loud sound. It might cause cardiac arrest. Semantic noise spreads misleading information among people. Sometimes, it creates communal violence if the message comes from political or social leaders.

 The Eight Disadvantages of Communication Noise are:
1. Miscommunication

Communication noise often leads to misinterpretation or misunderstanding of messages. Whether it’s due to physical distractions, semantic misunderstandings, or psychological biases, noise can distort the intended meaning of a message, resulting in miscommunication between the sender and receiver.

2. Reduced Clarity

Noise disrupts the clarity of communication by introducing interference or distortion. This can make it challenging for the receiver to decipher the message accurately, leading to confusion and ambiguity.

3. Loss of Information

In some instances, communication noise can result in the loss of critical information within the message. This loss may occur during the transmission, reception, or processing of the message, leading to incomplete or fragmented communication.

4. Barriers to Understanding

Noise acts as a barrier to understanding, hindering the exchange of information and ideas between communicators. Whether it’s language barriers, cultural differences, or perceptual biases, noise creates obstacles that impede comprehension and mutual understanding.

5. Negative Impact on Relationships

Persistent communication noise can strain relationships and erode trust between individuals or groups. Frequent misunderstandings or misinterpretations can breed resentment and frustration, damaging interpersonal connections and undermining collaborative efforts.

6. Wasted Time and Resources

Dealing with communication noise consumes valuable time and resources as communicators attempt to overcome barriers and clarify misunderstandings. This inefficiency can lead to productivity losses and divert attention away from more productive tasks.

7. Reputation Damage

In professional or organizational settings, repeated instances of communication noise can tarnish an individual’s or organization’s reputation. Consistent communication errors or breakdowns may raise doubts about competence, reliability, or credibility, impacting future interactions and outcomes.

8. Stress and Frustration

Coping with communication noise can induce stress and frustration among communicators. Constantly grappling with obstacles or uncertainties in communication can lead to feelings of anxiety, irritation, or dissatisfaction, affecting overall well-being and morale.

In conclusion, communication noise presents significant disadvantages by obstructing effective communication and undermining the quality of interpersonal interactions and organizational processes. Overcoming these challenges requires awareness, adaptation, and the implementation of strategies to minimize noise and enhance communication clarity and effectiveness.

Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2024). Communication Noise- 5 Types of Noise Barriers in Communication. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/communication-noise-5-types-of-noise-in-communication-barriers/