Types of Journalism: Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital

Types of Journalism- 22 Different Types of Journalism are Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism & Digital Journalism. Journalism Types. Types of Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

Journalism

Journalism is a combined process of collecting, processing, and disseminating information through print, electronic, and digital or online media. Print media are printed publications such as books, newspapers, magazines, billboards, and so more. Electronic media in journalism are mass media such as telephone, television, and radio. Digital media are internet-based outlets such as websites, blog sites, and social media. Journalists are the people who are engaged in collecting, analyzing, processing, and distributing information via media.

News Values in Journalism
Journalism Types Diagram
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism, Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.
Types of Journalism- Different Types of Journalism & 22 Types of Print Journalism.

Types of Journalism

Different Types of Journalism
  1. Print Journalism
  2. Broadcast Journalism
  3. Digital Journalism.

Journalism differs into three categories: Print Journalism, Broadcast Journalism, and Digital Journalism.

1. Print Journalism

Print journalism means the process of news reporting through print media such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. Newspapers are the most significant print outlet to publish diverse types of news together. A newspaper has many spaces to disseminate different types of news; for example, national, international, editorial, advertisement, and sports. The print media authority assigns expert journalists for each space.

Example of Print Journalism

For example, newspapers, magazines, books, flyers, academic journals are the example of print journalism. It denotes printed documents that convey information.

Newspaper Print Journalism
Example of Print Journalism

22 Types of Print Journalism

The 22 types of print journalism are advocacy journalism, agriculture journalism, arts journalism, celebrity journalism, crime journalism, defense journalism, economic journalism, editorial journalism, education journalism, environmental journalism, feature journalism, freelance journalism, opinion journalism, investigative journalism, lifestyle journalism, photojournalism, political journalism, sports journalism, tabloid journalism, comics journalism, watchdog journalism, and yellow journalism.

1. Advocacy Journalism

Advocacy journalism is the process of reporting news from a non-objective viewpoint. It refers to a common type of journalism that combines reporting with a social or political viewpoint. The reports are generated by the advocacy journalist deal with social events, corruption, corporate and government policy. This report appears as a potential jolt for the audience. Somewhat, it is another type of investigative journalism. Advocacy journalist practice journalism from an ideological viewpoint to support the nation and society.

For example, “Vaccination better way to combat COVID-19 than lockdown.”

2. Agriculture Journalism

Agriculture journalism is a particular genre of journalism in which the journalist collects agriculture-related data and processes them to publish as informative information through mass media. It compares the traditional and new ways of cultivation. It also includes the challenges of the agriculture sector of the country.

For example, “Canadian farmers produce organic vegetables.”

3. Arts Journalism

Art journalism refers to the common type of journalism in which journalists analyze and report arts events such as theatre, architecture, movies, drama, visual illustration, music, and so more. It discusses traditional events of the community, society, country, and sub-continent areas. The art journalists focus on the artistic features.

For example, “New art hub for Bournemouth.”

4. Celebrity Journalism

Celebrity journalism is the category of journalism that covers events related to the celebrities such as sportsperson, royal family people, singers, T.V. start, and opera stars.

 

For example, “Lionel Messi Joins P.S.G. Leaving Barcelona.”

5. Crime Journalism

Crime journalism refers to covering the sensational news story related to offensive incidents in society. It is mostly associated with wrongdoing issues related to police, victim, and criminals. It is also part of objective and investigative journalism. Crime journalism is also known as crime news reporting; sometimes, it includes taking the interview of the crime stories. The journalist keeps a good relationship with the police, lawyer, admin officer to get the news quickly. Crime events are crucial issues that add news value in journalism; therefore, journalists interest to report those events. 

For example, “Haiti President Jovenel Moise killed.”

6. Defense Journalism

Defense journalism refers to the specialized type of journalism covering events related to the army and navy. It is an exceptional type of journalism that builds the relationship between media and militaries. Defense journalist gets special training to report war news from the spot. Usually, journalists write articles and generate content regarding military events, information to entertain soldiers. The defense journalists should know military history, rules and regulations, languages, and international relations.

For example, “the U.S. troops return from Afghanistan.”

7. Economic Journalism

Economic journalism is a significant type of journalism that covers the country’s financial issues, events, systems, and policies. It also includes the analytical report and comparative analysis of the financial state in the country. The reporters must have good knowledge of the economy in the country to report these types of news. The businessmen are the fundamental readers of this column. The journalists collect information by interviewing the finance manager, owner, investor, and company employee.

For example, “Lockdown hit the economy during the the Eid ul Adha Festival.”

8. Editorial Journalism

Editorial journalism refers to a genre of journalism where the chief editor expresses the opinion logically and ethically. In this respect, journalists play an important role in shaping public opinion by providing rational arguments. Although it is similar to opinion journalism, it is fixed only for editors to provide logical opinions. The editorial contents must include the explanation, body, and summary of the topics.

For example, “Effectiveness of the movement control order in Malaysia.”

 9. Education Journalism

Education journalism deals with covering any news related to the department of education. It includes news related to the development of the education system. On the other hand, it also shows the discrimination that occurred in the education sector. The prime focus of the education journalist is to raise social awareness among students to get their rights properly. The educators and students are the main readers of this column. Additionally, students, teachers, and researchers become education journalists.

For example, “Education Ministry advises conducting online classes until 2022 in Malaysia.”

10. Environment Journalism

Environment journalism is reporting environmental issues, such as natural disasters, climate change, and global warming. Disaster journalism is one of the types of environment journalism because it includes news related to natural calamities and disaster management. Environment news covers natural conditions and calamities such as water layers, deforestation, global warming, flood, etc. It also includes the casualties and infrastructural damages. The reporters need to ensure safety while covering the news from the spot. It represents the victim’s wound that affects people’s emotions. The report also shows how the international and national disaster management authority plays its role in rescuing the people from the affected areas.

For example, “Cyclone hits Bangladesh and death toll rises to 200”.

11. Feature Journalism

Feature journalism means producing and publishing non-fiction events that deal with real events, issues, and trends. The aim of feature articles is not only to entertain but also to educate people. Feature journalism is also known as news feature article writing. The most common news feature articles are Personality Feature, How-To Feature, Review Feature, Travelogue Feature Article, Sports Feature, and Obituary Feature. Travel journalism includes travel articles and travelogue features.

For example, “How to recover Facebook password.”

Feature journalism in Print Journalism
Sports Feature Journalism in Print Media
12. Freelance Journalism

Freelance journalism is the process of generating informative content and sell them to media organizations. It is one kind of contract work; journalists complete newspapers, magazines, and commercial organizations. The content might be related to fashion, sport, products, and environments. Nowadays, many freelance journalists work to promote commercial products. Additionally, some of them involve in investigative journalism.

For example, “How to earn money from Facebook.”

13. Opinion Journalism

Opinion journalism means publishing an author’s opinion regarding an issue. The author has good academic and or practical knowledge of the subjects. The content is a piece of article that is intended to clarify the issues elaborately.

For example, “The Importance of artificial intelligence in digital business.”

14. Investigative Journalism

Investigative journalism refers to a genre of journalism in which the journalist investigates a single case of interest, such as discrimination, corruption, wrongdoing, and critical crimes. An investigative journalist might spend a week, month, and year analyzing and reporting the news. They scrutinize the information thoroughly to identify the actual people behind the crimes or occurrences.

For example, “September 11 attract: who and why.”

15. Lifestyle Journalism

Lifestyle journalism means the process of reporting events related to people’s lifestyles such as food, travel, cook, eating habits, yoga, home decoration, gardening, leisure, hobby, music, fashion, etc. It is one of the favorite types of journalism for the young generation. Lifestyle journalism has become more popular in recent decades. It provides tips and tricks for leading a life with happiness avoiding common problems relevant to lifestyle. 

For example, “Vogue brings new fashion at shop in 2021.”

16. Photojournalism

Photojournalism is a specific form of journalism that describes an event, issue, conflict, or story. A proverb says that a photo conveys more information than a thousand words. Photojournalism is a significant process of conveying emotions and stories via photos. It is an essential element of print journalism.

The most common types of photojournalism are spot news, general news, personality, illustration, pictorial photojournalism, and so more.

Photojournalism in Print media
Illustration Photojournalism in Print Media
 17. Political Journalism

Political journalism is a form of journalism in which journalists publish political news. The political news can be local or international. It presents deep information regarding democracy, royal families, elections, dictatorship, and so more. Political journalism reveals critical information about civil government how they rule the country. It also talks about the regional and international political powers. Political journalists should have greater knowledge of political science and the principle of democracy.

For example, “Political crisis in Myanmar.”

18. Sports Journalism

Sports journalism covers the story related to a sports event and sportsperson. It enriches the newspaper by providing national and international sports events. The young generations are the main readers of the sports news due to having much interest in the sport. Sports photojournalism is a powerful element of sports news reporting. There are mainly two types of sports journalism; for example, sports action and sports feature journalism. In this regard, the journalists understand the specific sport clearly and have effective communication skills to cover the story. Additionally, journalists must need to ensure safety and security while covering spot sports news. 

For example, “Rio to allow fans for Brazil-Argentina final of Copa America.”

19. Tabloid journalism

Tabloid journalism is a different style of journalism in that journalism disseminates sensational events via the small size of newspapers. The news is published in compact page format papers. It emphasizes sensational topics such as crime, corruption, celebrity gossip, and viral news on social media. Tabloid journalism is also known as rag publications.

For example, “Lionel Messi Join P.S.G.”

20. Watchdog Journalism

Watchdog journalism is another form of investigative journalism in which journalists reassure the authenticity of the news through interviewing the responsible people. It is the process of monitoring the government’s actions and increasing the accountability of the news. Watchdog journalism has become the principle of the press media. It enforces the government official and authority to fulfill public interests as per responsibility. The watchdog journalists scrutinize the people in power to reveal the fact. Watchdog journalism works to inform people rather than entertain them. 

For example. “Washington Post’s coverage of Watergate scandal.”

21. Comics Journalism

Comics journalism means graphic journalism in which journalists publish non-fiction events. The journalist draws a funny skeleton combined with pictures and words to convey a meaningful message and information to the audience. Therefore, the journalists are known as cartoonists or editorial cartoonists. It is also known as cartoon journalism. However, nowadays, journalist adopts technology such as computer and mobile to create visual graphics.

For example, “KAL’s cartoon.”

Comics Journalism of Print Media. Types of print journalism
Comics Journalism
22. Yellow Journalism

Yellow journalism is a distinguished form of journalism in which journalists focus on increasing circulation rather than news authenticity. It is a process of luring audiences setting eye-catching headlines that is not much relevant to the body content. Yellow journalism is a popular term in the American press; therefore, it is also known as yellow press. Journalists focus on exaggerating the news instead of identifying authentic news. The contents have not come from well-research and investigation. Journalist practices yellow journalism intentionally without following the code of conduct in journalism; therefore, it is unethical—people terms yellow journalism as the negative role of journalists. 

Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism
Yellow Journalism and Journalist- Fake Journalism

For example. “Spanish American War.”

2. Broadcast Journalism

Broadcast journalism means a process of reporting news and information through TV and Radio. Therefore, it includes T.V. and Radio Journalism. T.V. journalism is a special type of journalism that disseminates visual information via Television. It is a process of filming moments, editing them to publish via television. Sometimes, T.V. journalists interview political, business people, or celebrities on-scene footage.

Types of Broadcast Journalism

  1. TV News Reporter
  2. TV News Presenter
  3. Interview Journalism

3. Digital Journalism

Digital journalism means collecting, generating, and publishing via digital platforms such as websites, blogsite, and social media sites. It is also known as online journalism that includes citizen journalism. Citizen journalists gather the information and publish it through digital networking sites such as websites, blogs, and social media. So, citizen journalism is one of the types of online journalism.

Types of Digital Journalism

Digital journalism refers to collecting information and publishing them via digital platforms such as blogs, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and LinkedIn. The citizens are involved in collecting, processing, and reporting the news. They generate content to convey messages to society and the community. However, digital journalism has both adverse and positive consequences on society. Sometimes, people spread fake and fabricated information to the country via citizen journalism. Nowadays, many people collect, process, and publish news on social media, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and so more. The netizen generates and posts informative content on social media to create social awareness. There are many examples of digital journalism; however, the most common examples of digital journalism are Citizen journalism, YouTube journalism, Blogging, and Commenting.

For example, Arab Spring and Rebuilding Haiti.

The Three Examples of Digital Journalism are:
  1. Citizen Journalism
  2. YouTube Journalism
  3. Blogging
Citation For This Article (APA 7th Edition)
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021, August 26). Types of Journalism, Different Types of Journalism- Print, Broadcast & Digital. Newsmoor- Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/types-of-journalism-different-types-of-journalism-print-broadcast-digital-journalist/

Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism

Types of Photojournalism- Different Types of Photojournalism & Photography. The 8 Types of Photojournalism are Spot News, General News, Feature Sports, Action Sports, Features, Portrait/Personality, Pictorial, also Illustration. Types of photojournalism pdf.

Types of Journalism

Photojournalism

Photojournalism refers to explaining a moment, issue, incident, or story by using photography. It is a way of storytelling that represents a story visually via photos. Photojournalism is one of the significant types of print journalism that has become an essential part of journalism.

Types of Photojournalism

Different Types of Photojournalism in Photography

The 8 Types of Photojournalism are:

  1. Spot News Photojournalism
  2. General News Photojournalism
  3. Feature Photojournalism
  4. Sports Action Photojournalism
  5. Sports Features Photojournalism
  6. Portrait/Personality Photojournalism
  7. Pictorial Photojournalism
  8. Illustration Photojournalism
1. Spot News Photojournalism

Spot news photographs carry an urgent, unplanned, and often unpleasant or undesirable ambiance. The coverage cannot be scheduled in advance. Spot news photography includes automobile accidents, airplane crashes, tornadoes, fires, murders, bank robberies, and so more. It also represents various acute, exciting, and usually noteworthy occurrences that help characterize life. Usually, spot news occurs without notice and ends quickly, or its most newsworthy aspects do. Unless aftermath photos are acceptable, so photographers must arrive soon. Many newspaper photographers use police monitors, cellular telephones, social media platforms, for example, Facebook, Twitter to get spot news.

Types of Photojournalism- Example photo of spot photojournalism

Covering Spot News

The key to successfully covering spot news, once the photographer has arrived, is to quickly ascertain what is going on and decide which aspect is the most important and truthful—which element is the most appropriate truth. Then photographers marshal all the technological and creative aspects of photojournalism to inform readers well within appropriate legal restraints and ethical limitations. Photographers should always record what appears to be the essential aspect first. It would help if you made every reasonable effort to keep intrusion to a minimum—by using attention-getting flash, stay physically as far from the action as possible, respect police lines, take care not to destroy potential evidence—by walking on them.

Spot news often presents two sides: the hard-core event and secondary but often humanizing aspects.

2. General News Photojournalism

Journalistic organizations schedule the general news photojournalism process is termed general or planned news. Covering general news may not have the adrenaline-producing excitement of raging fires, police shootouts, etc., but this category regularly offers photojournalists opportunities to inform readers about significant happenings. General news allows photojournalists to plan is knowing a story—what it is, where it came from, where it is, and where it probably is headed. If time allows, delve into subjects so you can make informed decisions about coverage and emphasis—can avoid covering the superficial and obvious gimmick set up. Photojournalists should get familiar with the subject and physical layout of coverage sites.

Covering General News

Must be cooperative with reporters from your organization who can help you in your quest to inform readers visually. Reporters can provide insight into a story that photojournalists might miss.

Types of Photojournalism- Hard News
Two Types of General News
  1. Hard News: Something that’s happening now. It’s “important” news. Seeks to inform rather than entertain.
  2. Breaking News: Hard news that’s happening right now. An ongoing story. 
3. Features News Photojournalism

The feature is a broad category that includes images with at least some news value and pictures that may easily fit in one or more other non-news categories.

Two Types of Feature photojournalism  are:

1) Lighthearted images that entertain more than inform.

2) Serious images that inform more than entertain.

For example, light-hearted images are squirrels chewing on nuts, children playing in large boxes, parents pushing children on swings.

For example, serious images are dying people with AIDS mounting a valiant fight against the disease, a child violin prodigy destined for fame. Serious images convey news overtones or connections or probe the life of their community, to reach toward their subjects’ hearts and souls.

Editors tend to use features when space is available, and they have no images of a more severe and essential nature or when the graphically dull page needs sprucing up.

4. Sports Action Photojournalism 

Sports action images are interested in capturing the actions as they happen. Photographing sports action is dangerous. 

However, there are three essential ways to minimize your risk in covering spots action and to ensure you record critical moments are:

  1. Firstly, knowing how games are played.
  2. Secondly, knowing the strengths, weaknesses, and preferences of players and coaches.
  3. Finally, constantly being alert to potential as well as actual action.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Action Photojournalism 

Covering Sports Action

1. Using telephoto lenses of 180mm and longer is suitable for sports action coverage.

2. Motor drives are highly desirable because no photographer can regularly capture the height of action with a single manual exposure.

3. Monopods also are highly desirable when using telephoto lenses because monopods provide a relatively steady platform

4. Unless they have a specific reason to do otherwise, photographers should follow the ball in games where a ball is used.

5. Photographers should carry a short telephoto and a wide-angle or a zoom equivalent while covering the action. This allows photographers to record other scenes related to the game, particularly features and activities close to them.

5. Sports Features Photojournalism

Sports feature pictures are the same as features, except they always involve sports. Photographers typically take these pictures immediately before, during, or after sporting events and may take them at other times. Sports features round out sports events by revealing their off-stage activities. They humanize sports, showing the emotions of players, coaches and spectators and conveying other game-related activities important but arguably secondary to gameplay.

For Example, opposing coaches embracing after a hard-fought game, a player on the losing side weeping, etc.

Types of Photojournalism Sports Features Photojournalism

6. Portrait / Personality Photojournalism

The portrait/Personality category is not all faces, but it offers glimpses into hearts and souls. The photographer lets readers walk in the shoes of those pictured.

Although faces lend themselves to the person’s scrutiny, portrait/personality images need not be facial views to probe for deeper meaning. Back pictures and body forms can speak volumes. Good portrait/personality images reveal as much about the photographer as the photographer. Only image-makers attuned to nuances of nonverbal communication and comfortable with personal interaction can consistently visually plumb subjects’ inner selves. Actually, it represents emotion and sympathy.

Types of Photojournalism- Portrait Photography

7. Pictorial Photojournalism

Outstanding images in the pictorial category showcase the artistic side of photojournalism. Pictorials typically depend on light and form and their interaction. These images make readers pause, perhaps to reminisce about pleasant and similar experiences, or to feel a little better also a little brighter.

 Pictorial typically entertains more than inform.

8. Illustration Photojournalism

Illustration photojournalism refers to combined or manipulated images that create a “new” image. Nevertheless, news photographers can not manipulate a picture without calling it a photo illustration.  Images in this category visually try to convey ideas and concepts, and products. Both categories demand a particularly high technical photographic expertise and keen, incisive minds that can produce images that clearly convey the intended messages while doing so in clever, eye-catching ways.

Example Photo of Illustration Photojournalism