Top Private Universities in Malaysia 2022 For International Students

Top Private Universities in Malaysia 2022 For International Students. Also, Top Private Universities in Malaysia 2022. Best Private Universities in Malaysia 2022 For International Students.

Top Private Universities in Malaysia

Top private universities refer to the best non-government universities in Malaysia that provide foundation, diploma, bachelor, master, and Ph.D. programs. The five educational institutes in Malaysia are public universities, private universities, university colleges, training, and language centers. Malaysia holds more than 100 educational institutes, including public and private universities. Malaysia also hosts many reputable foreign university campuses from the USA, UK, Australia, Ireland, China, etc. According to the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia, there are currently 20 public universities in Malaysia, 50 private universities, 34 university colleges, ten foreign university campuses, and more than 50 language institutes.

Top Private Universities in Malaysia 2022

The list of Top 20 Private Universities in Malaysia are:
  1. Asia Pacific University (APU)
  2. Management and Science University (MSU)
  3. Multimedia University (MMU)
  4. SEGi University
  5. Mahsa University
  6. City University
  7. INTI University
  8. UCSI University
  9. Sunway University
  10. HELP University
  11. University of Cyberjaya (UoC)
  12. Putra Business School (UPM)
  13. Nilai University
  14. Limkokwing University
  15. Manipal International University
  16. UNIRAZAK University
  17. AIMST University
  18. UNITAR International University (UNITAR)
  19. Infrastructure University Kuala Lumpur (IUKL)
  20. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (UTP)

Foreign Private University Campuses in Malaysia

However, Malaysia holds ten foreign private university campuses, including Curtin University, Monash University, Selangor Heriot-Watt University Malaysia, Putrajaya Newcastle University Medicine Malaysia, University of Southampton – Malaysia Campus, Selangor Swinburne University of Technology, Sarawak The University of Nottingham Malaysia, University of Reading Malaysia, Johor Xiamen University Malaysia Campus, Selangor Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and University College Dublin Malaysia Campus, Penang. These are the international university branch campuses in Malaysia, not Malaysian private universities.

Asia Pacific University (APU)

Asia Pacific University (APU) is one of the best private universities in Malaysia, also known as the Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU). The main campus of APU is located at Technology Park Malaysia, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia. So, it is only 15 kilometers from Petronas Twin Towers and 50 kilometers from Kuala Lumpur International Airport. APU achieved the 5-Star under the SETARA- 2018 for its outstanding performance in the education sector. According to Asia University Rank- 2022, APU ranks among Asia’s top 10 private universities and the top 300 universities globally.

Asia Pacific University in Malaysia (APU) Top Private University in Malaysia

Asia Pacific University (APU) Tuition Fees 2022

Asia Pacific University (APU) is one of the top private universities in Malaysia for offering diverse programs in the discipline of engineering, business, management, finance, technology, and information. It is a famous university for offering information technology-related programs, including artificial intelligence, computer game development, and cyber security. It also provides local and international students’ foundation, diploma, bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. programs. APU is the best private university in Malaysia for engineering studies.

Management and Science University (MSU)

Management and Science University (MSU) has become one of Malaysia’s top 20 private universities for securing jobs for its graduate students. According to the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia 2022, around 98 percent of graduate students of MSU secure jobs within one year after graduation. It was established in 2001 in Shah Alam, Selangor.

The campus address of Management and Science University is University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. It is also located in the capital of Malaysia and very near to the international airport.

Management and Science University Malaysia Address University Drive, Off Persiaran Olahraga, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.

Management and Science University (MSU) Fees 2022

MSU is the best private university in Malaysia for medicine and computer science, engineering, business, law, information technology, visual arts, and law studies. Additionally, It offers diplomas and bachelor’s degrees in traditional Chinese medicine. It also offers the bachelor of medicine and bachelor in surgery (MBBS), biomedical science, and pharmacy.

Multimedia University (MMU)

Multimedia University (MMU) is another top private research university in Malaysia founded in 1996. MMU holds three campuses in Malaysia, including Cyberjaya, Johor, and Malacca campuses. It has ranked top five universities in Malaysia in 2022 for its outstanding teaching performance. The main campus of MMU is located at Persiaran Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. Cyberjaya is known as the Silicon Valley of Malaysia that is the prime part of the multimedia super corridor in Malaysia.

Multimedia University (MMU)- top private universities in Malaysia

Multimedia University (MMU) Tuition Fees 2022

Multimedia University (MMU) is the best private computer science university specializing in software engineering, game development, data science, and cybersecurity. MMU provides up to 100 percent scholarship for the master’s program by research and Ph.D. Additionally, it assists undergraduate students in getting a president’s scholarship, merit scholarship, and talent scholarship. MMU allows students to join intake with only one-semester tuition fees. So, the local and international students can start their studies after paying one semester’s tuition fees in 2022. MMU is also an affordable university in Malaysia for international students.

SEGi University

SEGi University has been recognized as one of the top private research universities for providing quality education and maintaining an academic environment. It was established in 1977, and the main campus is located at Kota Damansara, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Apart from the main campus, it has four more campuses in Malaysia such as Kuala Lumpur, Subang Jaya, Penang, and Sarawak. It has collaborated with the following universities: Abertay University in Scotland, The University of Southern Queensland in Australia, The University of Sunderland in the UK, the University of York St John, and the University of Greenwich.

SEGi University in Malaysia- Top Private Universities in Malaysia

SEGi University Tuition Fees 2022

SEGi is the best private university in Malaysia for offering diverse programs, including foundation, diploma, bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. It is also the best private university in Malaysia for medicine, computer science, engineering, and business studies.

Mahsa University

Mahsa University operates the administrative and academic activities from its main campus in Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610, Selangor in Malaysia. The Ministry of Education in Malaysia declared an online university. So, it provides both physical and virtual classes for international students through virtual meeting platforms.

Mahsa University in Malaysia

Mahsa University Tuition Fees 2022

Mahsa is one of the top private universities in Malaysia for studying MBBS. It also offers biosciences, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, and health science programs. Additionally, Mahsa provides hospitality management, business, finance, information technology, and engineering program. It also provides a dual award program for local and international students.

City University

City University is located in the heart of Kuala Lumpur city in Malaysia. It has served since 1984, so it is one of the oldest private universities in Malaysia. City university has accredited by the Malaysian Qualifications Agency. The Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China has recognized city universities officially. City university maintains a 4-Star(Excellent Rating) under the SETARA 2017. It provides a conditional offer letter, so students do not need to pay before admission.

City University Malaysia a top private university in Malaysia

City University Tuition Fees 2022

City university is the best private university in Malaysia for offering graphic design & multimedia, culinary art, fashion design, interior design, etc. It also offers diplomas in nursing, medical lab technology, and occupational safety & health programs. Apart from MMU, City is another cheapest private university in Malaysia for international students. 

INTI University

The main campus of the INTI International University is located at Nilai, N.Sembilan, Malaysia. It also has three college campuses in Malaysia: Subang Jaya, Penang, and Sabah. Since 1986, INTI University has produced more than 55,000 graduates in the last 36 years. It has become one of Malaysia’s most famous private universities for its teaching strategy, sophisticated management tools, and global resources. Additionally, INTI university collaborated with top-ranked international universities to conduct the mobility program. Moreover, It collaborated with more than 400 local and international companies like IBM, TM, Paypal Malaysia, DiGi Telecommunications Sdn Bhd, KPMG, and Huawei.

INTI International University- Top Private Universities in Malaysia 2022

INTI International University Fees 2022

The most famous programs are BBA, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer science, Information Technology, Bachelor in Biotechnology, etc. In addition, INTI offers dual programs such as BA (Hons) in Graphic Design, BA (Hons) in Fashion Management & Communication, and BA (Hons) in Interior Design at Sheffield Hallam University UK. INTI is the best private university in Malaysia for law (UK Degree Transfer Programme for 2 Years). Similarly, students at INTI university can experience American Degree Transfer Program (AUP).

UCSI University

UCSI is one of the best private universities in Malaysia for various programs that include engineering, IT, management, multimedia, creative art, pharmacy, music, applied science, etc. It contains all types of courses; for example, foundation, diploma, bachelor, and postgraduate programs, including master’s and Ph.D.
The address of UCSI university is: UCSI Heights, 1, Jalan Puncak Menara Gading, Taman Connaught, 56000 Cheras, Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Additionally, it has three more campuses in Malaysia, namely KL Campus, Sarawak Campus, and Terengganu Campus. It holds more than 10,000 international students.

Technology Adoption Models- Models For Technology Adoption

Technology Adoption Models- Models of Technology Adoption. Explain Models for Technology Adoption. Also, Examples of Technology Adoption Theories and Models.

Technology Adoption Models

The technology adoption models refer to the theories and frameworks that explain why people accept and utilize modern technology. It also describes how people adopt modern technology and use them in communication, business, health, education, and other sectors. Technology adoption means accepting and utilizing modern technology confidently. Researchers have introduced several technology adoption models in the recent decade to describe the reasons for technology adoption. They also mention the significant factors of these models that stimulate people to accept modern technology.

On the other hand, academicians consider a few factors that drive users to reject modern technology. The technology adoption models play a critical role in further improving technology. The COVID-19 pandemic has proved the importance of technology adoption in social, political, educational, and business contexts. Therefore, nobody can deny the usefulness of modern technology and its application in personal life.

The Importance of Technology Adoption Models

Technology adoption models answer the most common question, “why do people use the new technology?”. In addition, the researchers and practitioners present factors that influence people to accept new technology. Technology has become an inevitable part of daily life. For example, in the COVID-19 pandemic, students have conducted virtual classes through online meeting platforms such as Google Meet, Zoom Meeting, Microsoft Team, and Skype. Additionally, many organizations have handled corporate meetings via these web conferencing applications. They have also generated virtual meeting minutes and submitted them by the technological tool. The technology adoption models are developed in order to propose the reasons and consequences of using the technology.

Models of Technology Adoption

The Models of Technology Adoption are:
  1. Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)-1986
  2. Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) (ETAM)- 2002
  3. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)- 2003
  4. Technology Acceptance Model-3 (TAM 3)-2008
  5. Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2 (2012)
  6. Motivational Model (MM)-1992
  7. Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage-1996
  8. Uses and Gratification Theory (U&G)-1974
  9. Diffusion of Innovation Theory- 1962
  10. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory (PCIT)
  11. The Model of PC Utilization (MPCU)-1991

These are examples of technology adoption models and theories.

1. Technology Acceptance Model(TAM)-1986

Fred D. Davis introduced the technology acceptance model(TAM) in 1986 in his Ph.D. thesis paper titled “A TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL FOR EMPIRICALLY TESTING NEW END-USER INFORMATION SYSTEMS: THEORY AND RESULTS”. Initially,  in 1986, Fred D. Davis included three elements: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using the system. The technology acceptance model outlines three factors: perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude toward using the system. It also represents the design feature with X1, X2, and X3.

The Original Technology Acceptance Model By Fred Davis (1986)- Technology Adoption Models
The Original Technology Acceptance Model By Fred Davis (1986)
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989)

Fred D. Davis published the technology acceptance model again, namely “Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology ” in Management Information Systems Research Center, the University of Minnesota, in 1989. So, the model is familiar as Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989).

Technology Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) PDF

The study develops and validates the two constructs, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. The author also tested the validity and reliability of the variables with two six-item scales. Davis also proved that the construct “perceived ease of use” is a causal antecedent to perceived usefulness. These two constructs are prime determinants of system use and user acceptance.

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis et al., 1989)

However, In 1989, Fred D. Davis, Richard P. Bagozzi, Paul R. Warshaw presented the technology acceptance model in the research paper “User Acceptance of Computer Technology: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Models”, published by the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS) located in Maryland, USA.

Fred D. Davis is a professor at the University of Michigan School of Business Administration. His research interests include user acceptance of technology, technology support to make decisions, and motivational factors of computer acceptance. TAM model was certainly derivated from the adoption Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), which describes the factors that stimulate people to change human behavior. It has also been designated as the most cited model in the field of information and communication technology(ICT). The technology acceptance model(TAM) is certainly one of the most significant technologies adoption models.

Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model
Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model By Venkatesh and Davis (1996)- Technology Adoption Models
Final Version of Technology Acceptance Model By Venkatesh and Davis (1996)

The Final Version of the Technology Acceptance Model was developed by Venkatesh and Davis in 1996. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) explains the user’s intention to accept technology by three variables: perceived usefulness, ease of use, and attitude toward use. The additional factors of the TAM are user education, system features, user participation in the design, and the nature of the execution method. However, it excludes the social influence factor on the acceptance of modern technology. So, the researchers and practitioners term it as the limitation of the model for being implemented beyond the workplace.

However, In 1996, Viswanath Venkatesh and Fred D. Davis included an additional variable, “External Variables”, to the previous model and outlined the final version of the Technology Acceptance Model.

“The TAM, TAM2, ETAM, TAM3 and UTAUT have been used over the years by various researchers to explain the adoption technology systems”.

2. Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) (2000)

Venkatesh and Davis added new factors to the Technology Acceptance Model and established the Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) in 2000. The extended technology acceptance model is also known as the TAM2 and ETAM. ETAM described two groups of constructs, for example, social influence processes and cognitive instrumental determinants.

Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM 2) or (ETAM) By Viswanath Venkatesh & Fred D. Davis in 2000- Technology Adoption Models

The three social influence determinants are subjective norm, voluntariness, and image. Additionally, the four cognitive instrumental processes of perceived usefulness are Job relevance, Output quality, Result demonstrability, and Perceived ease of use. Both social influence and cognitive instrumental determinants stimulate users to accept and use the system.

3. Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) (2003)

Viswanath Venkatesh, Michael G. Morris, Gordon B. Davis, and Fred D. Davis established the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) in 2003, under the title of the “User Acceptance of Information Technology: Toward a Unified View”.

The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) was developed from eight renowned technology acceptance modes. “The eight models are the theory of reasoned action (TRA), the technology acceptance model (TAM), the motivational model (MM), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), a model combining the technology acceptance model and the theory of planned behavior, the model of PC utilization (MPCU), the innovation diffusion theory, and the social cognitive theory (SCT).”

Firstly, the authors analyze the eight models and review the literature on user acceptance. Secondly, they investigate and compare those models’ extensions. Additionally, they develop the unified model based on the eight models’ components. Finally, the unified model was tested empirically and validated using data.

Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) BY Venkatesh et al., (2003)

The four prime constructs of UTAUT are 1) Performance Expectancy, 2) Effort Expectancy, 3) Social Influence, and 4) Facilitating Conditions.

The first three constructs (Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, Social Influence) determine user intention and behavior. However, the fourth element (Facilitating Conditions) directly determines user behavior. Besides, the four moderate variables are Gender, age, experience, and voluntariness.

4. Technology Acceptance Model 3 (2008)

Technology Acceptance Model (TAM3) was introduced by Venkatesh and Bala in 2008. TAM-3 provides valuable rational explanations of how and why individuals make a decision about the adoption and use of ITs, particularly the work on the determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

5. Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) (2012)

Venkatesh, Thong, and Xu established the Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) in 2012. They added three additional variables, including hedonic motivation, price value, and
habit, to the UTAUT in order to explain customer technology adoption. The Extending Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology contains age, gender, and experience to moderate variables; however, it excludes the variable of voluntariness.

6. Motivation Model (MM) (1992)

Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw introduced the motivational model (MM) in 1992. The Motivational Model describes the external and natural stimulants that integrate users’ behaviors. According to the Motivation Model, the two crucial elements of motivation are extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. Firstly, extrinsic motivation includes perceived usefulness, ease of use, and subjective norm. It is the acknowledgment that stimulates the users to perform the action. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation includes the magnitude of enjoyment derived from recreating with a computer.

7. Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage (1996)

The Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage was introduced by Magid Igbaria, Saroj Parasuraman, and Jack J. Baroudi in 1996. It is also known as Igbaria’s model.

A Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage

According to the Motivational Model of Microcomputer Usage, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivators simulate people accepting the new technologies or rejecting them. This model describes perceived fun as the intrinsic motivator; however, perceived usefulness is the extrinsic motivator that influences people’s behavior to use computers.

8. Uses and Gratifications Theory (1974)

Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch established the uses and gratifications theory in 1974. It explains why people utilize certain kinds of communication media. It also describes the gratification of the people using these media compared to others. The U & G theory explains why people utilize certain media and what benefits they get from it. The U&G theory includes three constructs; motivations, behavioral usage, and gratifications/ satisfaction.

9. Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) (1962)

Diffusion of Innovations Theory explains why people accept new ideas and technology or reject them. It also describes how the use of technology spread among people quickly. In 1962, Everett M. Rogers published the diffusion of innovation theory in his book Diffusion of Innovations. Therefore, it is known as rogers’ theory of technology adoption.

Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) By Rogers (1962)
Diffusion of Innovations Theory (DOI) By Rogers (1962)

The five elements of the diffusion of innovation theory are Innovators, Early Adopters, Early Majority, Late Majority, and Laggards.

10. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory (PCIT) (1991)

Moore and Benbasat introduced the perceived characteristics and innovation theory in 1991. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory is certainly developed from Rogers’s perceived Attributes Innovation (PAI) theory. Perceived Characteristics of Innovating Theory added two additional factors: Image and voluntariness. It also separates the constructs of observability into Visibility and Results Demonstrability. Additionally, PCI renamed Rogers’ complexity to ease of use and remained other characteristics the same as before.

11. Model of PC Utilization (MPCU)-(1991)

Thompson, Higgins, and Howell established the Model of PC Utilization (MPCU) in 1991. They extended Triandis’ model to explain PC utilization attitudes. The  Model of PC utilization describes six elements of personal computer utilization such as job fit, complexity, long-term consequences, affect towards use, social factors, facilitating conditions, and experience in order to predict PC utilization behavior. However, it differs from the Theory of Reasoned Action as it differentiates between cognitive and affective elements of attitudes.

Model of Personal Computer Utilization (MPCU) Thompson et al (1991)- Technology Adoption Models

Constructs used in the Model of PC Utilization (Thompson et al. 1991)