Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage

Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model and Lewin’s Change Theory. Lewin’s change model consists of three stages, such as unfreeze, change & refreeze. Change Communication during Change Management.

Lewin’s Change Model

Lewin’s change model refers to the three stages of management change theory. The three stages of Lewin’s change model are unfreezing, changing, and refreezing. Lewin’s change model is also known as Lewin’s change theory. The alternative name of the Lewin change model is the three-step change model or Lewin 3 stage model or Kurt Lewin change model or Kurt Lewin change theory or Lewin model, or unfreeze change refreeze model.

In 1947, Kurt Lewin introduced the 3 phases of the change management model known as Kurt Lewin’s change model. Researchers and scientists established many models to describe organizational changes such as Kotter’s Change Management Model, Kübler-Ross Five Stage Change Management, ADKAR Change Management Model, McKinsey 7-S Change, Management Model, also Lewin’s Change Model or Theory. Lewin’s change model has become the most popular for its simplicity and fewer stages, for example, unfreeze, change, and refreeze.

Nowadays, researchers have developed multiple theories based on Lewin’s change management model. So, it is the foundation of all modern change management theories. For example, John Kotter’s 8-stage management change model was developed based on Lewin’s change model. Now, the management system is complex compared to before when the model was introduced. Therefore, the practice of Lewin’s change management model is controversial in modern organizations. It has excellent theoretical significance in the research arena rather than practical importance.

Lewin’s Change Model Real-Life Example

Many reputed companies apply Lewin’s change management model to survive in the current situation. For example, Netflix has applied a change model to adjust to the digital era. Netflix’s change management process handled the force of organizational change to achieve a competitive advantage. Now, they are one of the most successful companies globally. Netflix is a real-life example of Lewin’s change management model. It is known as Lewin’s Change Model Business Example.

Lewin’s Change Management Model Example

An ice block cannot get converted into a new shape without melting it. So it would be best if you created a hot environment to melt the ice block. The temperature must be more than 32°F (0°C) temperature to melt the ice. So, here, increasing the temperature denotes the unfreezing stage.

According to Lewin’s theory, unfreezing refers to preparation for accepting the new norms of the workplace. It is the initial stage to get ready to accept the change. The management needs to motivate employees to accepts change.

It will take time to transform the entire ice block into the water.  Keep the glass in an isolated place and ensure the temperature is suitable for melting ice. When the ice block completely transforms into water, pour it into a pot to give it a new shape. For example, pour all water into a glass melted from the ice block. Here, pouring the water into a glass is changing steps or moving stage. Melting the ice denotes the change stage of Lewin’s theory.

According to Lewin’s theory, changing refers to accepting the new norms and moving on to change. The employee starts to change and accept the new norm of the working place.

Finally, keeping the glass in a cold place to transform the water into ice again. It is the way of freezing the water transform again into a new solid shape. It is called the process of refreezing and the final stage of Lewin’s change management model.

Refreezing refers to adjusting to the new norms of the workplace. The employee has already accepted the change, and they adjust to the new environment.

The model summarised that successful management change is accomplished through a three-stage process; unfreezing, changing or moving, and freezing or refreezing.

Lewin’s Change Theory Examples

For example, the educational institute has shut down due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, all organizations, including educational institutes, decided to conduct virtual or online classes to ensure the continuation of education for students. These educational institutes are applying online meeting platforms, for example, Zoom, Google Meet, to conduct virtual classes and organizational meetings. It was a new experience for lecturers; therefore, they were afraid of uncertainty and interested in taking online courses. But, the university authority compels them to accept the change. The university authority maintains effective communication through social media platforms to motivate employees to get change. They thought that organizational change would help achieve competitive advantages as the other educational institutes adopt the changes. So, finally, they accept the change and adjust to the new working environment. It is a perfect example of Lewin’s Change Theory.

Lewin’s Stages of Change

The three stages of Lewin’s change model are:
  1. Unfreeze stage
  2. Change stage
  3. Refreeze stage
Lewin's Change Model- Lewin change theory
Figure 1: Lewin’s Change Model or Theory

Unfreeze Change Refreeze

1. Unfreeze Stage

Unfreeze is the initial stage or step of Lewin’s change model or Lewin’s change management model. In this stage, employees take mental preparation to accept the change of the organization. In the management system, unfreeze stage refers to breaking down the existing state of circumstances to take the organizational changes. Usually, employees feel comfortable in the organization’s current condition; therefore, some do not like to accept organizational change quickly due to uncertainty. The unfreezing stage consists of the process of educating people about opportunities for organizational change. The organization should practice the change communication strategy to prepare employees for the change.

The key point of this stage is to compel employees to accept organizational change through effective change communication. It is essential to maintain effective interaction within the organization to persuade employees to accept change. Employees will receive the change if they can understand the new things cannot protect the company or organization from surviving.  Additionally, they need to realize that change is essential to sustain the organization and achieve competitive advantages.

A high level of positive motivation among employees helps to accept organizational changes. The organization needs to persuade the stakeholders that the change will bring benefits to everyone. Some people will receive it quickly, but some of them will deny it at the initial time. Finally, everyone will come up with the motivation to make the change.

Communication During the Unfreeze Stage

The primary communication objective is to prepare stakeholders, employees, and the organization to accept the change – “Readying” the organization. However, resistance will increase at the same speed with how huge the change is and how much it affects the organization. Effective communication can overcome resistance. In order to ‘ready’ the organization for accepting the change, it is essential to declare the objective of the change. Additionally, you have to ensure that everyone in the organization knows what will happen and why. The first factor must be communicated for change by pointing out the difference between actual outcomes and desired outcomes. This first message or declaration should come from the top-level management of the organization to avoid communication conflict.

2. Change (Move) Stage

Actual changes take place in this stage when everyone in the organization decides to accept the change with positive motivation. Employees receive and adjust to the new working atmosphere. Changes can be major or minor based on the organization’s needs. The organization needs to provide sufficient training and support for the employees to embrace the changes. It is the stage of implementing the entire process of changes; therefore, many issues need to be done consciously. Some employees may spread misleading information due to having insufficient knowledge about organizational change. So, the organization needs to practice an effective communication process within organization to avoid unwanted issues. However, at the end of the day, employees will be focused on practicing the new work.

Communication During the Change Stage

The organization should ensure effective communication among employees to reduce uncertainty as well as rumors. People may indulge in spreading disinformation and lies that have less information about the process of change. The communication has to have a more specific character in this stage than in the previous phase. Communication in these steps is essential to provide authentic, accurate, and detailed information on what will happen to those who have less sketchy details on implementing changes. Finally, it distributes the new responsibility among assigned people in the organization.

3. Refreeze Stage 

In this stage, employees adjust to the organizational change day by day. Refreezing is a slow process of adopting the new culture and atmosphere of the corporate workplace. Employees and stakeholders may take a long time to adjust to the new systems. The pace of the practice among employees determines the time of the refreezing stage. So, refreezing is the most crucial stage in Lewin’s change model so, everyone deals with it efficiently. The new attitude and behavior of employees become solidified as the norm of the organization. Finally, everyone starts to feel comfortable as in the previous stage before unfreezing.

Communication During the Refreeze Stage

The communication process should answer employees’ queries regarding rewards, control, efficiency, and relationship roles. In this stage, the information flow should be concrete, continuous, and multidirectional so that employees have a sufficient understanding of the personal associations of the change. Unavoidable misunderstandings may occur in this step, so; communication should focus on making the change successful.

Kurt Lewin 1951 References
  • Lewin, K. (1951). Forces of change: Field theory in social science.
Citation for this Article (APA 7th Edition)

Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2021). Lewin’s Change Model- Lewin’s Change Management Model of 3 Stage. Educational Website For Online Learning. https://newsmoor.com/lewins-change-model-3-steps-management-change-and-communication/

Questionnaire Sample- Survey Questionnaire Example For Students

Questionnaire Sample- Survey Questions or Questionnaire Example in Research Papers. Questionnaire Introduction Sample For Students. Questionnaires Samples Word File Download Link.

Questionnaire

A questionnaire refers to an important research tool consisting of a list of questions to collect information from respondents. The respondents are the sample of the population who participate in the survey providing data. It is also known as the survey questions part of the written interview. The survey and written interview can be conducted face to face or on online platforms.

Questionnaire Sample

A questionnaire sample is an example of survey questions that assist the researcher in collecting data. The sample of the questionnaire has been collected from University Putra Malaysia. New researchers will get a concept on how to create a survey questionnaire. This sample of questionnaires represents an example of questionnaires.

The author has uploaded some different samples of questionnaires and set download links here so that readers download the pdf form. This sample of questionnaires might provide a better level of understanding for the new researchers.

Questionnaires Sample For Students

Many undergraduate and postgraduate students do not know how to set questionnaires properly; therefore, we have provided many examples of questionnaires. We really hate coping with other works; hence, we request you to take only ideas from our content to create your own questionnaire. Students can comment on this page to get more information if they need that not yet reported here.

Example of Survey Questionnaire

Questionnaires Sample Word Download Link

The examples of survey questionnaires have been given below. The UPM student at the communication department set them to conduct the survey. So, these questionnaires will assist those students who are preparing to write the thesis in the field of the communication department.

Survey Questionnaire Sample or Example-1

Research Title: Relationship between Awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the Perception of Message Credibility and Brand Trust of Facebook among youths.

Dear Participants, I am inviting you to participate in this research by completing the following survey. This research investigates the relationship between the awareness of Fake news sharing on Facebook and the perception of message credibility and brand trust of Facebook among youths. The following questionnaire will require approximately 5-10 minutes to complete. Thank you for taking your time in assisting me with this research. Under no circumstances are you obliged to answer any of the questions; however, doing so will greatly assist me in completing my research and enhancing the understanding of this research focus. The data collected will remain confidential and used solely for academic purposes.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link -1

Survey Questionnaire Sample or Example-2

Research Title: Malaysia’s e-commerce Websites’ Information and its Influence on Customers’  Information Privacy Concerns.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link-2

Survey Questionnaire Sample-3

Thesis Title: Communicating Copyright Law in Malaysia: The Perception of Undergraduate Students in University Putra Malaysia.

Sample of Questionnaire PDF File Download Link-3

Survey Questionnaire Sample-4

Research Title: From a Pandemic to an Infodemic: Establishing a Health Information Overload Model Based on COVID-19 Outbreak in Malaysia.

Questionnaire Introduction Sample For Students

Dear respondent,
Hope you are doing well and staying safe.
We are a health communication research team from the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern languages and Communication (FBMK), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). We are conducting a research project to understand how Malaysians perceive COVID-19 as dangerous and serious to them, what kinds of social media they use to seek information, and how likely they are overloaded with the information. Meanwhile, we also seek to understand how much do Malaysians understand the virus and the intention towards getting COVID-19 vaccination.

There are EIGHT (8) sections in this online survey questionnaire. You are expected to answer ALL the questions listed. Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. You do not have to be in this study if you do not want to. If you volunteer to be in this study, you may withdraw from it at any time. If you withdraw, any data collected from you up to your withdrawal will still be used for the study. There is no potential risk or harm to you for participating in this research project. If you have any concerns or questions, please contact the investigators of this research project. You are also very encouraged to share this questionnaire with your family members, friends, and others in your community, it would surely help us to obtain broader comprehension regarding COVID-19 issues in Malaysia.

Please click the “NEXT” button below to answer the questions if you agree to participate in this research.
Thank you for your time and we hope you and your loved ones are staying safe always.

Sample of Questionnaire Word File Download Link-4

Sample of Questionnaires

Questionnaire Sample- UPM Logo

Dear respondent,

I am a student at the Department of Communication, Faculty of Modern Languages, and Communication at University Putra Malaysia. I wish to collect some information about your awareness of obesity.

You are invited to participate in this survey in which your insight and information are valuable for us to strategize the health communication campaign to be more effective. I greatly appreciate your help in providing us with your honest answers to the questions below. I reassure you that the information gathered in this survey will only be used for event purposes and will be kept confidential.

Thank you.

SECTION A: DEMOGRAPHIC

1 Ethnic : □ Malay □ Indian
2 Gender : □ Chinese □ Other: ______________
□ Male □ Female
3 Age : Below 15 31–35
15–19 36–40
20–25 41–45
26–30 Above 45

 

  1. Which written language(s) do you understand? (Choose whichever relevant)
Malay English
Chinese Tamil

 

  1. Which spoken language do you prefer? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Malay English
Mandarin Tamil
Cantonese Hakka
Hokkien Other: ___________

SECTION B: MEDIA CONSUMPTION

  1. What are the main sources you use the most to obtain health information? (Choose minimum one (1) answer and maximum three (3) answers)
Newspaper Internet
Magazine Facebook
Television Instagram
Radio Twitter
WeChat Other: ______________

 

  1. If you have selected a newspaper as one of the sources for obtaining information about health, which newspaper vehicle do you read the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Sin Chew Daily Guang Hwa Daily
China Press Oriental Daily
Nanyang Siang Pau The Star
Utusan Malaysia Berita Harian
Kosma! News StraitTime
Guang Ming Daily Other: ______________

SECTION C: MEDIA PREFERENCE

  1. Do you watch local television (TV) station(s)?
  • Yes (Proceed to Q2)
  • No (Proceed to Q4)
  1. How many hours of TV do you watch in a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day
  1. Which TV channel you watch the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
Astro NTV 7
RTM 1 8TV
RTM 2 TV 9
TV 3 Other: ______________
4. Do you listen to the local radio?
  • Yes (Proceed to Q5)
  • No (Proceed to Q7)
  1. How many hours of local radio station do you listen to a day? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
  • Less than 1 hour per day
  • 1-3 hours per day
  • 4-6 hours per day
  • More than 6 hours per day
  1. Which local radio station you listen to the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)
One FM Hitz. FM
988 FM Fly FM
Melody FM Lite FM
MY FM Mix FM
Ai FM Era FM
Red FM Hot FM
Sinar FM Other: ______________

7. Which social media do you use the most? (Choose one (1) ONLY)

Facebook Twitter
Instagram WeChat
WhatsApp Other: ______________

SECTION DAwareness about Obesity

Tick (✓) the spaces provided to indicate your level of agreement with the statements below.

I. Problem Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/

5

1 Obesity is becoming an increasingly large problem in my community.
2 There is an urgent need to solve the obesity problem in my community.
3 There is much room for local authorities and the government to improve the policies in controlling obesity in Malaysia.
4 I believe the prevention of obesity is very important.
II. Constraint Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/5

1 I am not able to do anything to solve the obesity problem in my community.
2 My efforts to combat the obesity problem in my community are pointless.
3 I do not see any points in trying to encourage my community members to control their weight.
4 I think I could not affect my community members to control their weight and to prevent obesity.
III. Involvement Recognition
No Statements Strongly

Disagree/

1

2 3 4 Strongly

Agree/

5

1 I am concerned that overweight is affecting my life.
2 I believe obesity could affect my health.
3 I have a strong opinion about obesity.
4 I feel that obesity affects me personally.

– – End of Survey Questionnaire – –

Thank you for answering.